Benm_omslag_original_large
Rss

Beleid en Maatschappij


Over dit tijdschrift  
Aflevering 4, 2005 Alle samenvattingen uitklappen

    This paper offers an introduction to the research theme of 'lobbyism'. Recent Scandinavian research shows that lobbyism is a modern mirror view of corporatism, which develops through changes in the structure of decision-making and implementation by interest groups and government. Three questions are put forward: (a) what is the empirical evidence for the phenomenon of lobbyism? (b) what potential contribution could the concept of lobbyism make to a better understanding of corporatism in the Netherlands? (c) what are, according to the theory of collective decision-making, the most important differences between influence strategies in corporatist negotiation structures, and those in lobby networks?


René Torenvlied
René Torenvlied is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de capaciteitsgroep Sociologie van de Universiteit Utrecht en het Interuniversitair Centrum voor Sociaal-wetenschappelijke theorievorming en methodenontwikkeling aldaar. Enkele recente publicaties zijn: 'When will they ever make up their minds? The social structure of unstable decision-making.' Journal of Mathematical Sociology. 28(3): 171-196 en 'Polarization and Policy Conflict.' Journal of Conflict Resolution, forthcoming. Adres: Heidelberglaan 2, 3884 CS Utrecht.
Artikel

'Lobbyisme' in de Scandinavische landen

Een overzicht aan de hand van trends in Denemarken en Noorwegen

Auteurs René Torenvlied
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper provides an overview of the results of Scandinavian research into the lobbying activities of interest organisations. The paper is based on the reports of Danish and Norwegian scholars. These studies suppose that an association exists between the downfall of corporatist decision-making and policy implementation (among others observed in the decreasing number of boards, councils, and commissions), the increasing influence of parliament, and the increase in lobbying by interest organisations. The most important empirical evidence for this association is presented and discussed.


René Torenvlied
René Torenvlied is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de capaciteitsgroep Sociologie van de Universiteit Utrecht en het Interuniversitair Centrum voor Sociaal-wetenschappelijke theorievorming en methodenontwikkeling aldaar. Enkele recente publicaties zijn: 'When will they ever make up their minds? The social structure of unstable decision-making.' Journal of Mathematical Sociology. 28(3): 171-196 en 'Polarization and Policy Conflict.' Journal of Conflict Resolution, forthcoming. Adres: Heidelberglaan 2, 3884 CS Utrecht.

    This article poses the question whether the Dutch system of organized interest representation faces a transformation from neo-corporatist mediation to lobbyism similar to Scandinavian countries. Its main claim is that this has so far not been the case, because two essential features of neo-corporatist interest mediation have remained prominent in the Netherlands. First, policies regarding labour conditions continue to be determined within a network of employers' organisations, trade unions, and the government that is essentially closed to outsiders. Second, the system continues to be hierarchical in nature: the government, often below the surface, demonstrates a considerable capacity to steer the participants in its preferred direction. Such a closed network still allows for lobbying the parliament by both network members and outsiders. Lobbying may thus be complementary to closed neo-corporatist networks rather than a substitute. The article offers a research agenda exploring the latter suggestion.


Agnes Akkerman
Agnes Akkerman is als universitair docent verbonden aan de Faculteit der Management Wetenschappen van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Recente publicaties van haar hand zijn 'Identifying Latent Conflict in Collective Bargaining', Rationality and Society 15(1): 15-43; 'A theory of soft policy implementation in multilevel systems with an application to Dutch social partnership', Acta Politica 39(1): 31-58. Adres: Thomas van Aquinostraat 5, Postbus 9108, 6500 HK Nijmegen,
Artikel

In een groen, groen polderland

De mix tussen corporatisme en lobbyisme in het Nederlandse milieu-beleid

Auteurs Dave Huitema
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses the degree to which Dutch environmental policy exhibits a shift from corporatism to lobbyism. Based on a general analysis of environmental policy making in the Netherlands and two specific cases of environmental decision making, the author draws the conclusion that such a shift has not happened. At the level of policymaking it is rather the opposite: in the 1980s the Ministry of the Environment introduced a certain level of corporatism. This was possible because of a clear framework of environmental policy goals shaped by the National Institute for Public Health and Environment (RIVM), because the environmental movement began to see the Ministry as an ally and because business interests preferred self-regulation (one element of corporatism) to government regulations. In two concrete case of environmental decision-making that are discussed here, environmental goals are being discussed once more. During such discussion, it appears that Dutch ministries have close connection to 'their' target groups. For the coming years, environmental policy will 'Europeanize' further and Dutch economic interest groups, although being remarkably late in responding to this shift, will start to influence the Brussels policymaking game instead of the Dutch implementation game.


Dave Huitema
Dave Huitema is als senior-bestuurskundig onderzoeker verbonden aan het Instituut voor Milieuvraagstukken (IVM) van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Huitema is docent en modulecoördinator bij de masteropleiding 'Environment and Resource Management' (ERM) aan de VU en leidt het onderzoekscluster 'Water Governance and Economics' van het IVM. Recente publicaties zijn: Calculating the Political: Election Manifestoes as a Meeting Point for Experts and Politicians. The case of the RIVM (Amsterdam: Instituut voor Milieuvraagstukken) en Hazardous Decisions: Hazardous Waste Facility Siting in the UK, Netherlands and Canada: Institutions and Discourses (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers). Adres: Instituut voor Milieuvraagstukken, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam, e-mail: dave.huitema@ivm.vu.nl

    This article distinguished between three fundamental processes of collective decision-making as collective production in social systems: (1) persuasion; (2) exchange and (3) coercion. The conditions under which these processes are dominant are described, as well as the type of network that is central to each of the processes. Corporatism and lobbyism appear to be two polarities of collective decision-making. In corporatism interest groups are directly involved in final decision making through formal and informal institutions whereas in lobbyism final decision making is delegated to independent persons. In corporatist decision-making, mutual interests dominate conflicting interests. Thus, a failure of reaching consensus becomes unattractive and consensus is guaranteed through the formal norm of majority decision-making and the informal norm of unanimity. When mutual interests dominate over conflicting interests, lobbyism is reflected by the interactions between lobby activists and civil servants and politicians who share the same position. Ad hoc lobbyism will arise when conflicts of interests dominate and a non-cooperative game exists in which (temporal) coalitions must be built.


Frans N. Stokman
Frans Stokman is als hoogleraar verbonden aan de capaciteitsgroep Sociologie van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en het Interuniversitair Centrum voor Sociaal-wetenschappelijke theorievorming en Methodenontwikkeling (ICS). Daarnaast is hij directeur van DECIDE B.V. Recente publicaties van zijn hand zijn: co-editor van The European Union Decides. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (met Robert Thomson, Christopher Achen en Thomas König, te verschijnen in 2006), co-editor van Winners and Losers in the European Union, Special issue van European Union Politics Vol 5(1) (2004) en 'Frame Dependent Modeling of Influence Processes', in: Andreas Diekmann en Thomas Voss (Red.), Rational-Choice-Theorie in den Sozialwissenschaften. Anwendungen und Probleme. Festschrift für Rolf Ziegler, München: Oldenbourg (pp.113-127). Adres: Grote Rozenstraat 31, 9712 TG Groningen.
Artikel

Afsluiting

Auteurs René Torenvlied
Samenvatting

    This paper offers an introduction to the research theme of 'lobbyism'. Recent Scandinavian research shows that lobbyism is a modern mirror view of corporatism, which develops through changes in the structure of decision-making and implementation by interest groups and government. Three questions are put forward: (a) what is the empirical evidence for the phenomenon of lobbyism? (b) what potential contribution could the concept of lobbyism make to a better understanding of corporatism in the Netherlands? (c) what are, according to the theory of collective decision-making, the most important differences between influence strategies in corporatist negotiation structures, and those in lobby networks?


René Torenvlied
Discussie

Doing better, feeling worse

Over de erosie van het overheidsgezag

Auteurs Paul 't Hart
Auteursinformatie

Paul 't Hart
Prof dr. P. 't Hart is verbonden aan de Australian National University in Canberra en de Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht. Correspondentie: p.thart@usg.uu.nl