Zoekresultaat: 24 artikelen

x
Jaar 2001 x
Article

Consociationalism

Theoretical Development Illustrated by the Case of Belgium

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 4 2001
Auteurs Tom Knappskog
Samenvatting

    The theory on consociational democracies has evolved significantly in the last decades. One aim of the article is to discuss this development. Arend Lijphart's groundbreaking book from 1977 has inspired critics and lead to important theoretical amelioration. A main problem has been the lack of theoretical connections between the favourable conditions for consociational democracy and accommodative elite behaviour. This reduces the explanatory power of the traditional consociational model. To resolve this, one option is to incorporate elements of consociational theory into more actor-oriented approaches. Such a solution is the closest we came to a functioning synthesis of Lijphart and his critics, and several attempts to combine macro- and micro-level analyses are discussed in the article. The empirical case of Belgium is applied throughout the article to illustrate the theoretical elaboration.


Tom Knappskog

    The proliferation of the use of Internet has led to speculations that the interactive possibilities offered by this technology will lead to a democratisation of political communication. It is argued that citizens will enjoy more opportunities to discuss polities with other citizens and to express their opinions toward the political system. In this casestudy, we examine the political use of internet at the time of the Belgian local elections of 8 October 2000. Building on the coding scheme developed by Pippa Norris, we distinguish interactive and institutional communication through the Internet, in which we expect that interactive communication has a democratie potential, while the institutional communication shows atendency to strengthen existing power relations. The data show that during this election campaign the Internet has been used mainlyfor institutional purposes, not for interactive applications. Therefore our conclusion is that, especially in small languageareas, the democratic potential of Internet remains limited.


Marc Hooghe

Patrick Stouthuysen

    This article provides a state of the art of the growing normative plea for enhanced representativeness, by which we understand a form of representation considering the sociodemographic particularities of society. We look at the Anglo-American plea for group representation and the (mainly) French debate on parity democracy. Concerned with the structural marginalisation of large numbers of citizens from the political arena, these scholars criticise the abstract concept ofcitizenship and the interpretation of the process of representation as such. The plea for enhanced representativeness faces more than one normative challenge. Dealing with these issues the scholars pleading for enhanced representativeness above all reveal that the issue for or against representation in terms of representativeness is a matter of choice on underlying normative assumptions.


Petra Meier

    In comparative electora/ studies, the Belgian electoral formula is classified in different, sometimes rather conflicting, classes. This paper is primarily concerned with the question if the Belgian electoral system truely is a D'Hondt system? In the first part I argued that the D'Hondt method, as a divisor sequence, can be applied alternatively. This modified method departs from a Hare-quota in the first phase. To allocate the rest seats in the second phase, the parties' aggregated vote totals (and not rest totals) are divided by the number of seats obtained in phase one, added by 1, then 2, then 3 etc. Like all divisor methods, the highest averages are used to assign the rest seats. This alternative D'Hondt method produces exactly the same results as the classical method D'Hondt. Thus, it is also used in the Belgian two-tier-districting system. Furthermore, the Belgian electoral system can be classified as a proper D'Hondt system (in its form and results) while ignoring the primary districts.


Patrick Vander Weyden
Article

Kritische Theorie en Globalisering

Op weg naar een beter begrip van Multi-Level Governance

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 4 2001
Auteurs Wouter De Vriendt
Samenvatting

    In this article, Multi-Level Governance (MLG) is problematized and treated as a dependent variable. It is argued that processes of globalisation shed considerable light on the development of MLG. In order to conceptualise 'globalisation', I turn myself to the field of International Political Economy, and more specifically neogramscian Critical Theory. Since Critical Theory seems to outline - above all - the distinctive political and policy aspects ofglobalisation, the approach gives way to the development of a causal link between globalisation and governance. The relevance of globalisation towards governance and MLG is further shown by elaborating on a particular level of governance: the subnational sphere of the city. I conclude that Critical Theory is indeed relevant in explaining globalisation and governance, and that its macro perspective may be used in conjunction with a more mesostyle, MLG approach.


Wouter De Vriendt
Article

Vertegenwoordiging in vrouwelijk meervoud

Behartiging van vrouwenbelangen en 'vrouwelijke' vertegenwoordiging in het Vlaams Parlement, 1995-1999

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 4 2001
Auteurs KAren Celis
Samenvatting

    In this contribution we confront the results ofa research on the Flemish Parliament (1995-1999) with two hypotheses regarding the request for more wamen in parliament. First, we ask whether female MPs do defend wamen's interests. The research indicates that taking care of women's interests was indeed part of the task of female MPs. Supported by other scholars, we argue that the actual and future role of male MPs in defending women's interests deserves further empirical investigation. Second, we focus on the often-assumed difference that female MPs would make regarding their role orientation. Although there were major similarities in the role orientations of female and male MPs, a number of relative differences were found with regard to representational style, priorities and conception of the relations between majority and minority.


KAren Celis

Mark Deweerdt

Jo Noppe
Article

Nieuwe wegen voor Europa?

De Europese Unie in het jaar 2000

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 2-3 2001
Auteurs Bart Kerremans en Edith Drieskens
Samenvatting

    During the past year, the European integration process steadily continued along familiar as well as less familiar paths. This contribution gives an overview of the core decisions made within the three pillars of the European construction in the year 2000. Although the vast majority of these decisions were closely linked to the approaching Eastern enlargement of the European Union, new avenues have been followed during the past year as well. The debate about the finality of the European integration process gained, by way ofspeeches of European leaders like Joschka Fischer, Jacques Chirac, Tony Blair and Guy Verhofstadt, fifty years after the Schuman declaration, a new momentum.


Bart Kerremans

Edith Drieskens
Article

Belgian politics in 2000

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 2-3 2001
Auteurs Stefaan Fiers en Mark Deweerdt

Stefaan Fiers

Mark Deweerdt

Editor Res Publica

Mark Deweerdt

Herwig Reynaert

Tony Valcke
Article

Leveled domestic polities

Comparing institutional reform and ethnonational conflicts in Canada and Belgium (1960-1989)

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 1 2001
Auteurs Maarten Theo Jans
Samenvatting

    The article analyses ethnonational conflicts in Belgium and Canada during the period 1960-1989. Using the most similar case design, it is argued that the different policy performances in Belgium and Canada can be accounted for by the institutional context in which the conflicts occurred. The institutional setup in Canada and Belgium created different modes of joint decision making. Through an analysis of three joint decision variables, namely, decision rules, preferences and default conditions, two empirical cases are scrutinized. The Canadian Pension Plan in Canada and the institutional reform efforts in Belgium (1974-1977) highlight the importance of institutional default conditions. On the basis of these empirical cases it is argued that the different conditions of joint decision making in the two states lead to a continuous production of compromises in Belgium and a genuine absence of mutual agreement in Canada.


Maarten Theo Jans
Article

Implementatie van Europese wetgeving in nationale systemen

De Belgische casus bekeken door een multi-level governance bril

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 1 2001
Auteurs Peter Bursens en Sarah Helsen
Samenvatting

    This article explores the use of the Multilevel Governance (MLG) concept to understand why EU Member-States, such as Belgium, sometimes fail to transpose EU directives correctly or in time. Firstly, it discusses the nature and the value of the MLG concept. It is argued that a theoretical incorporation of the MLG concept in the Neo-Institutional (NI) paradigm is necessary to gain explanatory power. Secondly, an overview is presented of the Belgian implementation record. In the last part, the combined use of the MLG concept and the NI theory identifies several factors to explain failing implementation. It is argued that governance as well as multilevel institutions can constrain the desired smooth implementation. Examples of such hard and soft institutions include the multi-layeredfederal structure of Belgium, the complex co-ordination and implementation mechanisms, the role of advisory bodies and the Council of State, the relation between administrations and 'cabinets', and cultural features such as knowledge of the EU.


Peter Bursens

Sarah Helsen
Article

Wie dient er tussen te komen?

De vraag naar het legitieme gezag bij het gebruik van militair geweld in het voormalige Joegoslavië (1991-1995)

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 1 2001
Auteurs Carl Ceulemans
Samenvatting

    This contribution to the MLG-debate wants to focus on the question of legitimate authority for the use of military force in the framework of international interventions. More in particular, it is the main objective of this article to verify whether the international intervention in Former Yugoslavia (1991-1995) was characterised by a sufficient legitimate authority quality. The analysis itself will be developed in two steps. In a first step, we will describe the three main approaches to the concept of the legitimate authority in the post Cold War literature. Secondly, it is our intention to apply these three legitimate authority approaches in the context of the international intervention in Former Yugoslavia. The final results of this study allow us to formulate a rather remarkable conclusion from an ethical point ofview. Due to the reluctance of the international community to use military force, the central issue concerning the legitimate authority debate no longer seems to be "who among the many candidates has the right to intervene?", but rather 'who has the duty to do so?".


Carl Ceulemans
Article

Multi-level governance en de toegang tot de Europese beleidssettings

Een onderzoek naar de manier waarop de "multi-level" de "governance" beïnvloedt

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 1 2001
Auteurs Jan Beyers en Bart Kerremans
Samenvatting

    MLG implies that different policy levels are structurally interdependent. We investigate the consequences of this for the relation between private and public actors. A short review of the literature results in two competing hypotheses. The persistence-hypothesis says that multilevel networks of private actors with a strong national institutional embeddedness are more elaborated. The compensation-hypothesis assumes that a weak national institutional embeddedness stimulates multilevel networking. These hypotheses are tested with data collected by interviewing a sample of private and public actors at both the Belgian and European level. The evidence gives more support to the persistence-hypothesis than to the compensation-hypothesis. We also found that the correlation between national embeddedness and multilevel networks differs for diffuse and specific interests. The correlation is strong for specific interests and weak for diffuse interests. This means that the European strategies of diffuse interest are developed more or less independently from their positionin national networks.


Jan Beyers

Bart Kerremans

    The general question of this theoretical reflection concerns the impact of the multi-level organisation of policy processes for the division of power between collective social actors. Firstly, We deal with the shrinking of the political capacity in the contemporary era of postfordism and deterritorialisation. In this framework, attention is paid to the ideological significance of governance. Using the concept of 'jumping of scales', We then consider the different consequences of the sui generis European multi-level setting for organised labour and capital, which serves as a case-study for our general proposition. Multi-level governance is looked upon as a new gestalt of scales, which enables some actors and hinders others to build their own jumping strategy between the different levels. The conclusion is that the European multi-level setting is the result of, as well as, the platform for power relations.


Carl Devos

    Multi-level governance is a fairly new concept, that has however travelled well in modern political science. The status of the concept remains a bit unclear, mainly because it tries to grasp quite a set of (mutually linked) societal and institutional changes, as well as changes in policy style and policy outputs. We try to use multi-level governance as a heuristic tool, and we focus on the potential consequences of the changes that it describes. Four types of consequences are briefly discussed. First we look at efficiency, at the way in which and the degree in which complex institutions can produce policy paralysis. Secondly we deal with representation and accountability, discussing the meaning of these concepts in multilayered settings. Then we look at the way in which territorial representation seems to (re)gain importance as a result of the erosion of the borderlines between domestic and international polities. And finally we look at the way in which legitimacy of politicalauthorities and policies can be organized within the framework of multi-level governance. The other articles of this special issue all deal in more detail with one or more of these four types of consequences of multi-level governance.


Kris Deschouwer
Article

België, Vlaanderen en multilaterale fora

De samenwerking en het gegenereerde imago in de Wereldhandelsorganisatie en de Raad van Europa

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 1 2001
Auteurs Timon Bo Salomonson en David Criekemans
Samenvatting

    This article tries to answer two questions: 1) How does the cooperation between the Belgian (federal) and Flemish (regional) government work within the field of multilateral policy?; 2) How is the multilateral policy of the Belgian federation and the Flemish government received at the multilateral level (especially within the CoE en the WTO)? The Belgian constitution has foreseen a system in which all governments (federal en regional) are equal. This has important consequences for Belgian delegations in multilateral fora: in 'mixed' dossiers, no government has decisive power. Thus, all Belgian governments are objective allies in guarding the externally projected image of the federation. Nevertheless, this seems to be a 'grey area' in the cooperation among the various Belgian governments.


Timon Bo Salomonson

David Criekemans
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