Zoekresultaat: 32 artikelen

x
Jaar 1987 x

    The British Union of Fascists dealt with the contradictions between its fascist ideology and certain institutions and values dominant in Britain in the 1930s. The economic and social conditions in Britain provided the back-cloth from which the BUF's ideology and policies emerged. While critical of Parliament as inadequate for coping with a modern economy, the BUF had to take account of the depth of public attachment to elections and democracy. Corporate state proposals were presented as expressing the British habit of teamwork, and popular control over fascist governments was envisaged via plebiscites. Unusually for fascists, the BUF distinguished between public obligations and private rights and this because of the dominance of individual liberty in the collective conscience. Finally, the specific co-existence of the modern and the archaic in the BUF's discours in terms of British social and historical factors has to be stressed.


Alan M. Frommer
Article

Power and satisfaction analysis

An application to the Belgian House of Representatives

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 4 1987
Auteurs Luc Lauwers en Patrick Uytterhoeven
Samenvatting

    Using post-war election results for the Belgian House of Representatives, the power relations among political parties are analysed by calculating power- and satisfaction indices. Also, a participation index has been constructed to calculate the probability that a party will join a government coalition. Since the election of 1981 the traditional parties (christian-democrats, socialists and liberals) join the same Banzhof power and participation probability. The other parties represent no power and participation valueat all.


Luc Lauwers

Patrick Uytterhoeven
Article

Puissance et interdépendance

Le nouveau róle mondial du Japon

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 4 1987
Auteurs Michèle Schmiegelow
Samenvatting

    Long considered as an economic giant and a political dwarf, Japan begins to solve this paradox by acquiring a political weight on the international scene. Its diplomacy remains non-assertive and its military role limited. But it has an increasing influence on the structure of the world economy by the size of its GNP, the composition and spread of its external economy and its capital ftows, and by the impact of its industrial policy on the international division of labour. The growing macroeconomic and financial interdependence between the US and Japan has an incidence on defence high technology and on the transfert of resources to the Third World. Japan's new status as a world power is acknowledged even by Gorbachov's « Eastern » policy. Japan's case weakens the assumption of the realist paradigm of international relations theory that power and interdependence are incompatible.


Michèle Schmiegelow
Article

Veiligheid anders bekeken

Een evaluatie van het probleemgebied « sociale verdediging »

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 4 1987
Auteurs Gustaaf Geeraerts
Samenvatting

    Although relatively much has been said and written already on civilian based defence, one hardly can deny that there has been not much of an increase in our understanding of this particular alternative security concept. Hence, in the present article an attempt is made to trace the factors, which are to be held responsible for this rather striking case of theoretical stagnation. The main argument boils down to the assertion that, up till now, to much energy has been invested in normative analysis and polemics. Together with the reality of a very restricted research capacity, this has led to an almost complete neglect of scientific research proper. Indeed, in the existing litterature it is hard to find any serious effort at theoretical articulation. One will search in vain for explicit stated modeis, testable hypotheses as well as elaborated research strategies. Little wonder then, that hitherto scientific progress has been wanting. Accordingly, it is argued that to bring about any positive change in this respect in the future, a mere upgrading of the actual research capicity - as is so often advocated - will not suffice. Real progress is only to be expected, if more work is made of basic research.


Gustaaf Geeraerts
Article

Het zicht uit de Kamers

Verslag van een enquête bij de parlementsleden

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 4 1987
Auteurs Kris Deschouwer
Samenvatting

    Democracy is intimately linked with the institution of parliament. If there are problems with the functioning of the parliament, democracy is considered as being in danger. Three kinds of problems are aften raised in this respect: technical problems, political problems and personnel problems. The technical problems refer to the technicity and complexity of the subjects to be dealt with in parliament. The political problems refer mainly to the loss of political power of the parliament, to the benefit of political parties and pressure groups. The personnel problems refer to the job of MP itself, which has become a full-time job, but which is still a very unstable position. Two hundred and fifty Belgian MP's were asked for their opinion about all this. The results show that they are primarily concerned with the technical problems, and that they suggest technical remedies for a better functioning of the parliament. The Belgian MP's do recognize the importance of the political problems, especially the domination of the political scene by the political parties, but they are not very eager to propose measures with a direct impact on this.


Kris Deschouwer
Article

1944-1949: Repressie zonder maat of einde?

Een interimverslag over een onderzoek naar de berechting in België van collaborateurs

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 4 1987
Auteurs Steven Dhondt en Luc Huyse
Samenvatting

    The purge of Second World War collaborators in Belgium has not been the subject of many serious scientific research sofar. However, progress in theorizing and in data handling make it now possible to clear away the major impediments to such scientific research. After the war, extracts of the judgements of the military courts, which were responsible for the trial of collaborators, were published in the government gazette, « Het Belgisch Staatsblad ». These extracts provide the empirical basis of the project, which is put in the theoretical context known as « the ambivalence theory ». A brief look at the military judiciary system sheds some light on the processes behind the judging of collaborators. The article unveils some first results of the analysis of 5,000 court cases. The most important finding sofar is the absence of consistency - in time as well as in space - in the judging of collaborators in Belgium.


Steven Dhondt

Luc Huyse
Article

De politieke opinipeilingen in België in 1986

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 3 1987
Auteurs Marc Maes en Erwin Das

Marc Maes

Erwin Das
Article

Het mediabeleid in België

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 3 1987
Auteurs Jan Ceuleers

Jan Ceuleers

    A drastic change in economie and monetary policy, which started in 1982, has up to now resulted in a normalisation of the rate of inflation and the balance of payments. However, the growth rate of GNP is still low and unemployment high. Budget deficits, public debt and related interest payments are in proportion to GNP between the highest in the industrialised world. Economic events and political constraints hampered the efforts of the government to restore the situation. In 1986 a new plan was introduced and approved by Parliament, confirming an important cut in public expenditures. The existing burden of taxation already leads to a series of negative effects and a small open economycannot stay indifferent against the international movements towards lower taxes. So a tax reform in Belgium can only mean a restructering, leading to a decrease in personal income tax, largely compensated by an increase in indirect taxes. Further cuts in primary public expenditures will be unavoidable, but have to take into account, more than in the past, the repercussions on economie evolution in the long run.


Vic Van Rompuy
Article

Bibliographie de l'année politique 1986

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 3 1987
Auteurs Wladimir S. Plavsic

Wladimir S. Plavsic

Mieke Verminck
Article

Vlaamse Gemeenschap

politiek jaaroverzicht 1986

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 3 1987
Auteurs Jan Van Doren
Samenvatting

    The political agenda for the first year of governing of the second autonomous Fiemish government in the history of the Belgian state, was dominated by the debate concerning the additional financial resources and authorities for the communities and regions. The immediate cause for this, was the extensive saving-plan (Saint-Anna plan) of the national government, which also hit the communities and regions. The final outcome of the debate was the so-called Saint-Catherina agreement, which not only provides a number of savings, but also the transferring of a series of public services and scientific institutions to the communities and regions. A project of decree was agreed to by the Flemish government, which creates a legal scheme for the foundation of a private TV-station in Flanders. In this way they want to cease the monopoly of the publicbroadcasting station «BRT». The bill would only pass the Flemish Parliament in 1987. A number of issues lead to tensions between the Christian-Democrats and the Liberal coalition partners, issues like the affection of green areas around the Brussels agglomerate or the construction of golflinks in Flanders. This contribution ends with a review of a number of important decisions made by the Flemish government on various subjects.


Jan Van Doren

Mark Deweerdt

Mieke Verminck
Article

Belgian politics in 1986

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 3 1987
Auteurs Ivan Couttenier

Ivan Couttenier

Editor Res Publica

Editor Res Publica
Article

Het Belgisch ministerieel carrièrepatroon

Proeve tot internationale vergelijking

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 2 1987
Auteurs Erwin Das
Samenvatting

    The sociography of the Belgian post-war minister is characterized by an upper middle-class or middle-class origin, a French-speaking and male preponderance and a university-education. The most frequent professional occupations are lawyer, professor and executive. The political career which led to a ministerial post, went in the first place through the legislative body (city-council, county-council and parliament) (the legislative type) and in the second place through thepolitical parties (the national and district-party-leader). After their ministerial career 39 % of the ministers played a promine part in the parliament; 35 %, however, prosecuted an extra-parliamentary and prestigious « after-function ». The Belgian ministerial career pattern bears some resemblances to the Dutch, German and French career pattern, but also many differences. The most outstanding difference is the importance of the bureaucratic component in the structure of the ministerial elite in those three countries, where in Belgium this is not very important.


Erwin Das
Article

Les avatars du marxisme

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 2 1987
Auteurs Simon Petermann
Samenvatting

    Marxism has been for a long time the reference of the European Worker's Movement. It took the form of a millenarist faith and was embodied in large organizations. Orthodox marxism had no more reason for existence when the working class was integrated in the modern society. Communism gave a new inspiration but at the expense of an intellectual degeneration. When it became a state religion, marxism stopped to be creative and became a Gnosis. The varied forms of leftisms which emerged in the sixties are the last avatar of marxism in the developped countries. But they have only a remote relationship with Marx's doctrine. The same process took place in the Third World where the marxist-leninist vulgate was absorbed by nationalism.


Simon Petermann

    Despite major institutional and political changes in the Belgian political system in the last 25 years, the electoral organization has been very stable. The adaptations of the electoral organization have even been less in the province of Brabant, although the political developments have caused there additional problems. Brabant's electoral constituencies contain a rather strange mixture of heterogeneous electorates: (1) a constituency, which consists of the bilingual capital Brussels as well as several Flemish communes, (2) a unilingual Walloon constituency, (3) a unilingual Flemish constituency. The proposed solutions for Brabant's complex situation can be summarized into six alternative systems of electoral organization, concentrating either on the functioning of the system of provincial allotment (II, III, IV: to prevent the election of a candidate from one language community in the unilingual constituency that is part of the other language community), or on a radical redrawing of the boundaries of the electoral constituencies (V, VI, VII: to separate theFlemish and French electorale more neatly). The impact of the six alternatives on the seats distribution among the political parties is rather restricted. The shifts of seats inside the parties (from one constituency to another) are more striking than between the parties. Alternatives IV and VI cause the largest reallocation of seats between the parties, whereas alternatives II, III and V result in only minor changes.


Liesbeth Hooghe
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