Zoekresultaat: 31 artikelen

x
Jaar 1981 x
Article

Les élections au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg

Analyse directe des bulletins de vote Elections législatives de 1974 et de 1979; élections européennes de 1979

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 4 1981
Auteurs André-Paul Frognier en Jules Gerard-Libois

André-Paul Frognier

Jules Gerard-Libois
Article

Development administration

Toward an approach mode

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 4 1981
Auteurs Metin Heper en Ümit Berkman
Samenvatting

    The institutional model as delineated by classical Public Administration has limited utility for public administration in the developing countries. There are unlikely to be any uniform structural remedies foradministrative defects in those countries. Similar relationships do not have similar consequences in different contexts. An increased awareness along these lines led to the emergence of Development Administration- an effort to relate structures to goals - and Comparative Public Administration - analysis of administrative structures in their own societal contexts. The basic argument of the present articles is that despite our increased sophistication on these matters the relevance in Development Administration cannot be obtained if one relies only on theoretical knowledge. It is noted that in Development Administration thinking must descend from the heights of systematic theory to the open country of praxis.


Metin Heper

Ümit Berkman

Editor Res Publica

Editor Publica

    Rational public decision-making is nearly impossible for two reasons: the organisational complexity of public services and the existence of two circuits, a political one (parties, parliament...), and an administrativeone (bureaucracy). Moreover, public decisions are made by different pressure groups, and from different decision centres. In Belgium the impact of political parties is steadily increasing, up to the point where they function as master-organisations that have set up their own institutions to carry out public tasks (e.g. education). In thesocio-economie field the government acts more often as an arbitrator and money-supplier than as a decision-maker. In the welfare state the government's position in the whole field of decision-making amounts to delegating decisions to private organisations and pressure groups, which in due course leads to corporatism andirrationality. Finally, the organisation structure of the civil service itself stimulates irrationality because it was set up as a pyramid hierarchy in a time when the government did not have many tasks.


Mieke Van Haegendoren

Editor Res Publica
Article

Quebec language legislation

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 4 1981
Auteurs Ivan M. Myhul

Ivan M. Myhul
Article

De voorkeur voor een politieke partij

het toetsen van loglineaire modellen

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 4 1981
Auteurs Jaak Billiet
Samenvatting

    Previous research has shown that there is a strong relationship between church involvement and preference for the Belgian Christian Democratic Party (CVP/PSC). When religious preference is controled, the relationship between social class and preference for the CVP/PSC seems to disappear completely. Indeed, this party is very heterogeneous as regards the social origins of its adherents. The situation is completely different for preference for the Socialist Party (BSP/PSB) which has a strong relationship between party preference, on the one hand, church involvement and social class, on the other. The unchurched and the workers manifest more preference for the BSP/PSB than do other people. According to Hill the degree of involvement in the «zuil» (pillar organizations), the so-called «organizational variable», is also significant in the explanation of voting behavior. This could not be confirmed, however, due to a lack of data. Two hypotheses are formulated: 1) pillar involvement in addition to social class and church involvement is significant in the preference for the BSP; 2) there is no connection between preference for the CVP and social class so that only church and pillar involvement remain. These two models were tested by means of loglinear analysis and seem to fit the data. The intention of this article, however, is primarily didactic: to show the possibilities and limitations of the analysis of contingency tables by means of Goodmans loglinear analysis procedure through the use of asimple and relevant example.


Jaak Billiet
Article

Regionalisme in Spanje

Van perifeer nationalisme tot geïntegreerde autonomie

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 4 1981
Auteurs Frank Delmartino
Samenvatting

    The political agreements concluded in the summer of 1981 between the main majority and opposition parties (the centrist UCD and the socialist PSOE) constitute a turning point in the development of Spanish regionalism. Whereas previously autonomy statutes were awarded to historic regions with strong social and cultural identities, we have now a situation where a considerable degree of self-government is also made possible for all other regions. This decision shifted the focus more to socio-economic development, thereby stimulating expectations of improvement based on regional political efforts as well as on national solidarity and state assistance. The recently adopted statute of Andalucia illustrates excellently this new orientation. In this contribution an analysis is made of the institutional instruments available for regional self-government. The conclusions are quite positive with regard to the devolution of powers provided in the constitution and the different statutes. Nevertheless Spain is not evolving into a federal state system. As a more appropriate description we prefer Perez Moreno's characterisation of the existing intergovernmental relations as «autonomias integradas».


Frank Delmartino
Article

Organizing Belgian Cabinets

Governments in Turmoil

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 2-3 1981
Auteurs Hugo Van Gassel
Samenvatting

    The internal organization of Belgian governments is described. Several ministerial committees for the preparation of governmental decisions have been institutionalized. The ministers and state secretaries who are members are chosen according the functional competence, region or community association, and party or faction affiliation. A core cabinet for general policy, which is chaired by the prime minister, and in which are represented the most important members of each coalition partner, tends to take over the role of the council of ministers on crucial matters as an instrument of collegial decision-making. This trend does not contribute to the consolidation of the prime minister's power. The existing ministerial committees, one for each community or region, developed into governments. The article deals also with the internal organization-charts and party distribution among members of subunits of the Belgian governments from 1972 to 1981.


Hugo Van Gassel

    White a generally acknowledged definition of «right» and «extreme right» does not exist, an external definition was accepted, departing from what the most important authors accepted as being «right and extreme right wing groups» in Belgium. In Flandern the most important ones situate themselves within the «Flemish Movement», although being a small part of this Movement. These groupings are classified into three categories: groups oriented towards the Flemish-Nationalistic past, students- and youth-organizations, and the recently activist groups. In Brussels and Wallonia two initiatives delineate this political field: Le Nouvel Europe Magazine, a well distributed monthly magazine, and the Front de la Jeunesse, initially founded as the youth organization of the magazine. The relevance of these rather small groups must be seen on two levels: that of the global Belgian political context, and on the level of the political Flemish Movement. To analyse strictly the amount of that influence needs more than a systematic review of the groupings that operate on this specific political field in Belgium last year.


Peter Verlinden
Article

Martens I, II, III, IV

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 2-3 1981
Auteurs Marc Platel
Samenvatting

    The year 1980 might become a basic reference year for the study of «political stability» and «governmental maintenance» in Belgium. Indeed, within this year, four different cabinet formulae have been used. The first cabinet included the two christian-democratic parties, the two socialist parties and the Brussels regionalist party. When the latter was fired, the combination of the remaining did not last long, for the cabinet fell in parliament - rare exception in Belgium -, by not obtaining a 2/3 majority. Therefore, a cabinet of the traditional parties (christian democrats, socialists and liberals, each split up in two parties) had to be formed to pass the devolution bill. Within a short time, this third coalition broke down on proposals on cuts in the budgets. A new negociation between socialists and christian-democrats led to the fourth Martens' cabinet. Although the Belgian classe politica favoured a cabinet that would last an entire legislature, all these coalitions arosefrom only one general election.


Marc Platel
Article

Het beleid inzake de staalnijverheid in België en Europa

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 2-3 1981
Auteurs Jozef Dillewijns en Jean-Pierre Pauwels
Samenvatting

    The european steel crisis is due to the steel production overcapacity in regard of a decline in demand, leading to a fierce price competition, with prices 15 to 20 % lower than in the USA and Japan. Measures were taken by the Commission of the European Communities and by the steel companies, consisting of imposing or proposing selling prices, limiting the deliveries, reducing import from third countries, closing down obsolete capacities, increasing productivity. Moreover, most governments have granted financial aid. In the second half of 1980, the market situation has deteriorated rapidly, which fact has led the Council of the European Communities to adopt Art. 58 of the ECSC-Treaty and to set obligatory production quotas. This has proved not to be sufficient. There is a strong tendency within the Commission towards a drastic reduction of overcapacity,as well as a decrease in state aid, the latter being considered as only allowed temporarily as a means of achieving the necessary restructuring and capacity reduction. It can be expected that, given the dramatic market situation, these measures wilt effectively be put into practice in the period to come. At the same time, voluntary agreements concerning production and prices are being discussed among steel producers (Eurofer 2).


Jozef Dillewijns

Jean-Pierre Pauwels
Article

Vingt ans de libéralisme en Wallonie et à Bruxelles

Du Parti Libéral au Parti Réformateur Libéral (1961-1980)

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 2-3 1981
Auteurs Viviane Hascal en Michèle Detaille

Viviane Hascal

Michèle Detaille
Article

Souveraineté régionale et finances publiques

Approche par les recettes et les masses budgétaires

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 2-3 1981
Auteurs Arthur Dersin
Samenvatting

    1. A short analysis of the institutional reform legislation of August 1980 allows the ascertainment that the competences «granted» by the central power to the regions are truncated.2. Financial means are also «granted». They consist in merely listing sources of revenues: receipts other then tax, black grants, tax shares, limited tax entitlement and borrowing power. Those financial means are arbitrary chosen, they are not related to the competences granted, they are insufficient.3. Anyway, the existing budgeting system (functional and economic classification) does not allow connecting policies and financial means. A new classification (program budgeting) should be of more adequacy to achieve this end.4. Actual regional sovereignty implies that all competences explicitely attributed to the federal level should belong to the regions. In the countries where such a system exists, the regions are mastering 40 to 60 % of the revenues. The kind of regionalisation implemented in Belgium only grants about 8 % to the regions. It is pointed out that 65 % of the current revenues and 46 % of the expenditures could technically be subject to federalisation. Should also the financial system of social security be federalized, then should the part of both ressources and expenditures belonging to the regions increase to 75 %. On the long way to federalism in Belgium, the new legislation is just a step, not an arrival. The forthcoming years will probably confirm it.


Arthur Dersin

Jozef Smits

    The existence of the German cultural community was guaranteed by the articles 3ter and 59ter of the Constitution and its organisation was institutionalized by the Law of July 10th, 1973. In 1980 the notion «German cultural community» in art. 3ter of the Constitution was replaced by the notion «German-speaking community». The reform of the statute of the German-speaking community has to be executed within the following limits: 1° an executive power that is accountable to the council can only be granted after revision of art. 59ter of the Constitution; 2° there seems no harm in granting power to modify laws and to legislate with exclusion of the national legislator to the council, as long as the exercise of this power is submitted to, judicial review; 3° the enlargement of the council's competence to the «personalized matters» does not require the revision of art. 59ter. The enlargement of the council's competence to some «regional affairs» is possible without revision of the Constitution, as long as the council does not receive the same competence as the Flemish, Wallon and Brussels region; 4° it is possible to grant the German-speaking community theyield of a part of some taxes.


Edgard Van De Velde
Article

Bibliographie de l'année politique 1980

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 2-3 1981
Auteurs Wladimir S. Plavsic

Wladimir S. Plavsic

Mark Deweerdt

    On august 9th 1980 the Belgian government took a number of important decisions with relation to the ports of Zeebrugge and Antwerp. The author takes this occasion to analyse and to evaluate the existing seaport policy in Belgium. The first section tries to give an answer to the question: why do public authorities intervene in port activities? Subsequently the article deals with the fundamental data for a port policy until 2000 and with the institutional organisation of this policy. The two last sections present an analysis of the general orientation as far as investment, competition, employment, environment and international relations are concerned. The author arrives at the conclusion that seaport policy in Belgium has to be prepared in a more systematic way and coordinated with other branches of transport, energy and economic policy.


Vic Van Rompuy
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