Zoekresultaat: 37 artikelen

x
Jaar 1978 x
Article

Federaties en federalisme

Een raamwerk voor theorie en onderzoek

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 4 1978
Auteurs B.J.S. Hoetjes
Samenvatting

    From a global historical viewpoint, federal systems are the exception rather than the rule, even though examples of federalism can already be found in Greek antiquity. From the 17th century onwards there was a revival of federalism, but in the post-World War II-era of decolonization federal systems did not emerge as the most popular form of government. Still, there is considerable variation among federal systems, i.e. those political systems where governmental authority is constitutionally divided among a central «federal» government and «state» governments in such a way, that each type of government has final decision-making authority in at least a few policy fields; a federation may be either effective or formal, unitary or decentralized, symmetrical or asymmetrical. In order to explain the extent and the kind of federalism in specific cases, the formallegal structure, the socio-economic environment and the political behaviour of elites as well as citizens should be taken into account. Political behaviour should be taken as the key factor, without disregard, however, for its relationship to social factors (e.g. pluralism) and format structures (e.g. constitutions). In order to assess their relative importance, comparative research is required; Western Europe and the Third World (South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa) offer highly promising prospects for this type of research. On the research agenda of federalism, special attention should be given to topics like the informal federal arrangements in cabinet formation, policy-making and public administration, federal party polities, and the impact of public policies on the federal socio-economic environment.


B.J.S. Hoetjes

    Separate individual's disposition to take action does certainly not constitute a sufficient condition to engage in demonstrations. Doubtlessly, equal importance is due to organisational and institutional factors in society, and the individual's position in those. Ultimately, a demonstration is the result of a struggle between organizations for going control over individuals in order to support or defend their own objectives. In the mobilization process these organizations may make use of a diversity of mechanisms and techniques to control or to influence their members, as there are: the exploitation of the affective and instrumental ties binding the individual to the organization; the access to - and the use of - the mass-media; the use of selective communication by the organizational leaders and the induction of frustration. Special attention is given to the role of the militant and the characteristics of his language in the mobilization proces


Luk Holvoet
Article

Le Sénat de Belgique

future Chambre de réflexion?

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 4 1978
Auteurs Christian Daubie
Samenvatting

    In the future Belgian State, in which «communities» and «regions» are constitutionally authorized, the composition, the mission and the competences of the second Chamber, the Senate, are called in question. The «community-agreements» of Egmont and Stuyvenberg provided that the members of the regional councils should be also members of the councils of the communities and members of a Senate (of communities and regions). His legislative roll should be limited to pass the revision of the Constitution, the bills with a special majority and to propose amendments at the bills to the Chamber of deputies. The second Chamber, in the European states, envisaged by this study: the French Senate, the Italian Senate, the German Bundesrat and the Swiss Council of States, is always more powerfull that a simple Chamber of reflection, at least on the legislative ground, in the federal states, this assembly has not immediate political control on the national Government. The future Belgian Senate, as these second Chambers, must preserve an active roll in the elaboration of the most important laws and be an assembly of beneficial confrontation between the communities and their deputies; so, the Senate will assure their effective participation to the legislàtîve function.


Christian Daubie

Mark Deweerdt

    In the official statistics, the total number of nonvoters in the post-war parliamentary elections in Belgium, is considerably over-estimated. This is caused by the method of updating the lists of voters, so that many (sometimes a majority of) people who appear as nonvoters, are regular voters who died after the moment of updating, but were not droppedfrom the lists. In this article, we endeavoured to calculate the number of deceased voters, who still appear on the lists, using the monthly death-rates of the total Belgian population, abstracting the deceased persons under age and the deceased foreigners. The more realistic rates of nonvoting, calculated this way, are quite lower than the official rates. Yet, because of the introduction of a new method of updating, the problem discussed above, hardly exists any langer since the general election of 1977.


Lieven De Winter

Editor Res Publica

    The communication process between the political elites and the general public, crucial as it is in a democratie system, is suffering increasingly from an information overlaad. The best way to tackle this problem seems to be the improvement of the communication medium, i.e. ofthe political language. Ideology is the most «rational» political language available: it can carry more information about elite decision-making to a relatively modest cost. This problem-definition suggest a sequence of three critical questions. Do the decisionmakers have a political ideology? If so, is it instrumental in the actual decision-making process? If so, why does this ideological factor rarely reach the general public? The article deals with the two last questions from a format point of view. It can be shown, after the necessary conceptual clarifications and contrary to current opinion, that ideology can hold its own in the private forum of political decision-making and fades away when the elites address the public (not the loyalists) in the public forum. The private forum is dominated by the need for policy output and by the necessity of coalition-formation. The adaptation of ideology to this situation depends on its degree of articulation and on the type of coalition-formation. In general the «salience» aspect of ideology is likelyto suffer less than its «position» aspect. The public forum is dominated by the needs of recruiting support and legitimizing proposals. Generally ideology is too costly a device to be used for these purposes.


Guido Dierickx
Article

Le Conseil Economique Régional pour le Brabant (CERB)

Son róle et ses perspectives dans la future organisation institutionnelle

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 4 1978
Auteurs O. Daurmont
Samenvatting

    One of the main purposes of Terwagne's law is to associate the regions to the economic planning. Three regions: Flanders, Wallonia and Brabant are instituted and endowed with organs, the SDR (regional development society) and the CBR (regional economic council). The CERB (regional economic council for Brabant) took part to the regionalisation of the Plans. But various factors made this regionalisation insufficient. The CERB still expressed views on the used water purification, transport infrastructure, territory planning and institutional matters. Moreover, the ERB greatly developed its research mission rather than claiming activity. Meanwhile, the subsequent development of the ideas about regionalisation led to a delimitation of a central region not the same as that instituted by the economic decentralisation: the Brussels region restricted to nineteen communes. The activity of CERB makes it primarily a consultative organ of the future regional institutions. But as a preliminary, the geographical competence of the CERB and its composition must be modificated. To organize a real regionalisation, it is necessary to suppress technical impediments (deficiency in delays and information) and it is also necessary that the consultation should be complete and real.


O. Daurmont

    The crisis which arose in Australia in October-November 1975 led to the dismissal of the Labour Prime Minister Gough Whitlam by the Governor-General Sir John Kerr, the formation of a caretaker Government by the opposition leader Malcolm Fraser and the simultaneous dissolution of the Houses of the Federal Parliament. The constitutional issues involved in that crisis are studied. The opinion is maintained that the rational coherence of the parliamentary system require an effective head of State with the responsibility of acting personally in unusual circumstances, rather than the strict law definitely lapsed and the issue even then ruled by the «constitutional conventions» of Cabinet government.


Philippe Lauvaux
Article

Van Stuyvenberg naar de Wetstraat 16

Een derde onderhandelingsronde over het Gemeenschapsakkoord

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 3 1978
Auteurs Marc Platel
Samenvatting

    The talks from mid-februari 1978 on the regionalization pact in Belgium were more than a mere format approval of the Stuyvenbergprotocol. This becomes very clear when one compares the unpublished draft-Stuyvenbergprotocol and the official agreement. History will learn that the third round of negotiation wilt not be the last one.


Marc Platel
Article

Secularisatie en verzuiling in de Belgische politiek

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 3 1978
Auteurs Jaak Billiet, Roger Creyf en Karel Dobbelaere
Samenvatting

    Sociological research in three Catholic «pillar» organizations (the Catholic school system, the Christian hospitals and the Catholic University) indicates that secularization is not followed by a «de-pillarization» or crumbling of the Catholic pillar. Our explanation suggests a process of secularization within the Catholic organizations, with as main components: the development of a social-cultural christianity - which may be considered a secular surrogate for church-religion -, and professionalization by which the christian organizations provide a milieu which ensures job security and social advancement for its loyal members. Thanks to its informal and formal ties with the Christian pillar organizations, the CVP acts on both components, by stressing a specific identity and by defining the interests of the pillar organizations. This explanation may indicate some major aspects of the ties between sociological Catholics and «their» political party - a bond which is certainly not being affected by the secularization processes, rather the contrary is occurring.


Jaak Billiet

Roger Creyf

Karel Dobbelaere
Article

L'expédition des affaires courantes

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 3 1978
Auteurs Antonio Mascarenhas Gomes Monteiro
Samenvatting

    Since the last war, one character of the political system in Belgium is the growth and the duration of the ministerial crisis. Some questions of public law appeared. How is it possible to maintain the continuity of the political and administrative action, without ministerial responsibility to Parliament, during the crisis? The Belgian Conseil d'Etat contributed, by the notion of the «affaires courantes», sort of general principle of public law, to give a solution to this problem.


Antonio Mascarenhas Gomes Monteiro
Article

Switzerland and the Jura

ethnic diversity and elite accommodation

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 3 1978
Auteurs Harold E. Glass

Harold E. Glass

    How, according to the folk-tradition, do the Walloons see the Flemish population? An analysis of a stereotype is attempted here, considering the importance of stock-phrases and tags with regard to relations between populations. For an historian, the study of the folk-tradition sets a lot of problems concerning the research and the critical use of a complex documentation: oral tradition (popular phrases, songs, by-words, interviews), French and dialect al literature (navels, dramatic works, satirical writings), newspapers, etc. With such a documentation, we are able to describe some «patterns» of Flemings: the pedlar, the play-character, the militant Fleming, the farmer, the agricultural labourer and the worker. These portraits generally emphasize the dull-witted and rough appearance of the Fleming. The rise of these ideas, at a some time, among the Walloon population appears resulting from the social and cultural position of a great deal of the Flemish immigrants into the Walloon area.


Yves Quairiaux

Jean Pirotte
Article

Inleiding

Koppen uit het politieke nieuws van 1977

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 2 1978
Auteurs Editor Res Publica

Editor Res Publica

    For each topic the obiectives, instruments and performance of the policy concerned are expounded. In the field of fiscal policy special attention is drawn to the rather large deficit of the budget, its consequences and possible remedies. The section on monetary policy deals in particular with the discussion around the maintaining of the Belgian franc within the European small snake and with the argumentation of the Belgian central bank against the monetarist's contention in favour of the monetary rule.


Vic Van Rompuy
Article

Bibliographie de l'année politique 1977

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 2 1978
Auteurs Wladimir S. Plavsic

Wladimir S. Plavsic

Mark Deweerdt

    The political year of 1977 was essentially marked by the organizing of an anticipated parliamentary election (six months after a local poll) and by the forming of a new government coalition. The aftermath of these elections and the reactions to the forming of the Tindemans Vcoalition cabinet were the main factors which conditioned the evolution of partie in the course of that year.


Xavier Mabille
Article

L'année 1977 pour les immigrés

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 2 1978
Auteurs Michel Taverne en Albert Martens
Samenvatting

    Although immigration of foreign workers had practically ceased since 1974, a series of important facts or developments took place in 1977.1. Unemployment increased and maintained itself on a high level. Immigrants, who make up 10 % of the active population, were affected by 14 % of the total unemployment. This percentage has remained constant since 1967. Nevertheless, these figures do not seem to have been noted by the Members of Parliament. They merely intend to propose either sending back all foreign unemployed workers, or simply expelling all working foreigners.2. In 1977, the Foreign Office replaced the former «Foreign Police». This does not mean, however, that the situation of the immigrants has improved.3. The granting of voting and eligibility rights to immigrants with respect to local elections is an idea which made progress in 1977. However, the political parties have very different ideas on this. Also, the issue of whether granting such rights does or does not imply a revisionof the Belgian Constitution has still not been solved.4. Previous to 1977, the immigration policy had fallen under the competency of the Ministers of Employment and Labor and of Justice. The recently concluded policy agreement, the Egmont Pact, calls for the regions and communities to play an important role in this matter. So far, this modification has barely been noted by the legislature.


Michel Taverne

Albert Martens
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