Zoekresultaat: 18 artikelen

x
Jaar 2006 x
Artikel

De diplomademocratie

Over de spanning tussen meritocratie en democratie

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2006
Auteurs Mark Bovens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Contemporary western democracies, such the United States, Great Britain, and The Netherlands have become diploma democracies. They are ruled by the well educated, whereas the least educated, even though they still comprise about half of the population, have virtually vanished from most political arenas. Of course, the well educated have always been more politically active than the less educated, but in the past decades this gap has widened substantially. Well-educated citizens are more inclined to vote, to write letters to the editor, or to visit consultative or deliberative meetings than citizens with a low level of education; and most, if not all, members of parliament, all the political officials, and almost all of the political advocates and lobbyists, have college or graduate degrees. The paper substantiates the rise of diploma democracy in The Netherlands, discusses what is problematic about such an educational meritocracy in the context of democracy, and looks at what could be done to mitigate or remedy some of its negative effects.


Mark Bovens
Prof. dr. Mark Bovens is als hoogleraar Bestuurskunde verbonden aan de Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap van de Universiteit Utrecht, Bijlhouwerstraat 6, 3511 ZC Utrecht. Zijn meest recente boek is De digitale republiek: Democratie en rechtsstaat in de informatiemaatschappij (AUP 2003). Correspondentiegegevens: m.a.p.bovens@uu.nl www.usg.uu.nl/research/m.bovens
Artikel

Werk in een wantrouwende wereld

Omvang en oorzaken van een uitdijende controle-industrie

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2006
Auteurs Frans van Waarden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Fraud seems to be on the rise. That feeds a demand for controls. This paper sketches the diversity of supply in reaction to this demand: public regulators of course, but also commercial information providers and benchmarkers, self-regulating associations, hallmark producers, certification and accreditation bodies, and internal business management control systems, whereby ever more levels of control are piled on top of each other. More than a million Dutchmen earn a living in this booming control-industry, or 14% of the working population. In addition to fraud, other causes of this trend are being discussed, among them, paradoxically, neo-liberalist deregulation policies. All these causes contribute to a sense of risk and uncertainty. Although this trend has a number of negative consequences, it has a major benefit: jobs! Economists may have long thought that transaction costs are there for the transactions. But it looks as if transactions exist to produce transaction costs.


Frans van Waarden
Frans van Waarden is hoogleraar Organisatie en Beleid aan de Universiteit Utrecht en fellow van het University College Utrecht. Hij studeerde sociologie in Toronto en Leiden, was voorheen werkzaam aan de Universiteiten van Leiden en Konstanz en visiting scholar in Wenen, Leipzig, Stanford, Berkeley, het European University Institute in Florence en het NIAS in Wassenaar. Hij publiceerde over arbeidsverhoudingen, techniekgeschiedenis, innovatie, katoenindustrie, belangengroepen en corporatisme, verzorgingsstaat, ondernemersorganisaties, de relatie overheid – bedrijfsleven, openbaar bestuur, stijlen van regelgeving en -handhaving en marktwerking en deregulering. Correspondentiegegevens: Prof. dr. Frans van Waarden, University College, Utrecht University, Postbus 80145, 3508 TC Utrecht Telefoon: +31-30-253-4820 e-mail: F.vanwaarden@fss.uu.nl

Hans Blokland
Hans Blokland studeerde politieke wetenschappen en promoveerde in de sociale en politieke filosofie. Hij was fellow van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen en onder meer verbonden aan Yale University, Department of Political Science. Tot zijn recente publicaties behoren Pluralisme, Democratie & Politieke Kennis (Van Gorcum 2005) en Modernization and its Political Consequences (Yale University Press 2006). Zie voor informatie over zijn werk: www.hans-blokland.nl.
Artikel

Life politics: van abstracte theorie naar een bruikbaar model

Bestrijding van overgewicht in Groot-Brittannië en Nederland

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2006
Auteurs Carien Scholtmeijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During the last decennium, social theory has provided us with path-breaking insights into the emergence of a new type of social risks (post-industrial, manufactured risks), and on policies which might deal with these risks (life politics; the social investment state). Especially the writings of Anthony Giddens are relevant in this respect. Unfortunately, these abstract ideas have thus far hardly been tested in empirical research. This article aims to fill this gap, by focussing on a telling example of a new, lifestyle related risk, which is the problem of overweight. How useful are Giddens' ideas on risk and social policy when applied in a concrete analysis of this particular problem and related policies? To answer this question, a comparative analysis has been carried out in two welfare states, the British and the Dutch. It will be argued that Giddens' abstract notions can indeed be applied effectively in a practical and fruitful framework for policy analysis. In this respect, the concepts of life politics and the social investment state seem promising, both for the practise and analysis of social policy development in European welfare states.


Carien Scholtmeijer
Drs. Carien Scholtmeijer studeerde bestuurskunde aan de Universiteit Twente (2000-2005), afstudeerrichting bestuurlijke organisatie. Correspondentiegegevens: c.scholtmeijer@alumnus.utwente.nl

    Demand-steering policies in healthcare are understandable but problematic answers to the desire for democratization that dates from the seventies of the former century. Prominent critics such as Achterhuis and Illich were very critical of the undemocratic character of health care. Yet their romantic idea of society excused them from the need to articulate democratic alternatives. The empty space that they left was filled by the concept of demand-steering. Demand-steering, however, rather than strengthening democratic practices, merely undermines them, by preferring exit above voice, by putting up new bureaucratic barriers between clients and professionals and by undermining the quality of the relationship between clients and professionals.

    Doing more justice to the democratic impulse is possible and desirable. A new step towards this aim is being taken by a fourth logic of steering, (next to the familiar logics of the market, bureaucracy and professionalism) that centers on improving the dialogue between clients and professionals. The one variant, democratic professionalism, starts from the position of the professional and aims at intensifying democratic control, while the other variant, collaboration, starts from the client and aims at providing him with more influence and responsibility for the health care process. This fourth logic however can only provide a new impulse to democratization when the vague notion of the dialogue is elaborated more thoroughly.


Evelien Tonkens
Evelien Tonkens is bijzonder hoogleraar actief burgerschap bij de afdeling sociologie en antropologie van de Universiteit van Amsterdam en opleidingsdirecteur/docent van de masteropleiding social policy and social work in urban areas van de Uva. Correspondentieadres: UvA – afdeling sociologie en antropologie, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 185, 1012 DK Amsterdam, e-mail: e.h.tonkens@uva.nl

Willem Trommel
Willem Trommel is universitair hoofddocent bestuurssociologie aan de Universiteit Twente Correspondentieadres: Universiteit Twente, faculteit BBT, Postbus 217, 7500 AE Enschede, e-mail: w.a.trommel@utwente.nl
Artikel

De vraag als antwoord?

Normatieve risico's van vraagsturing en de implicaties voor de rol van professionals

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2006
Auteurs Hans Bosselaar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The growing interest in demand-based delivery is to be comprehended regarding the criticism on the traditional 'apply-based' delivery. Regarding the literature, the main stream notion on demand-based delivery contains the transfer of the tasks and duties from the intermediate professional to the client. Consequently, the (demanding) client is directly able to affect the provisions he is eligible to and to influence the acquirement of the services and goods.

    The main issues are:

    This article focuses on the new role of intermediate professionals. The intermediate professional can maintain a role in realising the demand-supply relationship between the client and the supplying professional; he can get the task to acquire and spread the required market information, but as well can get the responsibility to support the market participants using this information. In the same time, this responsibility can help to avoid the normative risks, especially the risk of inadequacy.

    This new role must probably be regulated and in any case be monitored to prevent from the situation that the intermediate professional will take over the new responsibilities of the client. If this does not happen, the transfer to the demand-based delivery of public services will fail. On the other hand, if their will be no accessible client support by the new intermediate professional, the transfer to the demand-based delivery will tarnish the fundaments of the social system.


Hans Bosselaar
Mr. dr. Hans Bosselaar is zelfstandig gevestigd onderzoeker met bureau Meccano kennis voor beleid. Bosselaar doet voornamelijk onderzoek op het terrein van sociale zekerheid, arbeidsmarkt en disability management in ondernemingen voor opdrachtgevers als het ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid, UWV, RWI en diverse (overheids)commissies en sociale partners. Bosselaar promoveerde in 2005 op het proefschrift De vraag als antwoord. Vraagsturing en sociaal beleid: voorwaarden en risico's. Correspondentiegegevens: Mr. dr. Hans Bosselaar, Meccano kennis voor beleid, e-mail: meccano@planet.nl
Artikel

Vraaggestuurd organiseren

Professioneel management van vraagsturing in publieke dienstverlening

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2006
Auteurs Mirko Noordegraaf
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    'Demand-based organising' has become popular throughout public domains, sometimes complementing, sometimes working against 'fact-based' and 'market-based' organising. This raises critical questions, about ways in which 'customer' and client demands are and can be known, and how multiple demands can be aggregated. In addition, it is difficult to link demand-based strategies to public service contexts, full of professional practices. How do public managers cope with such contradictory conditions? How can they organise in demand-based ways, amidst contradictory demands? This article, firstly, explores how demand-based rhetoric and instruments have been introduced. Secondly, it explores how public managers really (can) work in demand-based settings. Thirdly, it explores how demand-based practices can be organised, so that public service contexts can be managed 'professionally'. This leads to a paradoxical conclusion. Professional public managers organise in demand-based ways by not handing-over or 'outsourcing' content to customers and clients, but by substantiating demands themselves.


Mirko Noordegraaf
Dr Mirko Noordegraaf is verbonden aan de Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht.

    The recent decline in professionalism has frequently been explained as a result of the rise of New Public Management (NPM). As will be shown in this article, however, NPM does not automatically result in a decline in professionalism; its effects differ in various professional contexts. In a case study of the work of social insurance doctors and labor specialists the authors demonstrate that NPM structures the technical aspects of professional tasks, that are the verifiable elements of the professional's judgment. NPM proofs to have strong influence on the techniques for quality insurance (performance of production, time and lawfulness). On the longer term this influence can undermine professional self-regulation. NPM has little impact on the indeterminate task aspects, the professional judgment itself, even though this part has become more 'technical' in years. The case study shows however that this is not due to NPM but to the impact of bureaucratization of the professional task. Furthermore it becomes clear that this impact is stronger in the case of the labor specialist than with respect to the social insurance doctor.


Duco Bannink
Duco Bannink is verbonden aan de Universiteit Twente. Correspondentieadres: Duco Bannink, Universiteit Twente, Faculteit Bedrijf, Bestuur en Technologie, Postbus 217, 7500 AE Enschede, 053-4893222, d.b.d.bannink@utwente.nl

Berber Lettinga
Berber Lettinga is verbonden aan de Universiteit Twente.

Liesbet Heyse
Liesbet Heyse is verbonden aan de Universiteit Twente.
Artikel

Werkende vaders, zorgende mannen

De mogelijkheid van verandering

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2006
Auteurs Jan Willem Duyvendak en Monique Stavenuiter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Fathers may fundamentally change their behaviour, depending on the context. In this article, this aspect was investigated on the basis of three exceptional practices. The 'standard practice' has been defined as a living unit consisting of a man, a woman and one or more children, with the man working outside the home at regular times (generally from 9-17 hours) and the woman being (largely) responsible for household and care tasks. We speak of an exceptional practice if the man works non-regular hours, or has an unusual working pattern, or is part of a special type of household. The study involved around thirty such households, subdivided into the households of homosexual fathers, shiftworkers and teleworkers. The main conclusion of the article into exceptional practices is that men's views and preferences as regards the distribution of tasks between men and women are closely linked to the context in which they perform these tasks. In households characterised by a more balanced distribution of tasks, the alleged skills and preferences of men and the tradition in which they grew up have become largely or totally irrelevant. It turns out that men's opinions may change in situations where men are forced to carry out certain tasks because of a change in circumstances (different working hours, working patterns or alternative lifestyles). In that case, even supposedly poor skills are suddenly of little or no importance. Being 'alone' at home with the children appears to be an important stimulus to actually perform care tasks.


Jan Willem Duyvendak
Jan Willem Duyvendak is hoogleraar algemene sociologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en mede-auteur van het boek Working Fathers, Caring Men, Den Haag/Utrecht: Ministerie SZW/Verwey-Jonker Instituut. Correspondentieadres: UvA – afdeling sociologie en antropologie, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 185, 1012 DK Amsterdam, duyvendak@uva.nl

Monique Stavenuiter
Monique Stavenuiter is werkzaam als hoofd van de onderzoeksgroep Maatschappelijke Participatie bij het Verwey-Jonker Instituut te Utrecht en mede-auteur van het boek Working Fathers, Caring Men, Den Haag/Utrecht: Ministerie SZW/Verwey-Jonker Instituut.
Artikel

Over oude erfenissen en nieuwe ergernissen

Een evaluatie van het rapport 'Een belaste relatie. 25 Jaar Ontwikkelingssamenwerking Nederland – Suriname'

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2006
Auteurs Yvonne Kleistra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In February 2004, a highly debated research report with the title 'A Burdened Relation. 25 Years Development Aid between the Netherlands and Surinam' was sent to parliament. The study was conducted by a Netherlands scientist and a Surinam senior official (Kruijt and Maks, 2004). Their central aim was to execute a 'quick scan lessons learned evaluation' in order to arrive at a research agenda for a more detailed and profound study of the bilateral development aid relations of the two countries. In spite of this, the Netherlands minister for Development Aid decided in June 2005 to terminate the research project. Main argument she put forward to underpin the decision was that further research would add just about nothing to what already was known, or could be thought relevant for policymaking. The author of this article questions the validity of the argument of the minister. She scrutinizes the threefold research task, the research process and the results of the joint exercise. This demonstrates that the review holds a future scientific research agenda that is both innovative and provocative. Furthermore, she points out that the political ups and downs that accompanied the publication contain some additional practical insights.


Yvonne Kleistra
Dr. Y. Kleistra is werkzaam als inspecteur Vrede en Veiligheid bij de Inspectiedienst Ontwikkelingssamenwerking en Beleid (IOB) van het Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken. Adres: Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken/IOB, Postbus 20061, 2500 EB Den Haag, tel. (070) 348 63 38, e-mail: yvonne.kleistra@minbuza.nl

    This article identifies institutions and arrangements concerning the reconciliation of working life and family life for various European countries. These institutions and arrangements concern time (flexible working hours and leave arrangements), money (tax systems) and facilities (childcare facilities). A fairer distribution of all work and care tasks requires proper facilities at national level in respect of childcare, parental leave, so-called leave savings schemes, the right to work part-time, etc. Such facilities are of particular importance while taking the first steps towards a fairer distribution: they will enable men to take on more tasks at home, while making it easier for women to work outside the home. The article concludes that with regard to reconciliation facilities, the differences between the several welfare states within the European Union are fading away. This is interesting, because as a result the EU countries are increasingly finding common ground in terms of solutions for reconciliation and more specifically the role of men.


Ivy Koopmans
Ivy Koopmans is als onderzoeker verbonden aan de Utrecht School of Economics van de Universiteit Utrecht. Adres: Utrecht School of Economics, Vredenburg 138, 3511 BG Utrecht, I.Koopmans@econ.uu.nl

Joop Schippers
Joop Schippers is hoogleraar Arbeids- en Emancipatie-economie aan de Universiteit Utrecht en tevens is hij als programmahoogleraar verbonden aan de Organisatie voor Strategisch Arbeidsmarktonderzoek (OSA). Adres: Utrecht School of Economics, Vredenburg 138, 3511 BG Utrecht
Artikel

Hoe effectief sturen provincies op de realisering van windenergie?

Een evaluatie van de Bestuursovereenkomst Landelijke Ontwikkeling Windenergie

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2006
Auteurs Marieke van Duyn, Hens Runhaar, Susanne Agterbosch e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, an ambitious policy goal of 1,000 MW of wind power capacity by the year 2000 had already been formulated in 1985 and remained the official basis for wind energy policy until 2000. The pace of realisation of wind turbines however did not keep up with this policy objective. An important reason is that it proves difficult to provide enough locations for wind turbines in spatial plans. Over the last 15 years two covenants have been concluded between the Dutch central government and provinces in order to overcome this problem: the 1991-Governmental Agreement on Planning Problems Wind Energy (BPW), and the 2001-Governmental Agreement on the National Development Wind Energy (BLOW). In the BLOW provinces have agreed to work towards the realisation of wind turbines with a total capacity of 1,500 MW in 2010. For this purpose provinces need the co-operation of municipalities, wind power project developers and local communities. Municipalities have a crucial role because of their discretion of detailed allocation of land use in local spatial plans. They are no partners to the covenant however. Provinces can use several governance strategies for mobilising co-operation: from top-down governance in which provinces specify locations to bottom-up approaches in which the initiatives are left to municipalities and project developers. This paper compares both covenants and assesses the effectiveness of different governance strategies employed by three distinct provinces.


Marieke van Duyn
Marieke van Duyn is beleidsmedewerkster bij de Zuid-Hollandse Milieudefensie.

Hens Runhaar
Hens Runhaar is universitair docent Adres: Copernicus Instituut voor Duurzame Ontwikkeling en Innovatie, Universiteit Utrecht Postbus 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht, h.runhaar@geo.uu.nl

Susanne Agterbosch
Susanne Agterbosch is promovendus.

Marco Tieleman
Marco Tieleman is sr. adviseur bij CEA.

Duco Bannink
Duco Bannink is als universitair docent verbonden aan de Universiteit van Twente. Adres: Universiteit Twente, Faculteit Bedrijf, Bestuur en Technologie, Postbus 217, 7500 AE Enschede, tel. (053)-489 32 22, e-mail: d.b.d.bannink@utwente.nl
Article

Stille revolutie, contra-revolutie of cultureel conflict?

Veranderingen in de politieke cultuur en hun invloed op het verband tussen klassenpositie en stemgedrag

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 4 2006
Auteurs Jeroen Van der Waal en Peter Achterberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper deals with the linkage between changes in the political culture and changes in class-party alignments. First, we investigate how the political culture in Western countries has changed over time. Three views are tested using data on party-manifestos. The first predicts that only new-leftist issues will increase in salience. The second predicts that both new-leftist and new-rightist issues will emerge at the same time. The third, which is empirically corroborated, predicts that first new-leftist issues will emerge followed by a rise in new rightist issues.
    Second, we investigate how the emergence of these new issues has affected the traditional class-party alignments. We show that the middle class increasingly votes left-wing as newleftist issues become more important and that the working class increasingly votes rightwing as new-rightist issues become more important. The middle class also appears to alienate from the traditional party of their class as new-rightist issues rise in salience.


Jeroen Van der Waal
Onderzoeker aan de vakgroep Sociologie, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en aan de Amsterdam School for Social Research.

Peter Achterberg
Onderzoeker aan de vakgroep Sociologie, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en aan de Amsterdam School for Social Research.
Article

Belgian Politics in 2005

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 2-3 2006
Auteurs Sam Depauw en Mark Deweerdt
Auteursinformatie

Sam Depauw
Postdoctoral Fellow of the Fund for Scientific Research – Flanders at the University of Leuven.

Mark Deweerdt
Political Journalist of De Tijd.

    On December 1st 2005, Belgian Prime Minister Guy Verhofstadt proposed the creation of a ‘United States of Europe’: a core group of Eurozone countries surrounded by a confederation of states. A European social-economic policy, technology cooperation, a common justice and security policy, a common diplomacy and army will make the EU stronger and less patronizing, said Verhofstadt. In this article, we look back over the main political and economic developments in the EU in 2005. This year will probably go down in EU history as the year in which the constitutional treaty was rejected. Yet, as demonstrated, despite a feeling of total malaise, a number of knotty dossiers came to a conclusion and new initiatives were taken.


Edith Drieskens
Onderzoeker FWO-Vlaanderen aan het Instituut voor Internationaal en Europees Beleid van de K.U.Leuven.

Bart Kerremans
Hoogleraar aan het Instituut voor Internationaal en Europees Beleid van de K.U.Leuven.

Theo Toonen
Prof. dr. Theo Toonen, voorzitter, namens de G.A. van Poelje Jaarprijscommissie.
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