Zoekresultaat: 30 artikelen

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Jaar 2014 x
Artikel

Proactieve verkeersveiligheid in veranderende bestuurlijke verhoudingen

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden policy analysis, road safety
Auteurs Dr. Peter van der Knaap
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Netherlands enjoys a long-standing reputation in the field of road safety. Following the ‘Sustainable Road Safety’ program of the 1990s, the infrastructural layout considerably reduces the risk of accidents while at the same time many measures are in place to improve road user behavior. In recent years, however, there have been several developments that may affect the success of the approach. In addition to an ageing population, urbanization, and the rise of new technologies, there is a combination of decentralization, policy integration, and budgetary restraints.
    This contribution presents the philosophy behind the sustainable road safety program and describes its key elements. It discusses policy and societal developments, and the continuing need to improve road safety, especially at a decentralized level. The article argues in favor of a continued systematic approach towards safer road traffic, also in periods of decentralization and limited budgets. It presents a concrete perspective of the role of policy analysis and policy evaluation to develop a proactive approach to road safety under the new conditions. In this, evidence-based interventions, an active use of safety performance indicators, and a focus on success are key elements.


Dr. Peter van der Knaap
Dr. P. van der Knaap is directeur-bestuurder van de Stichting Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Verkeersveiligheid (SWOV).
Artikel

De Verblijfsregeling Mensenhandel in de praktijk: over oneigenlijk gebruik en niet-gebruik

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden human trafficking, public policy, crime policy, policy misuse, non-take up
Auteurs Dr. Jeanine Klaver en Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In line with international and national legislation, the Netherlands offers certain services, including a temporary residence permit, to third country nationals who have fallen prey to human traffickers. Over the years, concerns have been often expressed about the perceived misuse of this regulation by foreigners who aim at legalising their stay. Based on interviews and file analysis the present article seeks to provide insight into to what extent it is possible to measure this misuse and the policy implications of the findings. In addition, the authors take into account non-use of the programme. The article confirms existing worries about misuse, provides indicators for misuse, but also concludes that at the level of individual cases practitioners cannot discern misuse from rightful use. At the same time, there are also groups that fall outside the reach of the programme. The article concludes with some policy recommendations on the basis of the findings.


Dr. Jeanine Klaver
Dr. Jeanine Klaver is manager onderzoek bij Regioplan Beleidsonderzoek.

Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Discontinuïteit van discours als de motor van veranderingen

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden Culture change, Values, Discourse, Narrative of change, Flexibility
Auteurs Samir Achbab MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, based on a case study regarding the merger of boroughs within the municipality of Amsterdam, different perspectives are brought together to provide an overall analysis leading to insight into the change in the organizational culture. A particular research methodology is used to shed light on three elements of organizational culture: mindset (values), arena (group) and behavior. Through periodical measurements the effects of interventions and the progress in culture change is followed. It is argued that measurement instruments to explore the shifts in thinking and action are useful but limited. Policy makers and organizational actors from all hierarchical levels are shown to be influenced and disciplined by the actual existing change discourse to various degrees. Every organization nowadays must prove to the market that it is capable of change. Stories about organizational flexibility are embedded in more macro-stories of the changes in economic life. This article provides insight into the complexity of organizational discourse and the philosophical and sociological richness that it embodies. Therefore anthropological concepts are used which make the case more understandable in terms of rules and procedures that construct and legitimate the way we see things and talk about them.


Samir Achbab MSc
Samir Achbab MSc werkt als onderzoeksleider bij het lectoraat Management van Cultuurverandering aan de Hogeschool van Amsterdam (HvA). Daarnaast is hij bij de HvA ook docent bij de opleiding Bestuurskunde/Urban Management.

Dr. Rik Reussing
Dr. G.H. Reussing is redactiesecretaris van Bestuurswetenschappen en onderwijscoördinator van de opleiding European Public Administration aan de Universiteit Twente.

    The focus of the diversity policy in the Dutch public sector has moved during the past decennia. In the eighties offering equal chances for the different target groups was the central policy goal, after the millennium this became the effective and efficient management of a diverse work force in order to arrive at a better performing public sector, also called the business case of diversity. This article investigates the question how far the Dutch cabinet has influenced the diversity policy of public organizations. The answer to the question is that there was limited influence from the Dutch cabinet on the arguments for diversity of public organizations, but there was greater influence on the diversity interventions, especially in three sectors: central government, municipalities and police. This influence on interventions of other (‘fellow’) governments is caused by the strong steering of the cabinet. The interventions undertaken therefore reflect to a more limited extent the business case of diversity and remain stuck in the old target group policy. However, public organizations with a longer history in diversity policy, that operate closer to society and see the necessity for diversity, are more inclined to embrace the business case and start interventions that are related to this new approach.


Drs. Saniye Celik
Drs. S. Celik is accountmanager voor de decentralisaties in het sociaal domein bij het Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties en buitenpromovenda aan het Instituut Bestuurskunde van de Universiteit Leiden, Campus Den Haag.

    According to the policy makers of the Dutch police the more complex society for years requires a police organization that can operate as a network player, or even network director, in ever increasing local safety networks to fulfil the police functions of criminal investigation and maintenance of public order in an effective manner. This claim hardly seems to validated by empirical evidence. Validation is important because research shows that a lot of time is spent on the police network function within community based policing. The question is if this time is spent in an effective manner. Therefore this article addresses the question of the revenues of the police network function within community based policing for the core tasks maintenance of political order and criminal investigation. Based on a policy analysis, interviews and five weeks of participatory research in one police force in the Netherlands, the authors conclude that the policy of the police is only to ‘take’ out and not ‘give’ to local safety networks, although according to the practice and the network literature networkers from the police should give to be able to achieve results. Because the police network function does contribute to the quality of life and the social safety in the community, the authors believe that the community is best served by police officers that have a broad network function.


Jelle Groenendaal MSc
J. Groenendaal MSc is senior onderzoeker en promovendus bij Crisislab, dat het onderzoek van de leeropdracht Besturen van Veiligheid aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen ondersteunt.

Prof. dr. Ira Helsloot
Prof. dr. I. Helsloot is hoogleraar Besturen van Veiligheid aan de faculteit Managementwetenschappen van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Vertrouwen in toezichtbeleid

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Trust, regulatory policy, accountability, control, supervision regime
Auteurs Lydia Paauw-Fikkert MSc, Dr. ir. Frédérique Six en Prof. dr. Paul Robben
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Regulatory supervision and inspection have become key features of public governance, some authors even talk about the ‘audit society’ or the age of ‘regulatory capitalism’. Despite international research showing the importance of trust in supervisory relations, there is still a fierce debate about the role of trust in Dutch supervisory relations. Several inspectorates have incorporated trust as a central theme in their supervisory policy. This article describes the role of trust within the policy of the Dutch Healthcare Inspectorate (IGZ). This research addresses four themes in dealing with the concept of trust in supervisory relations: from transparency to accountability, from output performance to performance and risk management, from trust or control to trust and control, and, finally, a special regime for reliable inspectees. The empirical analysis in this paper contributes to the knowledge about the role of trust in supervision (policy) and to the debate about the role of trust in regulatory supervision policy.


Lydia Paauw-Fikkert MSc
Lydia Paauw-Fikkert MSc is senior adviseur bij de Inspectie voor de Gezondheidszorg.

Dr. ir. Frédérique Six
Dr. ir. Frédérique Six MBA is universitair docent aan de VU Amsterdam.

Prof. dr. Paul Robben
Prof. dr. Paul Robben is adviseur bij de Inspectie voor de Gezondheidszorg en bij iBMG-Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
Boekbespreking

Zoeken naar een evenwichtig veiligheidsbeleid: risicomanagement, onzekerheid en crises

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden risk management, uncertainty, crises, safety
Auteurs Dr. Sandra Larissa Resodihardjo
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    How far should governments go to keep their citizens safe? Not an easy question to answer, but the three books reviewed in this essay provide food for thought on this matter. Power (2004) describes how risk management could become such a dominant feature in today’s society while warning for the danger of risk management being misused to save one’s reputation if things do go wrong. Boutellier (2013) paints a picture of Dutch societal uncertainty and explains how crime became a part of Dutch risk society. According to Boutellier, Dutch government tries to deal with this complexity in an improvising manner. Van Duin, Wijkhuijs, and Jong (2013) present an edited volume of crises and incidents which happened in 2012. Lessons are drawn and warnings given, including the warning that it is impossible to prepare for all possible incidents, let alone plan everything ahead and distil those plans in rules and regulations.


Dr. Sandra Larissa Resodihardjo
Dr. S.L. Resodihardjo is universitair docent bestuurskunde aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Terugtrekken of opzij stappen?

Beleidsadviezen over minder overheid en meer samenleving

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden retreating government, state, society, scientific councils, policy advice
Auteurs Dr. Harmen Binnema
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Various advisory councils for the government advocate a retreat of government. This can take the form of less government, i.e. abandoning certain public tasks, or a more modest government. This retreat of government is said to be necessary to give space to initiatives from society – which are now hampered by policy makers – and because of the failure of both the state and the market to perform public tasks adequately. Yet, it remains to be seen how realistic this call for the retreat of government is. In addition, it is unclear whether this process is already taking place (descriptive) or whether it concerns a desired situation to be achieved in the future (prescriptive). What does a facilitating government actually look like? The advisory rapports discussed in this paper share a thorough line of argumentation analysis which is plausible at first sight. At the same time, they miss out in the practical application for policy makers, they seem to be overly optimistic in their assessment of the role of citizens. Moreover, all advisory councils shy away from making fundamental choices about which tasks governments should discontinue and hand over to societal initiatives.


Dr. Harmen Binnema
Dr. H.A. Binnema is universitair docent/programmacoördinator bestuur en beleid aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Veelvormige veelfrontenoorlog

Empirische analyse van terugtocht, optocht, stilstand of hervorming van de Nederlandse staat

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden administrative history, central government, retreat of the state, decentralization, financial indicators
Auteurs Dr. Thomas Schillemans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Many authors have claimed that the role of the Dutch government, and other governments, is changing. The overarching consensus is that states are now retreating after decades of expansion. This paper investigates, on the basis of a secondary analysis of existing data, whether, where and how the Dutch state can be said to be retreating. This leads to mixed findings: four different analyses of the ‘state of the state’. The first tale, focusing on macro financial indicators, suggests ‘stability’. The second tale, focusing on net changes in expenses, depicts further expansion, particularly in the domain of health care. The third tale, focusing on policy intentions, sees a retreat indeed. And the fourth tale would suggest that it is merely about a reorganization of the state itself.


Dr. Thomas Schillemans
Dr. T. Schillemans is universitair docent bestuurskunde aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

    The Dutch government aims at a participatory society, for example by striving for a larger amount of self-responsibility in providing social care, since the introduction of the Societal Support Law (in Dutch called ‘Wet maatschappelijke ondersteuning’ or in short Wmo). Does public opinion in the Netherlands reflect this change of mentality? This article investigates (a) how far public opinion on responsibility for social care for the elderly has changed between 2003 and 2010, (b) which factors explain why some people put most responsibility on the government and others on the family and (c) which factors explain intra-individual changes of attitude. This research has used survey data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study (2003, 2006/07, 2010). A shift in public opinion appears to have taken place in line with government policy: less responsibility for the government and more for the family. However, a majority of the Dutch population still puts most responsibility on the government. Attitudes appear to be connected with normative motives rather than with utilitarian motives. Intra-individual changes in attitudes in the direction of less government responsibility are mainly explained by normative factors and not by factors related to self-interest.


Mevr. dr. Ellen Verbakel
Mevr. dr. C.M.C. Verbakel is universitair docent bij de opleiding Sociologie van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

    While the belief in a socially engineered society has been renounced to a large extent, in cities actors continue to struggle with the question how their plans can be steered on goal achievement. This article addresses a steering philosophy that is based on an emergent adaptive urban development process. This means that urban strategies adapt during the process by connecting to initiatives from the market and civil society. The central question of this article is how specific projects are ‘made’ in accordance with the intentions of the actors involved and how these projects are connected to larger policy stories for the city. In this article perspectives are explored that have replaced the old thinking in terms of ‘social engineering’. On the basis of two case studies in the Netherlands (Brainport Eindhoven and Mainport Rotterdam) an emergent adaptive strategy is explored as a perspective for action. This perspective is not only about ‘social engineering’, but also about ‘social connecting’. An emergent adaptive strategy is not designed on the drawing table, but it emerges during the practice of project development out of an attitude that is conscious of the environment, connective and reflective.


Dr. Wouter Jan Verheul
Dr. Wouter Jan Verheul is verbonden aan de Technische Universiteit Delft, Faculty of Architecture & Built Environment, sectie Urban Development Management.

Dr. ir. Tom Daamen
Dr. ir. Tom Daamen is verbonden aan de Technische Universiteit Delft, Faculty of Architecture & Built Environment, sectie Urban Development Management.

    Na het aantreden van Rutte II heeft de bestuurlijke opschaling van gemeenten en provincies twintig maanden lang op de agenda gestaan. Zoals bekend hebben de plannen van het kabinet de eindstreep niet gehaald. Vooral bij de meest betrokken provincies bestond er kritiek op het ontbreken van een visie en onderbouwing. In dit artikel wordt onderzocht in hoeverre een netwerkanalyse van het verplaatsingsgedrag daarin zou kunnen voorzien. Voor een volgende ronde, die zich mogelijk al snel weer aandient. De uitkomsten van verschillende algoritmes voor netwerkanalyse worden vergeleken. Het begrip daily urban system, gekoppeld aan welvaartstheoretische inzichten (Tordoir), dient als inhoudelijke leidraad. Netwerkanalyse blijkt zakelijke argumenten op te leveren die behulpzaam kunnen zijn bij het trekken van (nieuwe) bestuurlijke grenzen, ook al zullen deze om verschillende redenen nooit alleenzaligmakend zijn.


Diederik Brouwer
Correspondentie: Diederik Brouwer, dbrouwer@onderzoekwerkt.nl.

    De laatste jaren is de beleidsmatige en wetenschappelijke aandacht voor ex ante onderzoek toegenomen. De vraag is of dit ook is terug te zien in het aantal studies naar concrete plannen, en in het gebruik van de uitkomsten van ex ante studies in de beleidsontwikkeling. Om dit na te gaan verrichtten we een metastudie van ex ante onderzoeken over beleid op rijksniveau, verschenen in de periode 2005 tot en met 2011. In deze bijdrage beschrijven we eerst hoe vaak en met welk doel ex ante onderzoek wordt verricht en om wat voor typen studies het gaat. Daarna nemen we het gebruik in het beleidsontwikkelings- en besluitvormingsproces onder de loep door in te zoomen op vijf ex ante onderzoeken. Een eerste conclusie is dat er inmiddels een aanzienlijk aantal ex ante studies is verschenen; een tweede dat in alle vijf casus het onderzoek belangrijke actoren in het beleidsproces bereikt heeft, maar dat de uitkomsten niet altijd doorklinken in het uiteindelijke beleid.


Carolien Klein Haarhuis
Carolien Klein Haarhuis is onderzoeker bij de afdeling Rechtsbestel, Wetgeving en Internationale en vreemdelingenaangelegenheden (RWI) van het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

Monika Smit
Monika Smit is afdelingshoofd bij de afdeling Rechtsbestel, Wetgeving en Internationale en vreemdelingenaangelegenheden (RWI) van het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

Shelena Keulemans
Shelena Keulemans is als promovenda verbonden aan de vakgroep Bestuurskunde van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

    In the Netherlands at January 1st 2015 municipalities will most likely receive administrative and financial responsibility for work, youth and societal support. Anticipating this change almost all large municipalities have introduced social neighbourhood teams, inspired by the successful model of the ‘Achter-de-Voordeur-aanpak’ (Dutch for ‘Behind the Front Door-approach’). In this article the authors reflect on this development, because of criticisms about the vagueness surrounding the social teams and with its further development in mind. In a historical analysis they look at this phenomenon in relation to its political and policy context. The central research question is the change in vision that has occurred since the first experiments with neighbourhood social teams and the implications for their design. The authors show how the focus in the policy discourse has gradually moved to arguments concerning the efficiency of the societal support, more self-responsibility and self-direction and more participation in the society and the labour process. This makes a different model for neighbourhood teams desirable, especially in terms of (1) the target group of the approach, (2) the depth of the support and (3) the role of the generalist and the room for manoeuvre or the powers this generalist receives. A lot of municipalities choose to discover gradually what works. Next to the time pressure this might explain the vagueness of the plans for the design and organization of neighbourhood teams.


Mirjan Oude Vrielink
Mevr. dr. M.J. Oude Vrielink is senior onderzoeker aan de Universiteit Twente.

Lydia Sterrenberg
Mevr. dr. ir. L. Sterrenberg was senior projectleider bij Platform 31, werkt nu als wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en als coördinator van het ‘Pioneers into Practice’ mentoring-programma, onderdeel van het Europese Climate-KIC-programmma.

Helga Koper
Mevr. H. Koper is programmamanager Sociaal Domein bij Platform 31.

    Nowadays municipalities in the Netherlands work together more intensively with other municipalities in the region. Also cooperation with companies, institutions and societal organizations is more often looked for at the regional level. In practice this brings along many problems and difficulties. For several reasons it appears not to be easy to combine the implementation strengths of municipalities and societal partners. This article presents a new approach (based on the theory of ‘new regionalism’) to regional implementation strength. This approach is not only about designing regional administrations, but is mainly about the factors that induce administrations as well as companies and institutions to commit themselves jointly for the region. To increase the regional implementation strength more is needed than the formation of a regional administrative structure in which municipalities do not cooperate in a non-committal manner. To induce municipalities and societal partners to commit themselves jointly to handling new tasks or new challenges it is also necessary to have a clear strategic vision on these issues that binds parties and makes them enthusiastic and that regional cooperation is rooted in a societal breeding ground. It also asks for an administrative structure that does justice to the contribution every municipality and societal partner makes to the realization of the strategy and for a democratic involvement of municipal councils and sector-based interest groups.


Marcel Boogers
Prof. dr. M.J.G.J.A. Boogers is hoogleraar Innovatie en Regionaal Bestuur bij de vakgroep Bestuurskunde van de faculteit Management en Bestuur aan de Universiteit Twente en senior adviseur Openbaar Bestuur bij BMC.
Artikel

De zoektocht naar goed bestuur

Een analyse van botsende waarden in de publieke sector

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 2 2014
Auteurs Remco Smulders, Gjalt de Graaf en Leo Huberts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the public as well as the semi-public sector numerous codes of good governance have been written. Although theses codes clearly lay down which public values must be the foundation of our administration, our newspapers often show examples of bad governance. It is striking that these codes mostly just picture an ideal, but do not give insight in tough considerations. In this article the authors show that different public values mentioned in codes are all worth pursuing as such, but that they in practice collide with each other. The manner in which administrators, managers and executives cope with such dilemmas, determines public opinion on good governance. Two cases have been researched: a municipality and a hospital. Through a Q-research six value patterns are demonstrated to exist in these cases. In addition (through interviews) the authors have discovered which values exactly collide in the cases, and which strategies are used to cope with collisions of values.


Remco Smulders
R.G. Smulders MSc deed bij de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam onderzoek naar publieke waarden in opdracht van het Ministerie van Binnenlandse zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties en is nu als junior onderzoeker/adviseur verbonden aan Partners +Pröpper.

Gjalt de Graaf
Dr. G. de Graaf is universiteit hoofddocent Bestuurskunde aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam en redacteur van Bestuurswetenschappen.

Leo Huberts
Prof. dr. L.W.J.C. Huberts is hoogleraar Bestuurskunde aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

What the frack?

Politiserende deliberatie in de besluitvorming over schaliegas

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden wicked problems, shale gas, hydraulic fracturing, deliberation
Auteurs Tamara Metze
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Within the past two years, hydraulic fracturing for shale gas became a highly contested technology in the Netherlands. Possible negative environmental impacts are at strained terms with possible economic, energy and geo-political benefits. In addition, there are many scientific uncertainties about, for example water contamination, methane emissions, the amounts of gas to extract and the risk of earth quakes. Societal conflict and scientific uncertainties make fracking for shale gas a wicked problem for decision makers. This article demonstrates that the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs has implemented several instruments for deliberation, such as a consultation round with stakeholders and a sound board for an independent research. These failed to lead to the desired support for fracking. In this contribution, I demonstrate that these instruments led to reason giving but not to structuring of the problem. They were used by governmental actors and protest groups as a political platform that was fuel for the political conflict.


Tamara Metze
Dr. T. Metze is verbonden aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Wie is hier onredelijk!?

Een analyse van de maatschappelijke dynamiek rondom de HPV-vaccinatiecampagne

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden scientific advice, vaccination, well-ordered science
Auteurs Albert Meijer, Paulus Lips en Huub Dijstelbloem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents an analysis of the introduction of the HPV vaccine into the National Vaccination Program in the Netherlands. This introduction resulted in public debate and resistance and eventually a low turn-out (45% while 85% was expected). The question is what we can learn from this specific case about trust of citizens in scientific advice and political decision-making around medical issues. Our qualitative empirical research highlights that trust in scientific advice was undermined by a combination of criticism from peers, a critical approach in the mass media and a strong campaign through social media. Our analysis shows that these factors can be understood as partly resulting from a transition to a network society. We conclude that the network society demands a more open approach of scientific advice both in terms of who they discuss issues with and what kinds of arguments are permitted in the debate.


Albert Meijer
Dr. A.J. Meijer is universitair hoofddocent van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Paulus Lips
Drs. P. Lips is huisarts.

Huub Dijstelbloem
Prof. dr. H.O. Dijstelbloem is senior scientific staff member WRR.
Artikel

Politiek, participatie en experts in de besluitvorming over super wicked problems

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden wicked problems, scientific knowledge, social engineering, deliberative democracy
Auteurs Tamara Metze en Esther Turnhout
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This special issue focusses on deliberative elements in deciding over wicked problems. We present four case studies in which some form of deliberation was organized: the placement of mobile phone masts, hydraulic fracturing for shale gas, the failed HPV vaccination campaign and climate dialogues organized to enhance deliberative knowledge production over climate change. The case studies demonstrate how each of the deliberative processes has become politicized and that deliberative governance runs the risk of turning into a technocratic policy approach.


Tamara Metze
Dr. T.A.P. Metze is verbonden aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.

Esther Turnhout
Dr. E. Turnhout is verbonden aan de Universiteit van Wageningen.
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