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Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij x Jaar 2015 x
Artikel

Professioneel vermogen

Proactieve ‘coping’ door publieke professionals

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden Public professionals, Teachers, performance pressures, proactive coping, professional capability
Auteurs Prof. dr. Mirko Noordegraaf, Nina van Loon MSc, Madelon Heerema MSc e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Professional services such as educational services, are increasingly managed and optimized in order to improve performances. Performances of students, teachers and school (boards) are measured and evaluated. Increasingly, rules and systems focus on outputs and control. Consequently, the ‘freedom’ of professionals such as teachers is reduced, or is perceived and felt to be reduced. There have been growing debates on the problematic effects of performance pressures. Often, public professionals are seen as ‘defenseless victims’ of systems and pressures – they are ‘professionals under pressure’. In this paper, we introduce a more positive way of understanding professionals and professional action in changing contexts. We see professionals such as teachers as ‘active agents’ who can develop and regain control over their own situation. Professionals can deliver quality, in spite of bureaucratic burdens and managerial intrusions. We call this ability professional capability: ‘the ability to proactively deal with work-related expectations, tasks and burdens in dynamic stakeholder environments’. This paper combines research on public administration, organizational sociology and occupational psychology, to generate a more productive understanding of proactive coping of professionals in public domains. We define and operationalize professional capacity, we explore sources and effects, and we develop hypotheses for further research.


Prof. dr. Mirko Noordegraaf
Prof. dr. Mirko Noordegraaf is als hoogleraar publiek management verbonden aan het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Nina van Loon MSc
Nina van Loon MSc was als promovenda verbonden aan het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht en is thans werkzaam bij Aarhus University, Denemarken.

Madelon Heerema MSc
Madelon Heerema MSc is als researcher verbonden aan het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Marit Weggemans MSc
Marit Weggemans MSc was als student-assistent verbonden aan het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

De democratische vertegenwoordiging van cliënten en patiënten bij de decentralisaties

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden representative claim, democratic decision making, Decentralization, social and health policies, Municipalities
Auteurs Dr. Hester Van de Bovenkamp en Dr. Hans Vollaard
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Citizen participation is firmly on the agenda of many Western policy makers. Numerous opportunities for individuals to participate in public decision-making have been created. However, few citizens use these opportunities. Those who do are often the highly educated, white, middle and upper classes that also tend to dominate other democratic spaces. Opportunities to become active can increase inequalities in terms of whose voices are heard in public decision-making. This fundamentally challenges the central democratic value of equality. Nevertheless, others can represent the interests of those who remain silent. Using the concept of representative claim this paper explores a variety of forms of representation (electoral, formal non-electoral and informal self-appointed) in the domain of social policy which is currently decentralized in the Netherlands. We conclude that especially informal self-appointed representatives such as medical professionals, churches and patient organizations can potentially play an important role in representing groups who often remain unheard in the public debate. They can therefore play an important role in ensuring the democratic quality of the decentralization process.


Dr. Hester Van de Bovenkamp
Dr. Hester van de Bovenkamp is universitair docent bij het Instituut Beleid en Management Gezondheidszorg van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Dr. Hans Vollaard
Dr. Hans Vollaard is universitair docent Nederlandse en Europese politiek bij het Instituut Politieke Wetenschap van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Advies aan de regering: staatscommissies in Nederland tussen 1814 en 1970

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden state committees, governmental advisory boards, administrative history, nightwatchman state, welfare state
Auteurs Dr. Toon Kerkhoff en Joshua Martina MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Continuing debate concerning the functioning of advisory boards to the Dutch central government seems hindered by lacking historical insight and insufficient empirical data. Especially the period until 1970 and so-called state committees (an important type of advisory board) have been neglected. This article therefore presents findings from historical research into Dutch state committees between 1814 and 1970. We provide a hitherto lacking overview of their origin, numbers, composition, functioning and topics. We also provide a first quantitative analysis to investigate the question what state committee activity tells us about continuity and change of the task perception of subsequent Dutch governments in this period. We argue that the so-called ‘night watchman state’ of the long 19th century (in which government did as least as possible) does become apparent from the number of state committees over time but that it seems never to have existed when we look at the topics they dealt with. Furthermore, the Dutch welfare state (said to have existed from the 1930s onwards) shows much less state committee activity then one would expect. We conclude with urgent questions for future research into advice and advisory boards in The Netherlands and introduce a digital database to facilitate such work.


Dr. Toon Kerkhoff
Dr. Toon Kerkhoff is universitair docent bestuurskunde aan het Instituut Bestuurskunde van de Universiteit Leiden.

Joshua Martina MSc
Joshua Martina MSc rondde in december 2014 zijn master Management van de publieke sector van de opleiding bestuurskunde aan de Universiteit Leiden af. Hij is momenteel werkzaam als retentie-expert bij een groot telecombedrijf.

    Reflection & Debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Prof. dr. Sandra van Thiel
Prof. dr. Sandra van Thiel is hoogleraar bestuurskunde aan de Radboud Universiteit te Nijmegen.
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