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Artikel

Access_open Een ontspannen perspectief op residentiële segregatie

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden residential segregation, Framing, welfare regimes, structural factors, individual preferences
Auteurs Prof. dr. Sako Musterd
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands and surrounding countries, there is reason to ask the question whether levels of segregation according to country of origin (mainly non-western) and in terms of socioeconomic position (mainly social arrears) are sufficiently high to legitimate anti-segregation policy. When will segregation become problematic? If segregation is regarded a problem, what, then, would be the best remedy? Spatial intervention? Or broader societal intervention? In this article developments and mechanisms will be discussed that lead to segregation; also political views on segregation and the framing of segregation will be scrutinized. A confrontation of knowledge, insights, visions, and framings offers material for new perspectives on residential segregation and is reason to argue for a more relaxed attitude towards segregation. We should acknowledge that the process of matching households to residential environments results in some – generally unproblematic – segregation. Only if segregation causes problems that pass certain intensity and/or a certain spatial range, non-spatial or spatial interventions are becoming a necessity. Levels of segregation are relatively moderate still. We ought to be more aware of the fact that strong negative framing actually stimulates segregation, social exclusion, division, discrimination, marginalisation, stigmatisation, fear, estrangement, and the development of first- and second-rate citizens.


Prof. dr. Sako Musterd
Prof. dr. Sako Musterd is hoogleraar stadsgeografie aan het Centre for Urban Studies, Universiteit van Amsterdam. www.uva.nl/profiel/s.musterd

    The man-woman ratio in municipality councils in the Netherlands varies tremendously. Why does local politics attract women in some municipalities but not in other? The author attempts to answer this question by conducting interviews with municipality clerks and female council members of municipalities where the man-women ratio is even and municipalities where men are in the overwhelming majority. Additionally, the author conducts seven in depth interviews with former local and regional politicians about their motives to quit. Based on the interviews the author concludes that the political culture varies locally, making feel women more or less welcome. Sexist comments were mentioned several times, more often coming from respondents who worked in councils where men were in the majority. Finally, the balance between work, local politics and family life was often mentioned as a major hurdle for young parents (both men and women) for becoming or staying politically active. The author suggests to explore ways to change the political culture, to combat sexism and to find ways to reduce the workload in order to create more equal access to the local political arena.


Dr. Maria Kranendonk
Dr. Maria Kranendonk is junior expert demografische en economische data-analyse bij de provincie Noord-Holland. Toen ze deze bijdrage schreef was zij postdoctorale onderzoeker aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Sociale cohesie in gentrificerende arbeiderswijken van Amsterdam-Noord

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Gentrification, Bridging capital, Bonding capital, Amsterdam North, Public familiarity
Auteurs Dr. Linda van de Kamp en Dr. Saskia Welschen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    We analyze how ‘original’ residents in different gentrifying working class areas in Amsterdam North experience and evaluate the changes in their neighborhood in terms of social cohesion – in other words, whether they feel at home in their changing neighborhood and whether they feel connected to other residents. Policy interventions often focus on establishing connections between residents with different socioeconomic or cultural backgrounds, in order to stimulate mutual understanding. An underlying policy aim is to uplift vulnerable original residents through contact with higher income groups. Based on our empirical data, we critically assess the concept of ‘bridging capital’ (Putnam, 2000) that underpins several of the social activities that are organized in areas such as the ones in our study. Subsequently, we discuss the importance of ‘bonding capital’ or the sense of interconnectedness and strong ties amongst original residents. Our empirical data – based on both interviews and participatory observation – suggest that activities within the ‘own’ community contribute importantly to feelings of belonging in the neighborhood. In the final section of the article, we discuss how different types of local meeting places offer opportunities for ‘lighter’ forms of interactions without aiming directly at strong connections between differently positioned neighborhood residents.


Dr. Linda van de Kamp
Dr. Linda van de Kamp is werkzaam aan de afdeling Sociologie van de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Dr. Saskia Welschen
Dr. Saskia Welschen is senior onderzoeker aan de Hogeschool van Amsterdam en zelfstandig onderzoeker.
Artikel

Access_open Sociaal werk in stadswijken waar problemen zich opstapelen

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Residualisering, Stedelijk sociaal werk, Concentratie van sociale problematiek, Link work, Geuzenveld
Auteurs Dr. Saskia Welschen en Dr. Lex Veldboer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The impact of residualisation on social work has so far hardly been explored. Based on existing literature and recently started empirical research in Amsterdam we analyze several consequences. Residualisation refers to the process whereby urban social housing is strictly allocated to the lowest income groups. What does this concentration of disadvantaged households mean for the role of social workers? Firstly, for community workers residualisation mostly implies a renewed role as instigators of residents’ participation in urban renewal trajectories for social mix. Furthermore community activities are increasingly used to offer safe havens for new and old groups of residents and also to prevent expensive treatments for several residential groups. For social workers focusing on individual support or casework residualisation results in an increasingly complex caseload. Residualisation does not imply extra formation for social work, but rather extra attention for the effortful coproduction of welfare between formal and informal actors. Within this playing field, we distinguish link work as vital for both formal and informal social work. Link work is about establishing vertical and horizontal connections between different worlds, across sectoral, professional or trust gaps. We expect that in areas of residualisation successful urban social work is dependent on strong linking skills.


Dr. Saskia Welschen
Dr. Saskia Welschen is senior onderzoeker aan de Hogeschool van Amsterdam en zelfstandig onderzoeker.

Dr. Lex Veldboer
Dr. Lex Veldboer is lector aan de Hogeschool van Amsterdam.

Jurre van den Berg MSc
Jurre van den Berg is socioloog en was tot 1 januari 2013 verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Jurre.van.den.Berg@gmail.com.
Artikel

Groengasprojecten: energietransitie in ruraal Nederland?

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden green gas, Biogas, renewable energy, stakeholder analysis, climate policy
Auteurs Drs. Maurits Sanders en Dr. Thomas Hoppe
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    ‘Green gas’ is a sustainable alternative to natural gas. It is produced by converting biomass into biogas, which can consequently be upgraded to natural gas standards. Expectations about green gas are high. According to the long term vision of Netbeheer Nederland, the representative association of gas grid operators, green gas will entail 50 percent of the domestic gas mixture by 2050. In line with this vision national government has adopted a green gas innovation support program. Production of green gas takes place in rural areas with abundant supply of organic production resources, especially manure. It is in demonstration projects that green gas niche development is to be proven. In this paper the central question is how green gas demonstration projects manifest at the local level. By conducting a stakeholder analysis, we take a ‘bottom-up’ research approach, which helps us to identify organizational and institutional barriers key local stakeholders have in relation to green gas demonstration projects. We judge this necessary to further understanding in green gas niche development. The results of the analysis are used to advice policymakers about design and use of policy instruments which can help to solve these barriers.


Drs. Maurits Sanders
Maurits Sanders is hoofddocent bestuurskunde bij Saxion en promovendus bij de vakgroep Public Administration aan de faculteit Management en Bestuur van de Universiteit Twente, m.p.t.sanders@utwente.nl, www.utwente.nl/mb/pa/staff/sanders/.

Dr. Thomas Hoppe
Dr. Thomas Hoppe is als universitair docent verbonden aan het Twente Centre for Studies in Technology and Sustainable Development van het Institute for Innovation and Governance Studies aan de faculteit Management en Bestuur van de Universiteit Twente, t.hoppe@utwente.nl, www.utwente.nl/mb/cstm/staff/cv/hoppe.doc/.
Artikel

Burgers als trustees

Participatie, informele vertegenwoordiging en representativiteit

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2013
Auteurs Dr. Bas van Stokkom, Dr. Marcel Becker en Teun Eikenaar MA MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The involvement of citizens in discussions about policy arrangements has been growing in the past decades. These forums of decision-making often provoke criticism because of a so-called ‘lack of representativeness’. Often a small group of active citizens takes the lead and decides which problems have to be dealt with. Some active residents primarily focus on improving the neighbourhood, regardless of whether their activities have everyone’s consent. This raises many questions related their representativeness. Do these participants form an adequate cross-section of the population? Are they speaking on behalf of others? Maybe passive citizens feel fine with the opinions of active citizens and agree that a small group of citizens is taking the lead. In this paper these active citizens are viewed as ‘trustees’: informal representatives who take responsibility to look after the neighbourhood’s interests, expecting that passive residents would support their efforts. The paper has two central questions: First, which ideas do active participants have about representation and representativeness? Second, in what respects can active citizens be characterized as ‘trustees’? In the theoretical part we contend that the notion ‘trustee’ may function as a theoretical framework to understand present-day citizen participation. In local policy networks many informal representatives express views and interests that are recognizable for many citizens. They are trusted, as long as their activities can be checked. The second part of the paper focuses on three projects of citizen decision-making within local safety policies (The Dutch cities Amsterdam, Deventer and Rotterdam). Within these projects, participants prioritize what kinds of activities and interventions police officers and other frontline workers should carry out. A main finding is that many active citizens function as contact persons who are continuously available for other residents. They do not wish to speak ‘on behalf’ of others but they are bestowed – often reluctantly – with the role of representative, as they demonstratively express neighborhood interests (‘clean, intact and safe’). Their reputation seems to be decisive.


Dr. Bas van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is medewerker bestuurswetenschappen aan de faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, b.a.m.van.stokkom@vu.nl.

Dr. Marcel Becker
Dr. Marcel Becker is universitair docent ethiek aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, M.Becker@ftr.ru.nl.

Teun Eikenaar MA MSc
Teun Eikenaar MA MSc is onderzoeker aan het criminologisch instituut van de faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, t.eikenaar@jur.ru.nl.
Artikel

Verantwoordelijke vrijheid: responsabilisering van burgers op voorwaarden van de staat

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden governance, responsibilisation, political discourse, politics, public administration
Auteurs Rik Peeters en Gerard Drosterij
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Behind many notions of ‘governance’, there lies the image of a ‘modest’ or ‘retreating’ state. The assumption is that local and national authorities can only perform effectively if in cooperation with other public and private actors. Generally, it is said, governments increasingly lack the legitimacy for top-down interventions and hence the need of including participative citizen involvement in policy making and implementation. In recent years this democratic image has been disputed in scientific debates because of its lack of attention for new forms of interventionism by the state in societal processes, e.g. crime, youth care, immigration and integration. In this article, we aim to contribute to this other understanding of modern governance by analysing Dutch political discourse between 2001 and 2010 on (implicit) notions of the role and responsibility of the state. We show how the idea of ‘responsibilisation’ of citizens is turned into an argument for more instead of less state involvement in societal processes and citizens’ lives. By emphasizing ‘shared responsibilities’ between government and society, a tricky picture of parity is sketched of this relation. Dutch government presents itself as ‘an ally’ of citizens in fighting pressing social problems, but in the meantime an ideal of ‘responsible behaviour’ is constructed, namely, citizen behaviour in concordance with government’s policy ambitions. Within this political discourse, the socio-liberal idea of ‘responsibility’ turns into ‘responsibilisation on government’s terms’ and ‘irresponsible’ behaviour becomes a legitimate focal point for deep state interventions through techniques of governance.


Rik Peeters
Rik Peeters is onderzoeker en promovendus bij de Nederlandse School voor Openbaar Bestuur. Correspondentiegegevens: drs. R. Peeters, Nederlandse School voor Openbaar Bestuur, Lange Voorhout 17, 2514 EB Den Haag, peeters@nsob.nl.

Gerard Drosterij
Gerard Drosterij is onderzoeker bij de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur.
Artikel

Schildpadgedrag in multi-etnische wijken?

De effecten van etnische diversiteit in stad en buurt op dimensies van sociale cohesie

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden ethnic diversity, social cohesion, neighbourhoods, ethnic minorities
Auteurs Mérove Gijsberts, Tom van der Meer en Jaco Dagevos
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Putnam (2007) claims that in ethnically diverse neighbourhoods, residents of all ethnic groups tend to ‘hunker down’. Solidarity and trust are lower, mutual help and cooperation rarer, friends fewer. Various studies in the United States found a clear correlation between diversity and cohesion, and also for many different dimensions of social cohesion. Whether this finding also holds in other (European) settings is the subject of hot and unresolved debate. Specifically, this article addresses the question whether living in an ethnically diverse setting has negative consequences for social cohesion in the Netherlands as well. To further the debate, this article pulls apart various contexts and various dimensions of social cohesion. This article examines the relationship between ethnic diversity (in socio-graphically defined neighbourhoods) and four dimensions of social cohesion (trust, informal help, voluntary work and neighbourhood contacts) for the 50 largest cities in the Netherlands. We conclude that the Putnam hypothesis holds only to a limited extent in the Dutch context. The only aspect on which ethnic diversity has a negative effect is the degree of contact in the neighbourhood.


Mérove Gijsberts
Mérove Gijsberts is verbonden aan het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau (SCP). Correspondentiegegevens: dr. M. Gijsberts, Postbus 16164, 2500 BD Den Haag, m.gijsberts@scp.nl.

Tom van der Meer
Tom van der Meer is verbonden aan het Institute for Immigration and Ethnic Studies (IMES) van de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Jaco Dagevos
Jaco Dagevos is verbonden aan het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau (SCP).
Artikel

Decentralisatie: maatwerk of uniformiteit?

Het Wmo-beleid van Nederlandse gemeenten

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden decentralization, local government, social care
Auteurs Judith van der Veer MSc., Jelmer Schalk MSc. en Dr. Rob Gilsing
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A main motive for policy decentralization is the belief that municipalities are better able to customize public policy to local circumstances, and to realize made-to-measure service provision. In this respect, the introduction of the Social Support Act (Wmo) is an interesting example. With the lack of ‘vertical’ accountability obligations to the national government, the Wmo is governmentally innovative. Whether the decentralization results in customized forms of social support is a fascinating one because a detailed reading of the Wmo and its implementation displays possible incentives as well as barriers to made-to-measure service provision. The empirical exploration in this article uses data from the 2007-2009 evaluation of the Wmo conducted by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research (SCP). The evaluation shows that municipalities involve diverse stakeholders in formulating Wmo policy, and that their involvement seems to lead to customized service provision. At the same time, municipalities follow nationwide models, and information provided by the central government seems to have a major impact on local social care policy. The article concludes with an outlook on future directions in local debates on social care and the recommendation to give time for major decentralization trajectories such as the Wmo.


Judith van der Veer MSc.
Judith van der Veer is promovendus en was als medewerker verbonden aan het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau tijdens de eerste Wmo-evaluatie. Correspondentiegegevens: J.C.V. van der Veer, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen/Bestuurswetenschappen, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam, j.c.v.vander.veer@vu.nl.

Jelmer Schalk MSc.
Jelmer Schalk is promovendus en was als medewerker verbonden aan het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau tijdens de eerste Wmo-evaluatie. Correspondentiegegevens: J. Schalk, Universiteit van Utrecht, Sociologie/ICS, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht, j.schalk@uu.nl.

Dr. Rob Gilsing
Rob Gilsing is Hoofd Onderzoeksgroep Jeugd, opvoeding en onderwijs en was als projectleider verbonden aan het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau tijdens de eerste Wmo-evaluatie. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. R. Gilsing, Verwey-Jonker Instituut, Kromme Nieuwegracht 6, 3512 HG Utrecht, rgilsing@verwey-jonker.nl.

    In public debate on immigrants' political ties with their country of origin, two assumptions prevail. The first assumption is that many immigrants engage in transnational political activities. The second is that forms of transnational citizenship are an impediment for the development of local citizenship. However, so far little research has been done on the importance of, and the relationship between, local and transnational citizenship. In this article, we focus on local and transnational forms of active citizenship, here understood as the total of political practices and processes of identification. Our study, conducted among middle-class immigrants in Rotterdam, indicates that the importance of active transnational citizenship should not be overstated. Among these middle-class immigrants, political practices are primarily focused on the local level; political practices directed to the home country appear to be quite rare. If we look at processes of identification, we see that a majority of the middle-class immigrants have a strong urban identity. Many of them combine this local identification with feelings of belonging with people in their home country. These local and transnational identifications seem to reinforce, rather than impede, each other.


Marianne van Bochove
Marianne van Bochove is als promovendus verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Correspondentiegegevens: M.E. van Bochove, MSc Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen Capaciteitsgroep Sociologie Postbus 1738 3000 DR Rotterdam vanbochove@fsw.eur.nl

Katja Rusinovic
Katja Rusinovic werkt aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam als postdoc onderzoeker.

Godfried Engbersen
Godfried Engbersen is als als hoogleraar algemene sociologie verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Haagse pionnen op het Brusselse schaakbord?

Over de aansturing en beleidsnetwerken van Nederlandse gedetacheerden bij de Europese Commissie

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2008
Auteurs Caspar van den Berg en Semin Suvarierol
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the question of bureaucratic autonomy of Europeanised civil servants is addressed. As a test bed we examine the political and administrative steering and control of Dutch national civil servants who are seconded to the European Commission (SNEs). The empirical analysis benefits from survey data (N = 90) and interview data (N = 28), acquired from both present and former Dutch SNEs. Based on this material we argue that despite the formal impossibility of steering and control from the member state, in practice SNEs do fulfill a bridging function between the two levels of governance. This may happen by means of frontloading (either consciously, after instructions from the national administration; or unconsciously, as a result of their national-cultural perspective) and signaling (transmitting strategic information and positions from one level of governance to the other). Although the SNEs' contacts within the Commission are generally preserved after the expiration of the secondment, the intensity of the contacts with other types of actors within the policy network mostly decrease rapidly.


Caspar van den Berg
Caspar van den Berg is als docent en onderzoeker verbonden aan het Departement Bestuurskunde van de Universiteit Leiden. Zijn internationaal-vergelijkende promotie-onderzoek gaat over de implicaties van EU-lidmaatschap voor de ambtenarenapparaten en politiek-ambtelijke verhoudingen in de lidstaten. Recente publicaties van zijn hand gaan over multi-level governance, Europeanisering en bureaucratie. Correspondentiegegevens: Departement Bestuurskunde Universiteit Leiden Postbus 9555 2300 RB Leiden cberg@fsw.leidenuniv.nl

Semin Suvarierol
Semin Suvarierol werkte ten tijde van het schrijven van dit artikel als junior universitair docent aan de Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap. In december 2007 is zij gepromoveerd op een proefschrift over het effect van nationaliteit op het netwerkgedrag van Europese Commissie ambtenaren. Haar recente en toekomstige publicaties richten zich op de functionering van de Europese Commissie en het gedrag van zijn permanente en tijdelijke ambtenaren. Momenteel werkt zij als adviseur bij Andersson Elffers Felix.

Bob de Graaff
Bob de Graaff is hoogleraar terrorisme en contraterrorisme aan de Campus Den Haag van de Universiteit Leiden; tevens is hij Socrates-hoogleraar voor politieke en culturele reconstructie aan de Universiteit Utrecht. Correspondentiegegevens: Prof. dr. B.G.J. de Graaff Universiteit Leiden Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen Instituut Bestuurskunde Wassenaarseweg 52 2333 AK Leiden bgraaff@fsw.leidenuniv.nl

Talja Blokland
Talja Blokland is universitair docent sociologie aan de afdeling Sociologie en Culturele Antropologie van de Universiteit van Amsterdam en buitengewoon hoogleraar Samenlevingsopbouw aan de afdeling Sociologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Adres Talja Blokland: ASSR, Kloveniersburgwal 48, 1012 CX Amsterdam, e-mail: t.v.blokland@uva.nl

Ruth Soenen
Ruth Soenen is Onderzoeker Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek – Vlaanderen aan het departement Sociale en Culturele Antropologie, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, België. Adres Ruth Soenen: Departement Sociale en Culturele antropologie, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Tiensestraat 102, 3000 Leuven, België, e-mail: ruth.soenen@ant.kuleuven.ac.be

    This article discusses the changes in the safety policy in the Netherlands over about the last fifteen years. These changes are analysed as reactions to the problems that the police and other criminal justice agencies face and which result from the shift from a modern to a late modern society. Five main changes are distinguished: in the organisational and managerial arrangements of the police; in the relation between the state (police) and other (both public and private) agencies; the rise of extra-judicial instruments and the growing attention for the position of victims; the increasing use of technological instruments for surveillance and crime prevention; and a harsher and more punitive policy. These changes create new fundamental questions for a future safety policy.


Jan Terpstra
Dr.ir. J.B. Terpstra is werkzaam bij het Instituut voor Maatschappelijke Veiligheidsvraagstukken (ipit) van de Universiteit Twente. Hij verricht de laatste jaren vooral onderzoek rond politie, justitie en veiligheidszorg. Terpstra publiceerde eerder ook over onder meer maatschappelijke achterstand, sociale zekerheid en beleidsuitvoering. Recente publicaties hebben onder andere betrekking op samenwerking in de lokale veiligheidszorg, Justitie in de Buurt en sturing van politie en politiewerk. Adres: Instituut voor Maatschappelijke Veiligheidsvraagstukken (ipit), Universiteit Twente, Postbus 217, 7500 AE Enschede, e-mail: j.b.terpstra@utwente.nl

    This paper investigates the causal relationship between neighbourhood characteristics and the popularity of the political party 'Partij voor de Vrijheid (PVV)' during the municipal elections in The Hague on March 3rd 2010. The party, founded and led by Geert Wilders, also operates on the national level and can be characterized as anti-immigration and anti-establishment. During the municipal elections, it received support in different types of neighbourhoods, such as white working class areas from the early and mid 20th century, postwar housing estates, and brand new suburban neighbourhood on the city's periphery. Our analyses point to several neighbourhood characteristics which prove decisive in explaining PVV support. These characteristics are: the presence of older autochthonous Dutch (55 years and older), the presence of autochthonous families with children, a balanced mix between native Dutch and non-Western immigrant residents, and few high income households. These findings support the theoretical explanation of anxiety and insecurity among lower middle classes in an age of globalisation, crises and state retreat. In addition, they also point to dissatisfaction among older and less-mobile residents of rapidly changing inner-city neighbourhoods, who are become more socially isolated as their local social networks are diminishing. The paper concludes with a reflection on current urban policies which are unable to tackle dissatisfaction.


Wouter van Gent
Wouter van Gent is onderzoeker aan de afdeling Geografie, Planologie en Internationale Ontwikkelingsstudies, Universiteit van Amsterdam. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. W.P.C. van Gent Universiteit van Amsterdam Afdeling Geografie, Planologie en Internationale Ontwikkelingsstudies Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130 1018 VZ Amsterdam w.p.c.vangent@uva.nl

Sako Musterd
Sako Musterd is hoogleraar sociale geografie aan de afdeling Geografie, Planologie en Internationale Ontwikkelingsstudies, Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Artikel

Culturen besturen

Het (onzinnige) verlangen naar het 'maken' van tradities in lokaal bestuur

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2008
Auteurs Mirko Noordegraaf en Jeroen Vermeulen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In local government, traditions and styles of working are under pressure. Local administrators try to find new methods to address urban matters in a business-like manner, to direct networks and to activate stakeholders. In that way, they strive for better performance, and for 'new' politics. In order to succeed, not only new methods are introduced, but cultures are changed as well and new traditions of governance are established. Existing styles of working and regular procedures are seen as outdated and considered to be barriers that have to be eliminated. This 'violence of renewal', as we call it, is based on several assumptions. First, new methods are seen as crucial for modernizing local governance. Second, the effects of new methods depend on the manner in which modernization takes place. Third, effective introductions of new methods do not happen straightforwardly; cultural change is required. In this article we will argue that these assumptions have to be put into perspective and, especially, that the idea of 'making' of cultures in order to effectively implement new methods is illusory. We show, based on research in four municipalities, that interventions in local governance as such are culturally biased, and that local traditions, styles and customs influence how modernization takes place.


Mirko Noordegraaf
Mirko Noordegraaf is als hoogleraar verbonden aan de Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht. Correspondentiegegevens: Prof. dr. M. Noordegraaf Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap Bijlhouwerstraat 6 3511 ZC Utrecht m.noordegraaf@uu.nl

Jeroen Vermeulen
Jeroen Vermeulen is als docent en onderzoeker verbonden aan de Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. J. Vermeulen Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap Bijlhouwerstraat 6 3511 ZC Utrecht j.vermeulen@uu.nl
Artikel

Migranten en de erfenis van de verzuiling in Nederland

Een analyse van de invloed van de verzuiling op het Nederlandse migrantenbeleid (circa 1970-heden)

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2008
Auteurs Marcel Hoogenboom en Peter Scholten
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    It is often claimed, that there is a clear relationship between the Dutch experience with the 'pillarization' of national minorities in the nineteenth and twentieth century, and the 'integration' of ethnic minorities in Dutch society by government policies since the 1970s. This claim has never been substantiated though. In this article, the relationship is examined systematically on the basis of an analytical distinction between the 'organizational principles' and the 'rules of the game' of pillarization. It is concluded that traces of the organizational principles and the rules of the game of pillarization can, indeed, clearly be found in the minority policies of the 1970s and 1980s, but that since the early 1990s a process of 'de-pillarization' of government policies has set in. The article shows that in the early twenty-first century the experience with pillarization can hardly be traced in the minority policies.


Marcel Hoogenboom
Marcel Hoogenboom is universitair docent aan de faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. M. Hoogenboom Universiteit Utrecht Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen Algemene Sociale Wetenschappen Heidelberglaan 2, de Uithof 3584 CS Utrecht m.j.m.hoogenboom@uu.nl

Peter Scholten
Peter Scholten is universitair docent aan de faculteit Management en Bestuur van de Universiteit Twente. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. P. Scholten Universiteit Twente Faculteit Management en Bestuur Vakgroep Maatschappelijke Risico's en Veiligheid Postbus 217 7500 AE Enschede p.w.a.scholten@utwente.nl

    This article poses the question whether the Dutch system of organized interest representation faces a transformation from neo-corporatist mediation to lobbyism similar to Scandinavian countries. Its main claim is that this has so far not been the case, because two essential features of neo-corporatist interest mediation have remained prominent in the Netherlands. First, policies regarding labour conditions continue to be determined within a network of employers' organisations, trade unions, and the government that is essentially closed to outsiders. Second, the system continues to be hierarchical in nature: the government, often below the surface, demonstrates a considerable capacity to steer the participants in its preferred direction. Such a closed network still allows for lobbying the parliament by both network members and outsiders. Lobbying may thus be complementary to closed neo-corporatist networks rather than a substitute. The article offers a research agenda exploring the latter suggestion.


Agnes Akkerman
Agnes Akkerman is als universitair docent verbonden aan de Faculteit der Management Wetenschappen van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Recente publicaties van haar hand zijn 'Identifying Latent Conflict in Collective Bargaining', Rationality and Society 15(1): 15-43; 'A theory of soft policy implementation in multilevel systems with an application to Dutch social partnership', Acta Politica 39(1): 31-58. Adres: Thomas van Aquinostraat 5, Postbus 9108, 6500 HK Nijmegen,
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