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Reflectie & debat

Access_open Seniors, vermijd wreed optimisme en gebruik je positie

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Publish or perish, Cruel optimism, Discourse analysis, Academic hierarchy, Junior scholars
Auteurs Yvonne La Grouw PhD
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Reflection and debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Yvonne La Grouw PhD
Yvonne La Grouw is PhD-student sociologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Dossier

De aanpak van belastingontwijking door de EU: gerichte maatregelen zonder structurele verandering.

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Tax, EU/European Union, Corporate taxation, Tax avoidance, Tax policy
Auteurs Indra Römgens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    According to the outgoing European Commissioner Pierre Moscovici, the European Union (EU) has made more progress in tackling tax avoidance and evasion in the last five years than in the twenty years before that. This article argues that although several targeted measures have indeed been adopted, such as automatic exchange of tax rulings and limitations on interest deductions, this has not led to a structural change in EU corporate tax policies, nor in underlying power relations. The article discusses the politics of a number of recent policy developments related to tax avoidance and evasion by transnational corporations. It argues that the adoption of targeted measures, and the simultaneous stalling of more comprehensive approaches – in terms of tax transparency or a common consolidated corporate tax base – can be explained by recent tax controversies, international politics, and the dynamics within and between EU institutions. Particular attention is paid to the role of the European Parliament that is formally limited, but still houses progressive forces that have continuously pushed for a clampdown on tax avoidance. Finally, the article pleads for more transparent EU decision-making, specifically concerning discussions with and within the Council, in order to improve the democratic legitimacy of EU corporate tax policies and processes.


Indra Römgens
MSc Indra Römgens is Promovendus aan de Roskilde Universiteit in Denemarken en de Radboud Universiteit in Nijmegen.
Dossier

Access_open Uitdijende financiële macht: de monetaire orde van de ECB

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2019
Auteurs Rodrigo Fernandez, Reijer Hendrikse en David Hollanders
Auteursinformatie

Rodrigo Fernandez
Dr. Rodrigo Fernandez is postdoc aan de KU Leuven en senior onderzoeker bij SOMO.

Reijer Hendrikse
Dr. Reijer Hendrikse is Postdoctoraal onderzoeker aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

David Hollanders
Dr. David Hollanders is redactiesecretaris van Beleid en Maatschappij.
Artikel

Slimme handhaving in de sociale zekerheid

Lessen uit een landelijke enquête onder uitkeringsgerechtigden

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Regulatory enforcement, Social security, Compliance, Motivational postures, Procedural justice
Auteurs Dr. Marc Hertogh en Dr. Willem Bantema
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Using survey data from 1,300 welfare recipients in the Netherlands, this paper explores the effects of different enforcement styles in the field of social security law. Although most policy debates focus on punitive and persuasive enforcement, our findings suggest that both styles only play a limited role in explaining regulatory compliance. Our study also shows that the level of compliance among welfare recipients is related to their ‘motivational postures’ (Braithwaite 2003; 2009; 2011). While some of these ‘postures’ are shaped by elements of procedural justice, others are related to the perceived legitimacy of laws or to instrumental motives. Given these findings, we suggest that compliance with social security laws may not only depend on punitive or persuasive enforcement, but also on the degree in which regulatory enforcement is attuned to the individual characteristics of welfare recipients. Finally, these ideas are translated into several practical suggestions for the ‘smart enforcement’ of social security law.


Dr. Marc Hertogh
Prof. dr. M.L.M. Hertogh is Hoogleraar rechtssociologie aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

Dr. Willem Bantema
Dr. W. Bantema is Senior onderzoeker bij de Onderzoeksgroep Cybersafety aan de NHL Stenden Hogeschool Leeuwarden
Artikel

De interactielogica van verzet: een dramaturgische analyse van escalatie tijdens een informatieavond

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Protest, Governance, Participation, Dramaturgy, Interaction logic
Auteurs Sander van Haperen MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Theory about participation has long moved beyond merely informing citizens, arguing for more influential and effective instruments. Nevertheless, ‘inspraak’ remains widely implemented in Dutch practice, with mixed results. This article argues that the deliberative quality of the instrument is closely related to the performance of power. Dramaturgical concepts are employed to analyze resistance against the siting of a homeless facility in an Amsterdam neighborhood. One particular evening sets the stage for escalation, which ultimately frustrates the policy process. The analysis shows how the performance of the meeting invokes specific kinds of resistance. A different performance of ‘informing’ could potentially improve the quality of the public sphere.


Sander van Haperen MSc
Sander van Haperen MSc is promovendus Political sociology aan the Amsterdam Institute for Social Science Research, Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Artikel

Herstel en vertrouwen: professionals, ervaringswerkers en de herstelvisie in de Nederlandse geestelijke gezondheidszorg

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Trust, Recovery, Professionals, Peer specialists, Habermas
Auteurs Marijn Kester MSc en Mr. dr. Olivier Lingbeek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This text wants to draw attention to the question: How do peer specialists build a bridge between the modus operandi of health care professionals and the lifeworld problems of clients receiving mental health care? The Dutch mental healthcare system has recently been host to a range of new developments. Two new trends can be distinguished, going by the name of ‘Recovery-oriented healthcare’ and the introduction of ‘Peer Specialists’. These coincide with changes in budget and organization of treatment. There is an increased awareness of the need for efficiency and cost reduction in the organization of care. The meaning and use of recovery-centered approaches and working with peer specialists remain fairly marginal enterprises due to ever increasing pressure emanating from execution of regulations and administrative procedures, and an accompanying decrease of professional autonomy. In the light of Habermas’ theoretical framework, it is an emphasis on a system-oriented organization of care that cause new approaches to barely be able to find a considerable place in the contemporary practice of mental healthcare in the Netherlands. Trust is identified as an essential foundation on the basis of which future principles of organization should be developed.


Marijn Kester MSc
Marijn Kester MSc is medisch socioloog.

Mr. dr. Olivier Lingbeek
Mr. dr. Olivier Lingbeek heeft een eigen adviesbureau op het gebied van bestuurlijke vraagstukken met betrekking tot planologie en sociologie.
Artikel

De redzaamheidsnotie als dekmantel

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden (zelf)redzaamheid, Participatiesamenleving, Maatschappelijke onzekerheden, Verzorgingsstaat, Morele strijd
Auteurs Sjouke Elsman MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years few political ambitions enjoyed so much political support as the striving to let the welfare state become more of a ‘participation society’. This ‘participation society’ should be a society with self-reliant citizens; before turning to the state for support, citizens should first of all look at their own capacities, and only in the last case ask the state for help. The premise is promising: collective well-being. However, the fundamental assumptions behind this notion do raise questions. This article argues that the notion for citizens to be self-reliant easily builds on questionable assumptions; these assumptions on the one hand raise hope for collective well-being, but on the other hand easily catalyze citizens’ contemporary uncertainties. It indeed is desirable to restate the relation between state and citizens, but the contemporary focus on citizens’ self-reliance should watch for building on unstable foundations to easily.


Sjouke Elsman MSc
Sjouke Elsman MSc is werkzaam aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen & Politicologie.
Artikel

Loslaten in achterdocht

Over het gebrek aan vertrouwen in burgers

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden vertrouwen, loslaten, participatiesamenleving, eigenbelang, bestuurlijk discours
Auteurs Daniël van Kapel MSc
Samenvatting

    Much has been written about the decline of trust in societies: trust in governments and political systems is a popular field of research. Trust of governments in citizens however, is a relatively unknown field. This article presents a research into the trust the Dutch government has in its citizens. By conducting a discourse analysis on policy documents regarding the participation society, the degree of trust was examined. The results show that the government has trust in the capabilities of citizens, but does not trust the intentions of citizens. This results in many control measures, high transaction costs, a fragile base for public cooperation and a disturbed relationship between the government and citizens. In order to gain more trust in citizens the government has to change the way it uses language regarding citizens.


Daniël van Kapel MSc
Artikel

De participatiemythe; een drieluik over dubieuze beleidsassumpties

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden politics of participation, policy assumptions,, societal resilience, Neoliberalism
Auteurs Prof. Willem Trommel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article argues that the politics of participation, as it is currently implemented in Dutch society, departs from dubious policy assumptions. The main problems relate to a controversial idea of what societal resilience is about, which in turn is a side-effect of the neoliberal conception of man and society. In particular three policy assumptions seem contested, regarding respectively the self-governance norm, the required levels of trust, and the presence of a ‘loving culture’. While discussing these three topics, the article also introduces three contributions to this special issue, which will focus in more detail on the poverty of the assumptions underlying the participation paradigm.


Prof. Willem Trommel
Prof. Willem Trommel is hoogleraar Beleid en bestuur aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

De digitale kooi: administratieve uitsluiting door informatiearchitectuur in de Basisregistratie Personen

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Bureaucracy, Iron cage, Civil registry, ICT, Public services
Auteurs Dr. Rik Peeters en Dr. Arjan Widlak
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch Municipal Personal Records Database is an IT-innovation that enables the use of the civil registry by hundreds of (semi-)public organisations. Literature review and a case study show how this ‘basis registration’ creates a deep tension between system and lifeworld: citizens who do not fit the system’s criteria lose their access to the major part of public services. The instrumental rationality of the system simplifies the use of addresses for service delivery to one single definition, turns the consequences of address mutations into a black box, and reduces the discretionary space of street-level bureaucrats to handle with social complexities and unintended consequences of the system. This type of IT-innovations can, therefore, come to resemble a ‘digital cage’: a highly disciplining system that hinges on hardware and software design instead of Weberian rules and procedures.


Dr. Rik Peeters
Dr. Rik Peeters is professor en onderzoeker bij de afdeling bestuurskunde van CIDE in Mexico-Stad en directeur van de Brigada Kafka Foundation in Mexico.

Dr. Arjan Widlak
Arjan Widlak is directeur van de Stichting Kafkabrigade in Nederland.

    In this feature authors discuss recent research findings that are of interest to readers of Beleid en Maatschappij.


Dr. Duco Bannink
Dr. Duco Bannink is redactielid van Beleid en Maatschappij en werkzaam aan de Vrije Universiteit.
Artikel

Slanker maar topzwaar, meer vrouwen maar vergrijsd: het veranderende gezicht van de rijksoverheid 2002-2015

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Cutbacks, Government spending, Civil servants, Public service, Open data
Auteurs Dr. Dimiter Toshkov, Eduard Schmidt MSc en Prof. dr. Caspar van den Berg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article analyses the transformations of the Dutch civil service over the last 15 years, during which numerous cutbacks and reorganizations took place. While existing research predominantly focused on changes in the total number of civil servants, we examine how the distribution of civil servants changed in terms of rank, gender and age. We theorize four methods for shrinking the government apparatus, and for each method, we identify the possible consequences for the composition of the central civil service in terms of hierarchical make-up and of age. Our results indicate that the total number of civil servants only slightly decreased, but the decrease affected differentially the various ranks of the civil service. While at the lower ranks the number of civil servants decreased strongly, at the upper ranks the number actually increased slightly. The number of women in the civil service increased, also in the higher echelons. Regarding the age distribution, we found considerable changes, with the modal age shifting upwards with up to ten years. Altogether, the civil service has become slightly smaller, more gender-balanced, and significantly more senior (both in terms of ranks and age). The results of this study show that it is important for researchers and practitioners to look beyond the trends in the total number of civil servants and explore the deeper changes within the civil service.


Dr. Dimiter Toshkov
Dr. Dimiter Toshkov is werkzaam bij het Instituut Bestuurskunde, Faculty of Governance and Global Affairs, Universiteit Leiden.

Eduard Schmidt MSc
Eduard Schmidt MSc is werkzaam bij het Instituut Bestuurskunde, Faculty of Governance and Global Affairs, Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Caspar van den Berg
Prof. dr. Caspar van den Berg is werkzaam bij de Campus Fryslan, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Casus

De EMU heeft geen weeffouten

Een kritiek op de discussienota van de Europese Commissie over de verdieping van de EMU

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2017
Auteurs Dr. Adriaan Schout
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this feature authors discuss recent research findings that are of interest to readers of Beleid en Maatschappij.


Dr. Adriaan Schout
Dr. Adriaan Schout is Senior Research Fellow and Coordinator Europe bij het Instituut Clingendael.

    Reflection and debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Nicole Maalsté

Michiel Panhuysen
Artikel

Copingstrategieën bij onderwijsbestuur: over hoe onderwijsbestuurders complexe vraagstukken of dilemma’s waarderen en hanteren

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden School boards, School board governance, Coping strategies, Proactive coping, Secondary education
Auteurs Hoogleraar Edith Hooge en Alumnus Nancy Plasmans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article is about how education administrators value complex issues or dilemmas they are confronted with in their governance practices, and which strategies they adopt to cope with them. Professional governance of school organisations was introduced gradually over the past fifteen years, and at the same time governance in education has gained in complexity and raises considerable risks, requiring more time, knowledge and expertise of education administrators. We draw on the theoretical perspective of coping to investigate the potential of education administrators to deal with the complexity, impediments and social and regulatory pressure in their daily practice. Our study consists of a comparative case study of six education administrators in secondary education. Their agency has been researched qualitatively with the help of the hierarchical model of coping strategies of Skinner and colleagues. The results show that the issues and dilemmas education administrators find most complex are about educational innovation and numbers of students enrolled. Education administrators value these issues or dilemmas hardly as threatening, and they adopt various proactive coping strategies to deal with them, such as information seeking or bargaining.


Hoogleraar Edith Hooge
Edith Hooge is hoogleraar onderwijsbestuur bij TIAS, Universiteit van Tilburg.

Alumnus Nancy Plasmans
Nancy Plasmans is alumnus van de TIAS Executive Master Management in Education en teamleider bij Heerbeeck International College, scholengroep voor voortgezet onderwijs Best-Oirschot.

    In this feature authors discuss recent research findings that are of interest to readers of Beleid en Maatschappij.


Prof. dr. Monique Kremer
Prof. dr. Monique Kremer is werkzaam bij de WRR en als bijzonder hoogleraar Actief Burgerschap bij de afdeling Sociologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

    In recent decades, the Dutch labour market has become more flexible. Flexible labour contracts enable firms to adjust employment to a changing market environment and to competitive pressures. Almost without exception, academic studies on the drivers behind the use of flexible labour contracts at the company level, are motivated by competitive pressures. However, companies may be susceptible to institutional pressures as well. Based on a survey among more than 650 managers in the Netherlands, we conclude that firms are vulnerable to institutional (mimetic) forces. This finding has several implications for policy-making and labour flexibility research.


Fabian Dekker
Artikel

Wat is het effect van transparante toezichthouders op het vertrouwen van de burger? Een experimentele studie.

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Trust, Transparency, Regulator, Randomised control trial, Experiment
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. Femke de Vries, Dr. Wilte Zijlstra en Dr. Stephan Grimmelikhuijsen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Transparency is said to be paramount for citizen’s trust in (semi-)governmental organizations, such as regulators and supervisory bodies, yet there is little empirical research in this area.
    In an experiment we investigated the effect of different forms of transparency on citizen trust in a Dutch financial regulator. Our measure of trust consisted of three components: Competence, Benevolence and Integrity. Two types of transparency were used (rationale transparency and process transparency) in three different scenarios, one positive for the regulator and two negative.
    Transparency, and especially when focused on the ‘why’ (rationale) led to slightly more trust by citizens. This effect was most pronounced in the Competence-component of our trust-measure. Interestingly, even being transparent about negative news – i.e. admitting that mistakes were made and focusing on the ‘why’ – does not necessarily decrease trust. In contrast, negative information that focused on the ‘how’ (process transparency) yielded a negative effect on trust.
    We conclude that even when the message portrays negative information about the regulator, it pays to be transparent and communicate about it. Information should focus on explaining the rationale and underlying principles of a decision, and less on how the decision was taken.


Prof. mr. dr. Femke de Vries
Prof. mr. dr. Femke de Vries is bijzonder hoogleraar toezicht aan de faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit van Groningen, en bestuurslid bij de Autoriteit Financiële Markten.

Dr. Wilte Zijlstra
Dr. Wilte Zijlstra is toezichthouder Expertisecentrum Consumentengedrag, Autoriteit Financiële Markten.

Dr. Stephan Grimmelikhuijsen
Dr. Stephan Grimmelikhuijsen is universitair docent aan de Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap, Universiteit Utrecht.

    In this feature authors discuss recent research findings that are of interest to readers of Beleid en Maatschappij.
    According to many commentators, the system of science is in a crisis: it is characterized by perverse incentives, it is contested and misused, and it has lost its authority. In this essay, I suggest that the answer to this crisis lies in a broadening of the notion of scientific integritiy from the conduct of individual researchers to the wider context of the science-policy-society interface. Specifically, I argue for the need to foster what I call here ‘relations of integrity’. In these relations, science reflects on the role it plays and takes into account the context in which knowledge is produced and used. It has to maintain independence, while fully recognizing that value free knowledge does not exist and that multiple forms of independence are possible, and it needs to be accountable for the decisions it makes and for the consequences of those decisions.


Prof. dr. Esther Turnhout
Prof. dr. Esther Turnhout is werkzaam bij de Forest and Nature Conservation Policy Group, Wageningen Universiteit.

    Reflection and debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Dr. Joost Berkhout
Dr. Joost Berkhout is universitair docent politieke wetenschappen aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.
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