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Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde x Jaar 2014 x
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Governance van woningcorporaties

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden social rented sector, hybrid organization, public interest, housing association, the Netherlands
Auteurs Hugo Priemus
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution presents a review of four publications, selected as building blocks for designing a policy for competent governance of Dutch housing associations. These publications are about:

    • hybrid organisations: Verhoef & Simon (2001);

    • securing public interests: WRR (2000);

    • problems around core tasks, side activities and achievements of housing associations: ARK (2014);

    • the complex separation of social and commercial activities: CFV (2014).


    After analyzing these four publications, a proposal is presented for the future governance of Dutch housing associations. An exclusive orientation on social activities, a discontinuation of commercial activities and a termination of state aid are suggested


Hugo Priemus
Hugo Priemus emeritus hoogleraar, is verbonden aan het Onderzoeksinstituut OTB, Technische Universiteit Delft.
Artikel

Van eerste overheid naar eerst de burger, maar hoe?

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden citizen participation, citizen initiative, local governance, municipal public policymaking
Auteurs Dr. Yvonne Kleistra en Drs. Guido Walraven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The first report (2013) by the Association of Netherlands Municipalities think tank deals with the question of how local governments can improve their own performance regarding the current trend of social initiatives in which citizens organize themselves to tackle problems in their neighborhoods. Kleistra and Walraven discuss the method, content and findings of the report. They question the widely used citizen perspective that is adopted by the think tank as a starting point for further research on the topic; its uncritical stance with regard to the highly debated issue of citizen participation; the limited research effort that underpins its overall findings and conclusions; and in particular its unequivocal call for large scale municipal experimenting and improvising without further elaborating on the key question of ‘how to proceed’ for the benefit of municipal policymakers. This brings them to the conclusion that the report itself generates highly relevant questions, but that these questions should be addressed more effectively than has so far been the case, by connecting in-depth empirical research on municipal performance with regard to citizens initiatives to the large body of scientific knowledge on citizen participation.


Dr. Yvonne Kleistra
Dr. Y. Kleistra is werkzaam als universitair docent bij de leerstoelgroep Geschiedenis van de Internationale Betrekkingen van de Universiteit Utrecht en als senior onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Dynamiek van de Stad van de Hogeschool InHolland Rotterdam.

Drs. Guido Walraven
Drs. G. Walraven is werkzaam als lector Dynamiek van de Stad van de Hogeschool InHolland Rotterdam en als coördinator Landelijk Kenniscentrum Gemengde Scholen.
Artikel

De ambtenaar als professional?

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden Civil servants
Auteurs Drs. Thijs Jansen, Mr. drs. Luc Janssen en Drs. Tobias Kwakkelstein
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The opening article introduces the topic of this special issue: civil servants. Changes in the context, role and legal status of civil servants in the Netherlands fuel the debate on the civil servant as a professional in academic and policy circles. This special issue reports on this debate, with contributions from legal, sociological, public administration and more applied perspectives.


Drs. Thijs Jansen
Drs. M. Jansen is lid van de redactie van Bestuurskunde en medeoprichter van de Stichting Beroepseer, waar hij kwartiermaker van de Goed Werk Denktank is. Hij was tot 1 juli 2014 als docent en onderzoeker werkzaam aan de School voor Politiek en Bestuur van de Universiteit van Tilburg. Hij is redacteur van verschillende boeken over professionals: Beroepszeer (2005), Beroepstrots (2009), Gezagsdragers (2012) en Loonfatsoen (2014).

Mr. drs. Luc Janssen
Mr. drs. L.H. Janssen studeerde ondernemingsrecht, bestuurskunde en sociaal recht en sociale politiek aan de Universiteit van Tilburg. Daarna werkte hij als onderzoeker bij de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur en als medewerker bezwaar bij UWV. Tegenwoordig is hij werkzaam bij Capra Advocaten.

Drs. Tobias Kwakkelstein
Drs. T. Kwakkelstein is strategisch beleidsadviseur bij de directie Organisatie en Personeelsbeleid Rijk.
Artikel

Proactieve verkeersveiligheid in veranderende bestuurlijke verhoudingen

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden policy analysis, road safety
Auteurs Dr. Peter van der Knaap
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Netherlands enjoys a long-standing reputation in the field of road safety. Following the ‘Sustainable Road Safety’ program of the 1990s, the infrastructural layout considerably reduces the risk of accidents while at the same time many measures are in place to improve road user behavior. In recent years, however, there have been several developments that may affect the success of the approach. In addition to an ageing population, urbanization, and the rise of new technologies, there is a combination of decentralization, policy integration, and budgetary restraints.
    This contribution presents the philosophy behind the sustainable road safety program and describes its key elements. It discusses policy and societal developments, and the continuing need to improve road safety, especially at a decentralized level. The article argues in favor of a continued systematic approach towards safer road traffic, also in periods of decentralization and limited budgets. It presents a concrete perspective of the role of policy analysis and policy evaluation to develop a proactive approach to road safety under the new conditions. In this, evidence-based interventions, an active use of safety performance indicators, and a focus on success are key elements.


Dr. Peter van der Knaap
Dr. P. van der Knaap is directeur-bestuurder van de Stichting Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Verkeersveiligheid (SWOV).
Artikel

Verder op weg naar een professie voor de beleidsambtenaar?

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden Civil servant, Professional autonomy, Professional standards, Professional behavior
Auteurs Drs. Hans Wilmink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A profession can be defined as a group of workers with shared knowledge, skills and quality standards. To maintain its professional status, the professional community needs to be relatively autonomous. However, while performing their tasks, many pressures jeopardize the professional worker’s autonomous position. Here, the professional community can make a difference.
    Subordination to the political principal characterizes the position of the civil servant. What margin of professional independence do political leaders allow their civil servants? Recent academic empirical reports in the Netherlands show conflicting outcomes.
    This essay describes how civil servants from a Dutch ministry deal with their professional standards and argues that, in the process of professionalization, more clarity is required with regard to how autonomy and independence for civil servants are safeguarded. This is especially relevant in a contemporary context where new ways to account for the professional behavior of civil servants need to be sought.


Drs. Hans Wilmink
Drs. H. Wilmink bekleedde diverse functies op het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken. Hij ging in 2013 met pensioen.
Artikel

Juridische status van een ethische code: waar plaats je zo’n code in de hiërarchie van de continentale normen?

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden Civil servants, Codes of conduct civil servants, Code of conduct civil servants UK, Code of conduct civil servants Belgium, Codes of conduct civil servants France
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. Alexander de Becker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article aims to compare the current legal status of codes of conduct (if any) in five different EU-countries. Its starting point is the recent legal initiative in the Netherlands to abolish the existing status for officials and to replace it with contracts of employment. The parliamentary initiators indicate ethical elements as crucial for the employment relation in the public sector. Does this imply that a code of conduct has to be established?
    The article first focuses on the historical evolution of codes of conduct in different EU-Member States. Within the UK, integrity has always been considered a key stone of the civil service. However, it took until the nineties until a code of conduct was set out. The spread out of the importance of integrity for civil servants has spread out later in continental Europe. The impact of the theory of New Public Management, through the OECD, was therefore crucial. Consequently, Belgium and Germany developed codes of conduct while France and the Netherlands paid more attention to weight of ethical behavior in the public sector.
    Currently, it stays beyond any doubt that the codes of conduct in the UK have got a binding legal value. This value has not yet been achieved by the Belgian and the German codes. The article defends the point of view that a binding code in the Netherlands can be a useful tool.


Prof. dr. mr. Alexander de Becker
Prof. dr. mr. A.H.L. de Becker, universitair hoofddocent UHasselt en bijzonder hoogleraar Ien Dales Leerstoel ‘De overheid als arbeidsorganisatie’ (CAOP en Universiteit van Amsterdam).
Praktijk

Speaking truth to power

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Politico-administrative relations, civil service, advice
Auteurs Prof. mr. Roel Bekker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this contribution the author, who himself had a long and distinguished career as a top civil servant, reflects on civil servants advising their ministers. This process of ‘speaking truth to power’ can have its own challenges and dilemmas. The author discusses them based on recent cases and relevant developments in the Netherlands. He also proposes several recommendations on how to readjust the relationship between politicians and civil servants in their light.


Prof. mr. Roel Bekker
Prof. mr. R. Bekker was tot voor kort als bijzonder hoogleraar arbeidsverhoudingen publieke sector (Albeda Leerstoel) verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

What the frack?

Politiserende deliberatie in de besluitvorming over schaliegas

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden wicked problems, shale gas, hydraulic fracturing, deliberation
Auteurs Tamara Metze
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Within the past two years, hydraulic fracturing for shale gas became a highly contested technology in the Netherlands. Possible negative environmental impacts are at strained terms with possible economic, energy and geo-political benefits. In addition, there are many scientific uncertainties about, for example water contamination, methane emissions, the amounts of gas to extract and the risk of earth quakes. Societal conflict and scientific uncertainties make fracking for shale gas a wicked problem for decision makers. This article demonstrates that the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs has implemented several instruments for deliberation, such as a consultation round with stakeholders and a sound board for an independent research. These failed to lead to the desired support for fracking. In this contribution, I demonstrate that these instruments led to reason giving but not to structuring of the problem. They were used by governmental actors and protest groups as a political platform that was fuel for the political conflict.


Tamara Metze
Dr. T. Metze is verbonden aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Wie is hier onredelijk!?

Een analyse van de maatschappelijke dynamiek rondom de HPV-vaccinatiecampagne

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden scientific advice, vaccination, well-ordered science
Auteurs Albert Meijer, Paulus Lips en Huub Dijstelbloem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents an analysis of the introduction of the HPV vaccine into the National Vaccination Program in the Netherlands. This introduction resulted in public debate and resistance and eventually a low turn-out (45% while 85% was expected). The question is what we can learn from this specific case about trust of citizens in scientific advice and political decision-making around medical issues. Our qualitative empirical research highlights that trust in scientific advice was undermined by a combination of criticism from peers, a critical approach in the mass media and a strong campaign through social media. Our analysis shows that these factors can be understood as partly resulting from a transition to a network society. We conclude that the network society demands a more open approach of scientific advice both in terms of who they discuss issues with and what kinds of arguments are permitted in the debate.


Albert Meijer
Dr. A.J. Meijer is universitair hoofddocent van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Paulus Lips
Drs. P. Lips is huisarts.

Huub Dijstelbloem
Prof. dr. H.O. Dijstelbloem is senior scientific staff member WRR.
Artikel

Politiek, participatie en experts in de besluitvorming over super wicked problems

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden wicked problems, scientific knowledge, social engineering, deliberative democracy
Auteurs Tamara Metze en Esther Turnhout
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This special issue focusses on deliberative elements in deciding over wicked problems. We present four case studies in which some form of deliberation was organized: the placement of mobile phone masts, hydraulic fracturing for shale gas, the failed HPV vaccination campaign and climate dialogues organized to enhance deliberative knowledge production over climate change. The case studies demonstrate how each of the deliberative processes has become politicized and that deliberative governance runs the risk of turning into a technocratic policy approach.


Tamara Metze
Dr. T.A.P. Metze is verbonden aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.

Esther Turnhout
Dr. E. Turnhout is verbonden aan de Universiteit van Wageningen.
Artikel

Groeiend ongemak

Bestuurderspartijen en de constructie van het vertrouwen in de overheid

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden trust, political parties, party manifestos
Auteurs Thomas Schillemans en Paul den Otter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Decreasing trust in government is almost universally considered to be a troubling fact of life for governments. Even though many politicians, administrators and commentators assume that the public’s trust in government is waning, the empirical data from the Netherlands are not unequivocal. This suggests that the assumed crisis of trust is not ‘just’ an empirical fact but is also to some extent a social construction. This article analyses how the major Dutch political parties have contributed to the narrative of a ‘failing government’. It does so by analysing their party programs over the last half century (95 programs in total). The analysis demonstrates that the major political parties are increasingly inconvenient with the effectiveness and efficiency of government, the traditional role of bureaucracies and the tasks of civil servants. This narrative harks back to the parties themselves and becomes increasingly inconvenient. If it is true that government fails to meet their standards, as they now all claim, what does that disclose about government policies for which those parties have been responsible?


Thomas Schillemans
Dr. T. Schillemans is universitair docent aan de Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap, Universiteit Utrecht.

Paul den Otter
P.H. den Otter, Msc, is bestuurskundige en verbonden aan de gemeente Haarlem.

    Recently the Scientific Council for Government Policy, a major advisory board in the Netherlands published a report on the state of regulation. Based on his many years of experience as a practitioner and academic, the author reviews and critically assesses this report.


Ferdinand J.H. Mertens
Prof. dr. F.J.H. Mertens heeft verschillende toezichthoudende functies vervuld en is verbonden aan de Nederlandse School voor Openbaar Bestuur (NSOB).
Artikel

De grote verbouwing

Een bestuurskundig perspectief op veranderingen in stelsels van publieke voorzieningen

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden public management reform, New Public Management, New Public Governance
Auteurs Philip Marcel Karré en Cees Paardekooper
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Netherlands is engaged in reforming several of its public service provision sectors by limiting their hybrid (mixed public/private) character. This special issue deals with these reforms. We have a closer look at the systems of transport, education and housing, and also discuss reforms of the Dutch nation state. Each article poses three basic questions: why has the sector evolved as it has? Why is change seen as necessary? And how does this process take place? By doing so, we draw general lessons on how the Netherlands deals with system change and public management reform.


Philip Marcel Karré
Dr. P.M. Karré is programmaleider van de professional master Urban Management aan de Hogeschool van Amsterdam. Hij doet onderzoek naar de governance van hybride organisaties (www.hybrideorganisaties.nl).

Cees Paardekooper
Drs. C. Paardekooper is adviseur bij WagenaarHoes.
Artikel

Vastgeklonken aan de Fyra

Een pad-afhankelijkheidsanalyse van de onvermijdelijke keuze voor de falende flitstrein

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden complex decision-making, high-speed railways, megaprojects, path-dependency
Auteurs Lasse Gerrits en Peter Marks
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the spring of 2013, the Dutch railway operator, High Speed Alliance, cancelled the acceptance procedures for V250 high-speed train sets they ordered from Italian manufacturer AnsaldoBreda after numerous problems with the build quality and safety systems. It is the latest chapter in a series of failed attempts to build and run a high-speed railway link between Amsterdam and Paris. Inevitably, the question of who was responsible for the decision to order the V250 has become prominent. We study 20 years of public decision-making by analysing the content of over 1,200 documents. Using David’s and Arthur’s theory of path-dependency, we conclude that all the decisions that were taken during those two decades created a situation in which the choice for the V250 was nothing more than an inevitable gamble. It can therefore be concluded that all parties involved, from the railway operator to Parliament, have contributed to the current failure.


Lasse Gerrits
Dr. L.M. Gerrits is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de vakgroep Bestuurskunde van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Peter Marks
Dr. P.K. Marks is als universitair docent verbonden aan de vakgroep Bestuurskunde van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Intergemeentelijk samenwerken: het kan ook licht

Een verkenning van lichte vormen van intergemeentelijke samenwerking

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden inter-municipal cooperation, light forms of cooperation, modes of cooperation
Auteurs Leon van den Dool en Linze Schaap
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Many tasks will be decentralized to municipalities in the Netherlands in the coming years. To deal with these challenges, central government encourages municipal mergers, while municipalities often prefer a light form of cooperation. Since municipal boarders are converging less and less with the boarders inhabitants experience in their daily lives, municipalities feel free to cooperate in a variety of ways with other partners. This poses new challenges to democratic legitimacy, effectiveness and the role local authorities play. Local governments therefore do not need new regulations or legal forms of co-operations, but rather a repertoire fitting their role. We argue that local governments need to analyse their tasks, choose the form of cooperation that fits best and develop a repertoire for their cooperation. Light forms of cooperation are very important for developing a variety of cooperative forms and roles local governments need to play.


Leon van den Dool
Dr. L.T. van den Dool is senior onderzoeker bij de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur (Universiteit van Tilburg) en daarnaast senior manager in de adviespraktijk voor binnenlands bestuur bij PwC. Hij richt zich op de lokale overheid en met name op stedelijke ontwikkeling, leerprocessen, goed bestuur, onafhankelijk onderzoek, bestuurskracht en samenwerkingsvraagstukken.

Linze Schaap
Dr. L. Schaap is universitair hoofddocent bij de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur (Universiteit van Tilburg). Hij richt zich op democratisch besturen op lokaal, intergemeentelijk en regionaal niveau, schaalvraagstukken en bestuurskracht. Veel van zijn onderzoek heeft een internationaal vergelijkend karakter.
Artikel

Lessen en conclusies uit vier keer stelselwijziging

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden public management reform, governance arrangements
Auteurs Philip Marcel Karré en Cees Paardekooper
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This concluding article of our special issue on public management reform in the Netherlands summarizes the information presented in the individual articles. We conclude that reform is often an incremental process, aimed at streamlining existing governance arrangements rather than creating and rolling out grand new designs.


Philip Marcel Karré
Dr. P.M. Karré is als programmaleider van de professional master Urban Management aan de Hogeschool van Amsterdam. Hij doet onderzoek naar de governance van hybride organisaties (www.hybrideorganisaties.nl).

Cees Paardekooper
Drs. C. Paardekooper is adviseur bij WagenaarHoes.
Artikel

Ondoordacht sleutelen

Reflecties op bestuurlijke geilheid en de complexiteit van sociale systemen door Roel in ’t Veld

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden public management reform
Auteurs Philip Karré en Cees Paardekooper
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This text provides a summary of an interview we conducted with Roel in ’t Veld, who (as an academic, advisor and civil servant) is a veteran of public management reform in the Netherlands. In ’t Veld criticizes the approach often taken by these reforms, as they are often not based on an in-depth study of the problem in question and its historic background. Scholars in public administration should not only provide critical assessments of reforms from the side-lines but should also get their hands dirty and participate in them.


Philip Karré
Dr. P.M. Karré is programmaleider van de professional master Urban Management aan de Hogeschool van Amsterdam. Hij doet onderzoek naar de governance van hybride organisaties (www.hybrideorganisaties.nl).

Cees Paardekooper
Drs. C. Paardekooper is adviseur bij WagenaarHoes.
Artikel

Kwaliteit als sleutel tot overheidsinterventie: een reflectie op de beleidsassumpties van autonomievergroting in het primair onderwijs

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden primary education, organizational autonomy, autonomization
Auteurs Marlies Honingh en Sandra van Thiel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the 1980s, the organizational autonomy of primary schools in the Netherlands was increased to improve the quality of education. Today, new restrictions are being imposed on this autonomy, again as a means to improve educational quality. This article discusses whether this change can be seen as a systemic change or rather a further streamlining of the policies started in the 1980s.


Marlies Honingh
Dr. M.E. Honingh is als universitair docent verbonden aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Sandra van Thiel
Prof. dr. S. van Thiel is hoogleraar Bestuurskunde aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Woningcorporaties: meer dan een eeuw hybriditeit

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden housing, social housing associations, hybridity
Auteurs Marja Elsinga en Jan van der Schaar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 1901, Dutch social housing is organized as a hybrid system. Over the years, this system has continually adapted to outside forces and demands. Lately it has come under pressure, especially as the negative side effects of housing associations becoming autonomous have become apparent. This article describes the history of social housing in the Netherlands since 1901, and discusses whether the negative side effects of hybridity should be used as an argument for a major overhaul of the system.


Marja Elsinga
Prof. dr. ir. M.G. Elsinga is hoogleraar Housing Institutions & Governance aan de Technische Universiteit Delft.

Jan van der Schaar
Prof. dr. ir. J. van der Schaar is gasthoogleraar Volkshuisvesting aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en geassocieerd partner bij RIGO Research en Advies BV.
Artikel

Successen en rafelrandjes: Stelselwijzigingen in het Openbaar Vervoer

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden public transport, New Public Management
Auteurs Wijnand Veeneman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During the 1980s and 1990s, successive Dutch governments reformed public transport by introducing market-type mechanisms. However, these New Public Management-style reforms have only been introduced half-heartedly because governments also tried to avoid the negative effects of NPM. On some fronts, the reforms have undoubtedly led to improved quality (better and newer material) and more choice for governments regarding how to organize public transport because there are several new providers. But on other fronts, these positive effects have been hampered by fragmentation, leading to calls for another overhaul of the system. This article chronicles the developments in public transport and discusses which new steps could be taken.


Wijnand Veeneman
Dr. W.W. Veeneman is als universitair hoofddocent Organisatie & Management verbonden aan de Technische Universiteit Delft.
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