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Blussen met nullen en enen

Cyber-rampen, cyber-exceptionalisme en de rol van de overheid

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2020
Auteurs Prof. dr. Michel van Eeten
Auteursinformatie

Prof. dr. Michel van Eeten
Prof. dr. M.J.G. van Eeten is hoogleraar governance van cybersecurity.
Vrij artikel

20 jaar Verantwoordingsdag: Inzicht voor Kamercommissies

Hoe inhoudsanalyse inzicht geeft in prestatiegegevensgebruik door Kamerleden

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden performance information, accountability, Parliament, annual reports, Performance-based Budgeting
Auteurs Dr. Sjoerd Keulen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The 20th Accountability Day of the Netherlands House of Representatives is a fitting occasion to investigate whether Dutch Members of Parliament use performance information (PI). Performance information used by managers and politicians is a basic assumption for managing and guiding Performance-based Budgeting. Ironically, based on a literature review on performance use, we know that politicians and especially parliamentarians do not use performance information for decision making or scrutiny. This is specifically so when PI reports are long. Using the framework of accountability of Bovens (2007) and using content analysis of the questions, motions and debates of the Standing Committees on the annual reports, this article shows that MPs use performance information in all phases (informing, debating, sanctions). Contradicting earlier research on parliamentarians, we found that they use annual reports and reports of the Court of Audit as their main sources in the debates. This article shows that the use of PI in parliament is steadily rising. The growing importance of performance information for accountability is further illustrated by the strengthening of the accountability forum.


Dr. Sjoerd Keulen
Dr. S.J. Keulen is onderzoeker bij de Algemene Rekenkamer en universitair docent Bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Thema-artikel

Leren van de WODC-casus

Formele en professionele waarborgen voor onafhankelijk onderzoek vergen onderhoud

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden professional safeguards, policy influence, independence, scientific research
Auteurs Dr. Meike Bokhorst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the relationship between the Ministry of Justice and Security and the Scientific Research and Documentation Center, safeguards to prevent improper influence of research were lacking. In the opinion of the WODC II investigation committee, civil servants were too close to the substantive execution of the investigation, as a result of which the WODC was given too little room for critical investigation. For other ministries and knowledge institutions the question is relevant as to what safeguards are needed for conducting independent research. Rules and procedures are not sufficient for creating and maintaining responsible research practices. It is also important that employees learn to recognize difficult situations, can discuss these with their colleagues, and know how to deal with dilemmas. Other organizations can learn from the WODC issue that they must maintain and recalibrate the formal and professional safeguards for the independence of scientific research. Trust in science stands or falls with independence and soundness in word and deed.


Dr. Meike Bokhorst
Dr. A.M. Bokhorst is senior wetenschappelijk medewerker bij de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid en onderzoeker bij de Universiteit Utrecht. Zij was als onderzoeksleider en auteur betrokken bij het rapport van de onderzoekscommissie over de relatie WODC en beleid.
Vrij artikel

Weinig consistent, beperkt zelfkritisch

De uitwerking van de beleidsconclusie binnen de rijksverantwoording

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden accountability, policy evaluation, policy conclusion
Auteurs Bram Faber MA en Dr. Tjerk Budding
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch central government has a long history in its search to meaningfully present policy effects. One of the instruments that was developed to this end is the Policy Conclusion (beleidsconclusie). This part of the annual report, which has been mandatory since 2013, should provide a judgement for every policy article on its results in the year 2017. To what extent has the Policy Conclusion been successful in its aims? And how do various governmental departments give substance to it? For this article, all policy conclusions that were composed for the most recent reporting year were examined. Among others, our analysis shows that departments differ greatly in their interpretation of what the Policy Conclusion should include, such as the usage of sources and the way in which intended results are (re)addressed. In addition, it was found in the Policy Conclusions that a tendency exists to put a strong focus on positive outcomes.


Bram Faber MA
A.S.C. Faber MA is promovendus bij het Zijlstra Center van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Dr. Tjerk Budding
Dr. G.T. Budding is opleidingsdirecteur van de public controllersopleidingen van het Zijlstra Center van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Thema-artikel

Access_open Onafhankelijk onderzoek in positie, oordeelsvorming en beeldvorming

Institutionele en professionele dimensies van ‘speaking truth to power’

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden Independent Research, Policy Evaluation, Organisational Culture, Public Policy, Quality Management
Auteurs Dr. Peter van der Knaap, Dr. Meike Bokhorst en Dr. Yvonne Kleistra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Regularly, doubts about the independence of research leads to heated discussion. This is especially true if things have gone wrong. This issue explores the question how research organizations and researchers can defend themselves against improper influence: the conscious and active pursuit of too positive research results by commissioners or government officials. This article outlines a number of dimensions of how establishing good, independent research can be structured in a systematic and sensible manner. Independent inquiry manifests itself in position, judgment, and appearance or image. Institutional safeguards form the basis for professional roles and responsibilities that can fulfill the requirements of independent research in the political arena.


Dr. Peter van der Knaap
Dr. P. van der Knaap is directeur-bestuurder van SWOV, voorzitter van Vide en redactielid van Bestuurskunde.

Dr. Meike Bokhorst
Dr. A.M. Bokhorst is onderzoeker bij de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid en bij de Universiteit Utrecht.

Dr. Yvonne Kleistra
Dr. Y. Kleistra is universitair docent aan de Universiteit Leiden en redactielid van Bestuurskunde.
Thema-artikel

Van procedure naar praktijk

Inzet op effectieve onafhankelijkheidsborging bij het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden policy research organizations, research independence, political pressure, coping strategies, independence safeguards
Auteurs Dr. Femke Verwest, Dr. Eva Kunseler, Dr. Paul Diederen e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    If the stakes are high, policy researchers can find themselves under strong pressures from politicians or policy makers to compromise on issues like scope of a research project, research methodology, reporting, framing and interpretation of results, and timing of publication. Research organizations experiment with various formal and informal arrangements to cope with such pressures and guard their independence.
    This article describes six coping strategies that are being explored by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL). These are: i) taking control in determining the project scope and the research questions; ii) making responsibilities explicit and guarding respective roles; iii) installing a broad based societal project advisory group; iv) having some researchers in a project that interact with stakeholders, while keeping others at a distance; v) having a differentiated communications strategy; vi) being fully transparent as to hypotheses and uncertainties regarding data and models.
    Safeguarding independence in research through formal rules and provisions is generally insufficient to protect research from undue stakeholder influence. Also changes in labor routines, relationship management and organizational cultures are needed, not only on the researcher side, but on the stakeholder side as well. This calls for dialogue and joint learning processes.


Dr. Femke Verwest
Dr. F. Verwest is plaatsvervangend sectorhoofd bij het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving.

Dr. Eva Kunseler
Dr. E.M. Kunseler is wetenschappelijk medewerker bij het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving.

Dr. Paul Diederen
Dr. P.J.M. Diederen is coördinator bij het Rathenau Instituut.

Dr. Patricia Faasse
Dr. P.E. Faasse is senior onderzoeker bij het Rathenau Instituut.
Thema-artikel

Access_open Positieve bestuurskunde

Naar een robuust positief perspectief op de overheid

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Positive Public Administration, successful public governance, research agenda, societal relevance
Auteurs Scott Douglas DPhil, Prof. dr. Trui Steen en Prof. dr. Zeger van der Wal
Samenvatting

    Citizens and scholars excel in identifying and analysing government failure. It is important indeed to understand public sector, but while governments in the Low Countries are doing well on average and very well from an internationally perspective, most attention is focused on the errors and mishaps. This article argues for a robust positive perspective on the public sector as a complement to existing research. From a scientific perspective, public administration must set itself the ambition to connect and aggregate existing positive insights even better. From a social perspective, the discipline must prevent the gap from being filled by a wholesale rejection of democratic government or the use of unproven miracle cures. This article elaborates the starting points for Positive Public Administration, arguing that this perspective should be comprehensive, context related, inter-subjective, learning-oriented, and robustly scientific in nature. The article also introduces the other contributions in this special issue, which together give an initial interpretation of positive public administration.


Scott Douglas DPhil

Prof. dr. Trui Steen

Prof. dr. Zeger van der Wal
Thema-artikel

Positieve beleidsevaluatie: hoe evaluatieonderzoek kan bijdragen aan beter beleid

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden positive public administration, positive evaluation, positive psychology, success, policy oriented learning
Auteurs Dr. Peter van der Knaap en Dr. Rudi Turksema
Samenvatting

    New insights from the field of positive psychology led to the insight that people learn more effectively from positive feedback. Policy evaluation aims to improve public policy programmes through contributing to both accountability and learning. This ambiguous ambition has contributed to a considerable body of research into the impact of policy evaluation. Too often the conclusion is that the outcomes of policy evaluations – which are often negative by nature – are sparsely used by policy makers. This has led to series of improvements in the way we carry out evaluations. First through technical improvements and then by more responsive approaches. Both have not led to the desired breakthrough. Building on a number of positive evaluation studies, we advance a more positive approach in policy evaluation. Focussing on the successes in policy programmes rather than on its failures may contribute to evaluation impact. Consequently, we think a more positive, appreciative approach and using data to find success in policy making is necessary for policy evaluators to be more effective. This article presents practical examples of positive policy evaluations and successful use of data in the domain of policy evaluation.


Dr. Peter van der Knaap

Dr. Rudi Turksema
Thema-artikel ‘Uitgesproken Bestuurskunde’

Balanceren en experimenteren

Wetenschap en praktijk van publiek management

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden bureaucracy, competing values, leadership, public managers, practice
Auteurs Prof. dr. Sandra Groeneveld
Samenvatting

    Increasing demands and competing values force public organizations to introduce new organizational forms that veer away from rigid bureaucratic structures while remaining in control. How do public managers and their employees deal with the dilemmas that these decentralized and organic ways of organizing entail? On the one hand it must be prevented that public managers fall back too quickly on structures that rely on control and formalization, while, on the other hand, they themselves as managers are still primarily held accountable based on those bureaucratic principles. New organizational forms also assume that leadership is shared and distributed. This not only asks for a higher degree of self-management of employees, but also requires from formal leaders that such behavior is supported and encouraged. In our research and teaching on these changes in public organizations, we work closely with practice. That too is a matter of balancing, this time of public engagement with scientific independence.


Prof. dr. Sandra Groeneveld
Thema-artikel ‘Uitgesproken Bestuurskunde’

Samenwerken in de kenniseconomie

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden knowledge economy, sharing knowledge, collaborative community, governance structures
Auteurs Prof. dr. Ferry Koster
Samenvatting

    For a long time, the three governance structures market, hierarchy, and community were regarded as separate entities. The market is based on the price mechanism, the authority mechanism is the basis of the hierarchy, and trust relations characterize the community. As the knowledge economy evolves, there is a shift in thinking about how these governance structures are related. Creating and sharing knowledge are key features of the knowledge economy. However, this knowledge is partly tacit and sharing knowledge is particularly useful among diverse organizations, which are two barriers for sharing of knowledge among organizations.
    A new stream of literature suggests that the ability of organizations to combine the three governance structures contributes to their capacity to share knowledge with other organizations. Based on this literature, this article shows what kinds of organizational forms are possible. Besides that, it offer empirical example of the conditions under which these organizational forms evolve as well as how they contribute to organizational innovation.


Prof. dr. Ferry Koster
Thema-artikel ‘Uitgesproken Bestuurskunde’

Gedragen gedragsverandering

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden public administration, public management, psychology, behavioral public administration, behavior change, design science
Auteurs Prof. dr. Lars Tummers
Samenvatting

    Changing behavior is often necessary to tackle societal problems. Governments can change behavior via economic incentives (such as subsidies for electric cars), bans/mandates (such as prison sentences for drug smuggling), communication (for example information campaigns) and nudges (for example, being a donor by default). However, the government should not be a manipulator that applies the latest behavioral tricks without societal support. Public administration research shows that support cannot be taken for granted. If there is no support for behavioral change, well-intended interventions can even be counterproductive. I therefore develop a model for supported behavioral change. I provide five criteria that indicate when there is supported behavioral change: if the behavioral change is both effective (1) and efficient (2), and when there is support for behavioral change among politicians (3), among implementing organizations (4), and among citizens (5).


Prof. dr. Lars Tummers
Thema-artikel

Strategische planning en fusies in Vlaamse gemeenten

Een essay over Vlaamse ervaringen met New Public Management-hervormingen

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden new public management, local government, strategic planning, municipal mergers, Flemish municipalities
Auteurs Bert George PhD
Samenvatting

    In the past years, Flemish municipalities have been confronted with a plethora of new public management reforms. The two probably most salient reforms include the introduction of a strategic planning system entitled the policy and management cycle (PMC) as well as the provision of financial incentives for municipalities that undertake a merger. These reforms are not unique to the Flemish context. Indeed, similar reforms took place in the Netherlands, where policy and management instruments (PMI) – a strategic planning system – were introduced in the eighties and municipal mergers have been part of the political agenda for several decades. But similar reforms also took place in, for instance, the United Kingdom (i.e. the best value regime in 1999) as well as Denmark (i.e. the municipal mergers in 2007). In this essay, these Flemish reforms are critically evaluated, taking into account following question: which public values are triggered through these reforms, and what might this imply for the Flemish and Dutch local public sector? This essay uses new public governance principles such as strategic thinking and the learning organisation to answer this question.


Bert George PhD
Artikel

Voorlopige contouren van bestuursgericht toezicht

Empirische inzichten in jonge praktijken van bestuursgericht toezicht

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Governance, Regulation, Oversight
Auteurs Prof. dr. Thomas Schillemans, Dr. Meike Bokhorst, Dr. Marieke van Genugten e.a.
Samenvatting

    The regulatory agencies in various public service sectors are said to be changing (some) of their regulatory attention issues of internal governance of organizations in education, health care en social housing. This paper aims to assess how (if, at all) responsible actors within those organizations experience this shift in regulatory focus. We report on the findings from a survey with modest N, distributed at an early stage of this new policy. The paper shows that respondents have fairly divergent views on whether or not this regulatory shift has indeed occurred, something which is not uncommon for a new policy. We distinguish three mechanisms through which governance-based oversight may have an impact on public service providers. This new regulatory regime could 1) have an agenda-setting effect within organizations, could 2) stimulate organizational decision-makers to take well-considered decisions and could 3) induce a sense of relational felt accountability towards the regulator.


Prof. dr. Thomas Schillemans

Dr. Meike Bokhorst

Dr. Marieke van Genugten

Dr. Mirjan Oude Vrielink
Artikel

Wat wendbare organisaties doen (en laten)

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden agility, environmental changes, dynamics, management practices
Auteurs Drs. Mark Nijssen, Dr. Brenda Vermeeren, Drs. Lucien Vermeer e.a.
Samenvatting

    Public organizations are confronted with rapid subsequent changes in their environment. Against this background, we increasingly see and hear a call for agile public organizations. But what exactly is agility? And how can organizations achieve this? In this study, we have developed and validated the concept of agility and empirically identify the effect of different management practices that contribute to agility. This study shows that, seen from the perspective of the experienced dynamics, it is not necessary to be agile for all organizational units within the public sector. At the same time, there is a substantial group that should be more agile given the dynamics they encounter. This study shows that agile organizations are more committed to developing the mindset of employees, influencing the degree of autonomy for decision-making and stimulating the promotion of new ideas and insights.


Drs. Mark Nijssen

Dr. Brenda Vermeeren

Drs. Lucien Vermeer

Ir. Jurgen Visser
Artikel

Diversiteit in bestuurskundig perspectief

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden diversity perspectives, interventions, public sector, business case, binding
Auteurs Dr. Saniye Çelik
Samenvatting

    In practice, diversity interventions do not always appear to be effective. One argument is that there is little or no match between the perspectives of public organizations on diversity and the interventions used. This article provides an overview of the underlying rationales for diversity policy and discusses the perspectives on diversity from the diversity literature, HRM, and management literature and how these overlap, complement each other and differ from each other. What these perspectives have in common is that they all emphasize the added value of diversity. In the diversity literature, the emphasis is on the four perspectives equality, legitimacy, creativity, and the labour market. HRM literature focusses on managing differences. In public administration, there is a shift from active representation by individuals to connecting by all employees. Furthermore, the binding perspective is gaining more and more importance in the public domain because it may be possible to close the gap between the government and its citizen. This perspective emphasizes the importance of the long-term relationship with citizens to strengthen the trust of citizens in the government for realizing social tasks and responsibilities. It makes diversity an issue for all employees. For Hassan and Havva, and also for Hans and Hanna.


Dr. Saniye Çelik

Evrim Tan
Artikel

De ongekende effecten van deregulering: een experiment in Hollands Kroon

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden deregulation, deviant behavior, policy experiment, social control
Auteurs Dr. Peter Kruyen, Prof. dr. Taco Brandsen en Dr. Berry Tholen
Samenvatting

    What happens in the case of massive deregulation in the local public domain? Despite the widespread call for ‘less regulation’, the effects of large-scale deregulation have received surprisingly little academic attention. In this article, we present the results of a longitudinal study on the effects of deregulation in the Dutch municipality of Hollands Kroon. The municipality abolished a vast number of regulations on public order offences in a radical two-year policy experiment, encouraging citizens to exercise more social control. In contrast, criticasters expected that the experiment would lead to more public offenses and conflict. Based on our data collected over three survey rounds; focus groups with citizens, politicians and civil servants; and several secondary data sources, we conclude that there was little effect: neither an increase in public order offences, nor an increase in social control. Our research shows that, in the short term, deregulation did not significantly affect the behavior of citizens.


Dr. Peter Kruyen

Prof. dr. Taco Brandsen

Dr. Berry Tholen
Artikel

Access_open Wat maakt slimme sturing slim?

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden smart governance, hybrid governance, self-organization, adaptive capacity
Auteurs Prof. dr. Joop Koppenjan, Prof. dr. ir. Katrien Termeer en Dr. Philip Marcel Karré
Samenvatting

    Wicked problems ask for new, smart forms of governance beyond a singular focus on hierarchy, market or community. Based on the case studies presented in the individual articles of this special issue, this concluding article describes what smart governance could entail and discusses its strengths and weaknesses, both as a concept and a practical tool.


Prof. dr. Joop Koppenjan

Prof. dr. ir. Katrien Termeer

Dr. Philip Marcel Karré
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