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Access_open Weer eerlijk over terugtredende overheid

Afnemend vertrouwen in overheid en de roep om een nieuwe bestuurlijke cultuur

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2022
Auteurs Peter van der Knaap
Auteursinformatie

Peter van der Knaap
Dr. P. van der Knaap is directeur van IOB en voorzitter van het Nederlands Evaluatiegenootschap Vide.

    Beleidsonderzoekers kunnen niet alle patronen doorbreken die ons sociaal contract op de proef stellen, maar ze kunnen wel verschil maken door spiegels voor te houden en handelingsperspectieven te bieden. Te vaak wordt meer bewijswaarde gehecht aan rationeel-analytisch of positivistisch onderzoek, zoals doelmatigheidsonderzoek, en minder aan kwalitatief onderzoek, dat meerdere realiteiten benadrukt. Beleidsonderzoekers kunnen laten zien hoe dit elkaar aanvult en van betekenis is voor effectief en legitiem beleid. In dit essay laat de auteur zien wat een sterk sociaal contract vraagt van beleidsmakers en onderzoekers.


Kim Putters
Kim Putters (1973) is sinds juni 2013 directeur van het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau (SCP) en hoogleraar Beleid en Sturing van de Zorg in de Veranderende Verzorgingsstaat bij Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management (ESHPM), van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Van 2008 tot 2013 was hij al hoogleraar Management van zorginstellingen aan hetzelfde instituut. Hij promoveerde op vraagstukken van beleid en bestuur in de zorg en verricht onderzoek naar innovaties in zorginstellingen, naar maatschappelijk ondernemerschap en wijk- en buurtgericht werken. Op 30 mei neemt Kim Putters afscheid van het SCP, zijn termijn loopt na negen jaar af.

    From 1964 (until 1990 globally) political science would become the dominant approach within the (local) administrative sciences in the Netherlands. This position took over from the legal approach. During this period, the concepts of politics, policy and decision-making were central to research and theory formation. In the period since 1990, we have seen a broader perspective emerging on institutions, management and governance in which Public Administration will increasingly profile itself as an independent discipline. This essay harks back to the importance of the legal approach for (local) administrative sciences from the time of the man who is regarded in the Netherlands as the founder of the discipline of Public Administration: Gerrit van Poelje. More specifically, the author addresses the question of the relationship between Public Administration and legal science in the more than one hundred years of (local) administrative science. After Gerrit van Poelje (his dissertation from 1914 is an important milestone in that history), the author discusses eleven other key persons who have made their own contribution to that history at various universities based on their legal expertise (in the broad senseHe concludes the essay with a brief discussion of the relevance of law and legal science for the future of public administration (the field) and Public Administration (the discipline).


Rik Reussing
Dr. G.H. Reussing is onderwijscoördinator van de joint degree Public Governance across Borders aan de Universiteit Twente en redactiesecretaris van Bestuurswetenschappen.
Essay

Een nieuwe weg naar Rome?

Alternatieve vorm van burgerparticipatie bij stadsverbetering

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 1 2022
Auteurs Nico Nelissen en Wouter Jan Verheul
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Municipalities are in a new phase of development. This requires rethinking how citizens can be involved in these developments. Instead of asking citizens to respond to municipal project initiatives, one of the (new) ways is to let citizens have their say about where, what and how urban improvements can be made. In this essay, the authors discuss what they mean by ‘areas for improvement’ and discuss two experiments – in two of the oldest Dutch cities: Maastricht and Nijmegen – of citizen participation that are intended to address such areas. In their view, in this way ‘a new, but obviously not the only, way to Rome is created’ in terms of citizen participation.


Nico Nelissen
Prof. dr. N.J.M. Nelissen is emeritus hoogleraar aan de Radboud Univer­siteit Nijmegen, redactielid en oud-hoofdredacteur van Bestuurs­wetenschappen.

Wouter Jan Verheul
Dr. W.J. Verheul is onderzoeker, adviseur en universitair docent aan de Technische Universiteit Delft bij de faculteit Bouwkunde. Hij houdt zich bezig met urban governance & leadership, grote iconische stadsprojecten, stedelijke gebiedstransformaties, place branding en place making.
Essay

Met vreemde ogen kijken

Gemeentelijke visitaties met behulp van bestuurskrachtmetingen: opzet, uitkomsten en benutting

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 3 2021
Auteurs Jean Schutgens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study examines the quality of visitation in three government sectors in the Netherlands: academic education (training), urban policy (urban municipalities) and municipal authorities. The focus is mainly on the visitation of municipal authorities in the Dutch province Limburg. The assessment of the visitation quality of university study programmes and of major cities policy must yield hypotheses to determine the quality of the visitation of municipal authorities that have been visited. The object of study is therefore ‘visitation’, in particular ‘visitation quality’. The visitations of university studies were viewed from four quality perspectives, namely on the design quality, the process quality, the assessing and the concluding quality, and usability or utilisation. This is also the case with the visitation of the major cities’ policy and of the Limburg municipal authorities. The question is, of course, what the analysis of the quality of all the assessments in three sectors yields, with special attention to the assessment of municipal authorities. Is it clear after that analysis how this quality inspection should be carried out? The study provides a wealth of insights and shows the state of the administrative strength of the inspected Limburg municipal authorities. A publication of this study has been postponed for more than five years, because the author wanted to investigate whether the administrative strength measurements were used in the longer term.


Jean Schutgens
Dr. J.M.L.R. Schutgens is bestuurskundige en in 2014 bij Arno Korsten gepromoveerd aan de Open Universiteit. Hij was gemeentesecretaris van Landgraaf in de periode 1992-2008.

    Barack Obama’s autobiography ‘A Promised Land’, of which the Dutch translation was published in 2020, is a clearly and vividly written (political) life story devoted to the first term of his US presidency. Of course it also mentions the journey to the top and the efforts he had to make to achieve it. Not an easy task for a young, inexperienced newcomer, who is also African-American. The book is a candid account of what happened during the primaries and his first term in office. It gives the impression that it is based on diary notes, which he later processed, and then turned into a successful story by the editors of the publishing house. The book is also pedantic to a certain extent: it points out what is worth pursuing, how to approach things, and what you can learn from your experiences (and mistakes). By extension, it contains numerous (intended) messages and (life) lessons. Above all, it provides a fascinating insight into the immense struggle that Obama had to fight to be able and allowed to hold the highest office in his country as a black man. Nico Nelissen also discusses the question of what local politicians and local administrators can gain from this autobiography.


Nico Nelissen
Prof. dr. N.J.M. Nelissen is emeritus hoogleraar aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, redactielid en oud-hoofdredacteur van Bestuurswetenschappen.

    Reflection and debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Sophie Albers
Sophie Albers, MA is actieonderzoeker bij het Instituut voor Publieke Waarden.

    Reflection and debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Hendrik Noten
Hendrik Noten MSc is zelfstandig beleidsadviseur en auteur.

    Reflection and debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Robert van Putten
Dr. Robert van Putten promoveerde in 2020 (cum laude) aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam op het proefschrift De ban van beheersing. Momenteel werkt hij als onderzoeker aan de Christelijke Hogeschool Ede en aan het Wetenschappelijk Instituut van de ChristenUnie. Daar werkt hij aan een project over deugdethiek in politiek en bestuur.
Reflectie & debat

Access_open Welke overheid na Fantoomgroei?

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2021
Auteurs Yvonne La Grouw en Mark van Ostaijen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Reflection and debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Yvonne La Grouw
Yvonne La Grouw, Msc is PhD kandidaat bestuurskunde en politicologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en redactielid van Beleid en Maatschappij.

Mark van Ostaijen
Dr. Mark van Ostaijen is managing director van het LDE Centre Governance of Migration and Diversity en assistant professor aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, en redactielid van Beleid en Maatschappij.

    Reflection and debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Dr. Mark van Ostaijen
Dr. Mark van Ostaijen is managing director van het LDE Centre Governance of Migration and Diversity en assistant professor aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Hij is tevens redacteur van Beleid en Maatschappij.
Reflectie & debat

Access_open De coronacrisis en de tragiek van ongelijkheid

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2021
Auteurs Rosanne Anholt MSc en Dr. Marijn Hoijtink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Reflection and debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Rosanne Anholt MSc
Rosanne Anholt MSc is universitair docent bestuurskunde, afdeling Bestuurskunde & Politicologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Dr. Marijn Hoijtink
Dr. Marijn Hoijtink is universitair docent internationale betrekkingen, afdeling Bestuurskunde & Politicologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

    Reflection and debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Yvonne La Grouw MSc
Yvonne La Grouw MSc is PhD-candidate bestuurskunde en politicologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en redactielid van Beleid en Maatschappij.

    Reflection and debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Justine van de Beek MSc
Justine van de Beek MSc werkt als campaigner bij stichting DeGoedeZaak.

    From 1964 (until around 1990), political science became the dominant approach within (local) administrative sciences in the Netherlands. This position was taken over from the legal approach. In this period, the concepts of politics, policy and decision-making were central to research and theory. In the period up to 1990, we still see a predominantly administration-centric or government-centric perspective among these political scientists, although we already see incentives from different authors for a broader perspective (the politics, policy and decision-making concepts remain relevant however) that will continue in the period thereafter. This broader perspective (on institutions, management and governance) took shape in the period after 1990, in which Public Administration would increasingly profile itself as an independent (inter)discipline. This essay tells the story of the (local) administrative sciences in this period as envisaged by twelve high-profile professors. The story starts in 1990 in Leiden with the (gradual) transition from classical to institutional Public administration, as is revealed in the inaugural lecture by Theo Toonen. This is followed by eleven other administrative scientists, who are divided into four ‘generations’ of three professors for convenience. In conclusion, the author of this essay argues that there is mainly a need for what he calls a (self-)critical Public Administration.


Rik Reussing
Dr. G.H. Reussing is onderwijscoördinator van de joint degree Public Governance across Borders aan de Universiteit Twente en redactiesecretaris van Bestuurswetenschappen.
Essay

Populisme als reactie op een falende (lokale) democratie?

Pierre Rosanvallons Le siècle du populisme

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 1 2021
Auteurs Nico Nelissen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    It had been on the wish list of the author of this essay (Nico Nelissen) for some time to devote an essay to the phenomenon of ‘populism’. The publication of Pierre Rosanvallon’s new book Le siècle du populisme (‘The Age of Populism’) was a good reason to act on this intention. The book is structured as follows. An introduction presents the broad outlines of what is discussed in the book. Then populism is discussed in three parts. The first part is mainly analytical in nature, in which the phenomenon of populism is analyzed from the perspective of unity and diversity. The second part of the book discusses the history of populism, not only now and in France, but also in the past and in other countries. In the third part of the book, a critical reflection on populism is given based on setting it against the background of the failures of modern democracy. Finally, there is an annex in which the history of the concept of populism is explained. Reflections on populism usually take place in the field of nation states and national democracies. But perhaps much more relevant is populism at the level of local democracy. It is often the ‘local annoyances’ that give rise to criticism of local government and local politics. It is to the credit of Rosanvallon who, on the whole, has nothing to do with populism, yet has the courage to deal with this protest against mainstream democracy with a little less bias.


Nico Nelissen
Prof. dr. N.J.M. Nelissen is emeritus hoogleraar aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, redactielid en oud-hoofdredacteur van Bestuurswetenschappen.

    Adriaan Koelma fits in with the list of legal scholars who helped to shape the early history of the (local) administrative sciences in the Netherlands, which was dominated by a legal approach to local administration. In that respect, he was not only a follower of the first Dutch public administration scholar, Gerrit van Poelje, but also his successor. He held the chair in Public Administration in Rotterdam, which Van Poelje vacated in 1933, first as a lecturer and later as a professor (from 1946 onwards). Nowadays, Koelma is mainly remembered for the state commission named after him: he (in vain) advocated the introduction of districts (next to municipalities). He was chairman of this state commission that was installed by Minister Beel on 19 December 1946. He fulfilled his scientific activities in addition to a career in the Dutch civil service. Koelma was a typical ‘self-made man’ who worked his way up from junior employee at the municipal clerk’s office of Dordrecht to municipal clerk and, if only briefly, mayor of Alkmaar. His experiences in the Second World War had a great influence on his later life. Due to a war-related illness, he had to give up the chairmanship of the Koelma Commission in 1947 and in 1948 his professorship and role as mayor of Alkmaar. This war also gave him insight into the pernicious influence of Nazi ideology on governance theory and governance practice. He could not have suspected how hard the German occupier would put the Dutch administration and its servants to the test during his public lesson of 1934, because at that time the Nazi regime in Germany had not yet shown its true nature at the local level of government.


Dr. Rik Reussing
Dr. G.H. Reussing is onderwijscoördinator van de joint degree Public Governance across Borders aan de Universiteit Twente en redactiesecretaris van Bestuurswetenschappen.

    This essay discusses the book L’archipel français: naissance d’une nation multiple et divisée. In addition, the French author Jérôme Fourquet is discussed, what the central thesis of the book is, what research methods the author uses, how the book is structured and what conclusions he comes to. Subsequently, the second part of the essay raises the question of the extent to which (in the opinion of the author of the essay) there is also a metamorphosis of society in the Netherlands, as is seen in France. This enables him, among other things, to report on a longitudinal research project at Radboud University Nijmegen, which is known as ‘Socio-cultural Developments in the Netherlands’ (SOCON). The central proposition of the bestseller is that France was once a nation that could be seen as ‘one and indivisible’ (and was experienced as such), but that France has changed fundamentally over the past decades and is now a ‘multiform and divided’ country: an ‘archipelisation’ process has occurred. Fourquet derives the term ‘archipelago’ from geology and uses it as a metaphor for the sub-worlds that have emerged: largely autonomous ‘islands’ with a limited joint bond. The Dutch SOCON study and other evidence supports Fourquet’s notion that there is also a huge shift in society in the Netherlands and that here too (perhaps less than in France) there are indications for ‘archipelisation’.


Prof. dr. Nico Nelissen
Prof. dr. N.J.M. Nelissen is emeritus hoogleraar aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, redactielid en oud-hoofdredacteur van Bestuurswetenschappen.

    Reflection and debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Dr. Mark van Ostaijen
Dr. Mark van Ostaijen is als bestuurssocioloog verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en redactielid van Beleid en Maatschappij.
Reflectie & debat

Dierenrechten in de Grondwet?

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Animal Rights, Constitution, Utilitarianism, Ethology, Veganism
Auteurs Mr. ing. Sierd Hans de Jong
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Two petitions on the internet strive to include ‘animal rights’ in the Dutch Constitution. Jeremy Bentham stipulated that animals should not be denied the right to happiness, because they suffer. The Dutch philosopher Eskens made a plea to grant animals the same fundamental rights as humans. Theoretically, this leads to special, bizarre and sometimes paradoxical situations. This indicates that the logic in this theory is missing.
    In the past fifty years, ethological science made enormous progress and we have learned much more about the emotions and the behaviour of animals. Animals travel consciously through ‘time’ and hurt their brains in the search for knowledge and experiences. But this does not yet make humans and animals equal. Within the legal discourse there is no place for universal rights for animals because these must always be asserted through human intervention. The energy to maintain the bureaucracy Eskens proposes should be used to formulate animal protection as a human obligation.


Mr. ing. Sierd Hans de Jong
Mr. ing. Sierd Hans de Jong is sinds 1 januari 2019 gepensioneerd senior inspecteur van de Nederlandse Voedsel- en Warenautoriteit.
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