Zoekresultaat: 14 artikelen

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Access_open Lokale en regionale democratie ten tijde van corona

Een historisch overzicht met zes perioden

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2021
Auteurs Carmen Dymanus BSc, Roos Hofstra BSc, Dr. Ank Michels e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this feature authors discuss recent research findings that are of interest to readers of Beleid en Maatschappij.


Carmen Dymanus BSc
Carmen Dymanus BSc is junior onderzoeker bij het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

Roos Hofstra BSc
Roos Hofstra BSc is junior onderzoeker bij het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

Dr. Ank Michels
Dr. Ank Michels is universitair hoofddocent bij het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

Prof. dr. Albert Meijer
Prof. dr. Albert Meijer is hoogleraar publiek management bij het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Dossier

Access_open Vechten tegen het monster

Concentratie van deprivatie en deviantie in steden

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2020
Auteurs Prof. dr. Jack Burgers
Auteursinformatie

Prof. dr. Jack Burgers
Prof. dr. Jack Burgers is socioloog en emeritus hoogleraar grootstedelijke vraagstukken aan de Erasmus Universiteit te Rotterdam.
Dossier

Eigendoms- en gebruiksrechten van genetische informatie

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden genetic information, genoeconomics, insurance of longevity risk, risk selection, Regulation
Auteurs Prof. dr. Frank den Butter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2003, the WRR suggested in the ‘Deciding on Biotechnology’ report that individuals should not be given ownership of their personal genetic information (DNA) to prevent risk selection and exclusion. Yet, that does not seem politically and ethically feasible. From that perspective, the research question of this article is how to regulate ownership and use of genetic information. Better predictability of health and longevity risk, through genetic information and thanks to new developments in geno-economics, possibly in combination with ‘big data’, makes risk selection by insurance companies attractive. That holds more specifically for the pension system. In addition to insurance for investment risk, the pension system also offers insurance for longevity risk. In itself, selection for longevity risk via premium setting is not unwarranted since the ‘bad risks’ with long life expectancy are the highly educated, so that the current implicit risk solidarity in pension insurance in The Netherlands, unlike in health insurance, brings about more inequality. But an unrestricted risk selection does raise ethical and social questions and does not fit into the new pension system in the Netherlands. That is why good and extensive legislation is needed for property rights and the utilization of genetic information of individual citizens. A similar focus on regulation is also in order for the use of DNA information of the government in criminal cases. Here the question is what additional options the government should have to use the information to solve crimes.


Prof. dr. Frank den Butter
Prof. dr. Frank den Butter is hoogleraar algemene economie aan de Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam. Van 1998 tot 2003 was hij lid van de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid.
Dossier

Access_open Zicht op werk: grenzen aan het digitaal meten van werkenden

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden data analytics, artificial intelligence, workplace surveillance, digital monitoring, quality of work
Auteurs Roos de Jong MSc, Djurre Das MSc, Linda Kool MSc MA e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Technological advancements in the field of data analytics, algorithms and AI have dramatically increased opportunities for workplace monitoring. In this article, we discuss some of these digital technologies, and examine their impact on employment relationships and the quality of work. Based on desk research, literature review and interviews, the Rathenau Institute examined a wide range of digital instruments, their scientific basis, implications for the quality of work and relevant legal frameworks. Digital monitoring technologies often quantify work activities. We argue that it is important for organisations to realise that such quantification often negatively impacts both job quality and employment relationships. Responsible use of digital monitoring tools not only requires a broad societal and political dialogue about privacy, discrimination and workload but also a critical reflection on the aim of organisations to use data to understand workers, while not everything of value can be captured in data.


Roos de Jong MSc
Roos de Jong MSc is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Rathenau Instituut.

Djurre Das MSc
Djurre Das MSc is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Rathenau Instituut.

Linda Kool MSc MA
Linda Kool MSc MA is themacoördinator ‘Digitale Samenleving en AI’ bij het Rathenau Instituut.

Dr. ir. Melanie Peters
Dr. ir. Melanie Peters is directeur van het Rathenau Instituut.
Dossier

Access_open Naar nieuwe scheidslijnen op de Nederlandse arbeidsmarkt? Een pleidooi voor uitvoerbaarheid van beleid

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Labour market, Dividing lines, Policy feasibility, Participation Act, Sustainable employability
Auteurs Dr. ir. Maroesjka Versantvoort en Prof. dr. Kim Putters
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recent developments on the Dutch labour market raise questions about the emergence of new social dividing lines. In this paper we discuss two cases. Both address labour market disadvantages which can easily deepen and sharpen with unchanged policies. The first case shows that there are groups that are less able to respond to the defined trends in the labour market due to a lack of education or disabilities. In the second case we focus on the question of sustainable employability as such that creates dividing lines. A first conclusion from our contribution is that a thorough analysis of existing dividing lines in the labour market is crucial for effective policy, but that knowledge about deepening old and creating new dividing lines is at least as relevant. A second conclusion is that the outlined assumptions in policies around self-reliance of, for example, people with a disability or the possibilities of employers to realize sheltered work and to focus on retraining, for example outside working hours, are not always realistic. Much more will have to be done to match the real possibilities of people and organizations to achieve this. Financial, but also organizational and personal. The motivations and behaviors of employees, employers and educational authorities appear to be very relevant explanatory factors in practice, which are often not sufficiently taken into account. Recent experiences with the Participation Act and lifelong learning show us that. More interaction is needed in the coming years between research, policy and the practice of the labour market.


Dr. ir. Maroesjka Versantvoort
Dr. ir. Maroesjka Versantvoort is verbonden aan het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau als programmaleider ‘Dynamiek op de arbeidsmarkt’.

Prof. dr. Kim Putters
Prof. dr. Kim Putters is directeur van het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau.
Dossier

Access_open Meer vrouwen in het openbaar bestuur: lessen uit de publieke sector

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden Gender diversity, Public administration, Ethnic diversity, Inclusion, Emancipation, Leadership
Auteurs Dr. Saniye Çelik
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article reflects on the proposed measures of the Dutch Government to increase the number of women in the Dutch public administration. Based on the lessons learned from the practice of the public sector, this study concludes that there is still much work to be done with regard to female participation in the Netherlands, but when it comes to the ethnic minorities, the situation is alarming. Politicians directly elected by the citizen, such as MPs and councillors, do see a representation of the ethnic diversity of society. Where the citizen has no direct influence, such as the king’s commissioners, mayors, and aldermen, the percentages are zero or slightly higher than zero. It is argued that mechanisms such as selection procedures are hindering gender and ethnic diversity at the top of the public organizations. It is, therefore, suggested that introducing quota could bring more diversity in public administration.


Dr. Saniye Çelik
Dr. Saniye Çelik is lector diversiteit aan de Hogeschool Leiden, decaan inclusief leiderschap bij het NSOB en opleider bij Center for Professional Learning aan de Universiteit Leiden.

    The man-woman ratio in municipality councils in the Netherlands varies tremendously. Why does local politics attract women in some municipalities but not in other? The author attempts to answer this question by conducting interviews with municipality clerks and female council members of municipalities where the man-women ratio is even and municipalities where men are in the overwhelming majority. Additionally, the author conducts seven in depth interviews with former local and regional politicians about their motives to quit. Based on the interviews the author concludes that the political culture varies locally, making feel women more or less welcome. Sexist comments were mentioned several times, more often coming from respondents who worked in councils where men were in the majority. Finally, the balance between work, local politics and family life was often mentioned as a major hurdle for young parents (both men and women) for becoming or staying politically active. The author suggests to explore ways to change the political culture, to combat sexism and to find ways to reduce the workload in order to create more equal access to the local political arena.


Dr. Maria Kranendonk
Dr. Maria Kranendonk is junior expert demografische en economische data-analyse bij de provincie Noord-Holland. Toen ze deze bijdrage schreef was zij postdoctorale onderzoeker aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Dr. Wink de Boer
Dr. Wink de Boer is internist en maag-darm-leverarts (MDL) in Bernhoven.
Dossier

De aanpak van belastingontwijking door de EU: gerichte maatregelen zonder structurele verandering.

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Tax, EU/European Union, Corporate taxation, Tax avoidance, Tax policy
Auteurs Indra Römgens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    According to the outgoing European Commissioner Pierre Moscovici, the European Union (EU) has made more progress in tackling tax avoidance and evasion in the last five years than in the twenty years before that. This article argues that although several targeted measures have indeed been adopted, such as automatic exchange of tax rulings and limitations on interest deductions, this has not led to a structural change in EU corporate tax policies, nor in underlying power relations. The article discusses the politics of a number of recent policy developments related to tax avoidance and evasion by transnational corporations. It argues that the adoption of targeted measures, and the simultaneous stalling of more comprehensive approaches – in terms of tax transparency or a common consolidated corporate tax base – can be explained by recent tax controversies, international politics, and the dynamics within and between EU institutions. Particular attention is paid to the role of the European Parliament that is formally limited, but still houses progressive forces that have continuously pushed for a clampdown on tax avoidance. Finally, the article pleads for more transparent EU decision-making, specifically concerning discussions with and within the Council, in order to improve the democratic legitimacy of EU corporate tax policies and processes.


Indra Römgens
MSc Indra Römgens is Promovendus aan de Roskilde Universiteit in Denemarken en de Radboud Universiteit in Nijmegen.
Dossier

De schuldencrisis in de eurozone: oorzaken, aanpak en implicaties

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Eurozone crisis, Financialization, Bail-outs, Austerity, Banking union, Quantitative easing
Auteurs Dr. Henk Overbeek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Ten years ago, now, the Eurozone began to shake on its foundations. This article traces the genesis of the crisis and the present state of affairs. As to the causes of the global financial crisis in 2008, I argue that contrary to common understanding, the financial crisis had its deeper causes in a decades old tendency towards crisis in the real economy, produced by the continuous overaccumulation of capital which can only return profits by undertaking speculative short-term investments (a phenomenon known as ‘financialisation’). I then trace how the global financial crisis morphed into a crisis of public deficits and debt in 2010-2011, particularly in the Eurozone. Three factors are shown to be responsible: financialization, design faults in the European monetary union, and the neo-mercantilist strategy of especially Germany and the Netherlands. The paper next looks at the five main traits of the policy responses in the Eurozone: bailing out governments and banks through creating emergency funds; imposition of austerity and budget discipline for member state governments; attempting to create and complete a Eurozone banking union; subsequently the European Central Bank engaged on an unprecedented scale in ‘quantitative easing’; and finally, institutional reform in an attempt to repair the most pressing design faults of the EMU. The paper concludes that the underlying structural factors leading up to the crisis have only been addressed incompletely: the overaccumulation of capital continues, the completion of the banking union is in an impasse, quantitative easing has mostly just intensified financialization by pushing up asset prizes, and institutional reform has taken the form of a fundamentally undemocratic attempt at monetary and political union by stealth. The broader legitimacy of the European project has been substantially undermined, and Europe is not in a better position than eight years ago in case of a new global crisis.


Dr. Henk Overbeek
Henk Overbeek is Emeritus Hoogleraar Internationale betrekkingen aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschap en Politicologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Mijke Houwerzijl
Prof. mr. Mijke Houwerzijl is hoogleraar Arbeidsrecht aan de Universiteit van Tilburg en bijzonder hoogleraar Europees en rechtsvergelijkend arbeidsrecht aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Casus

Access_open De winsten van zorginstellingen

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden health-care organizations, financial accounts, for-profit or not-for-profit, Profits, economies of scale
Auteurs Prof. dr. Jeroen Suijs en Prof. dr. Harrie Verbon
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this feature authors discuss recent research findings that are of interest to readers of Beleid en Maatschappij.
    We calculate and describe profits obtained by health organizations in The Netherlands in the years 2014 and 2015. We distinguish between profit and not-for-profit organizations. We find that on average net profits amount to about 2 percent on turnover with a peak of more than 3 percent for mental-healthcare organizations. If we take the size of organizations into account, we find that for-profit organizations with a turnover of less than 1 million euro tend to have on average net profit rates of 4 percent to more than 5 percent with peaks amounting to more than 50 percent. We are not yet able to come up with explanations for these excessively high profit rates in parts of the Dutch health care sector. On the other hand, the highest losses can be found in small-sized organizations as well. We delved deeper into the financial accounts of a few for-profit organizations and found indications of misreporting of turnover or number of treatments. On the other hand, bad management and unhealthy cost structures might explain why some organizations incur excessive big losses. The sector does not appear to be well monitored by the government.


Prof. dr. Jeroen Suijs
Prof. dr. Jeroen Suijs is hoogleraar financial accounting aan de Erasmus Universiteit in Rotterdam.

Prof. dr. Harrie Verbon
Prof. dr. Harrie Verbon is hoogleraar openbare financiën aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.

Prof. dr. Bas Ter Weel
Prof. dr. Bas ter Weel is onderdirecteur van het Centraal Planbureau en hoogleraar economie aan de Universiteit Maastricht. www.cpb.nl/medewerkers/bas-ter-weel.

Prof. dr. Paul De Beer
Prof. dr. Paul de Beer is Henri Polak hoogleraar voor arbeidsverhoudingen aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en mededirecteur van het Amsterdams Instituut voor ArbeidsStudies (AIAS).
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