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Artikel

Schaaldenken is ‘schraal’ denken

In netwerkbestuur is de schaal van het bestuur minder relevant

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden scale, local government, performance, democratic legitimacy
Auteurs Linze Schaap
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands there is an ongoing discussion on the preferred or even necessary scale of government. Basic assumption in this decades-long discussion is that the mere seize of government affects the functioning and quality of government. This article questions that specific assumption, by applying two criteria; government performance and democratic legitimacy. It is concluded that the supposed relationship between seize and quality hardly exists, theoretically nor empirically. Recent government proposals for further up-scaling are being critically assessed. Main conclusion is that thinking in terms of scale and seize is no longer feasible in a modern network society.


Linze Schaap
Dr L. Schaap is Universitair Hoofddocent Bestuurskunde bij DEMOS - Centrum voor Burgerschap en Beter Bestuur, Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

De bestuurlijke gevolgen van web 2.0

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden web 2.0, responsive government, government-citizen interaction
Auteurs Vincent Homburg en Philip Marcel Karré
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    New means of communication, especially social media, dramatically alter the relationship between citizens and government. The internet is a platform for political discourse now in which citizens not only interact with governments but often play a leading role. This demands of government to learn how to act in a more responsive fashion. In this issue, we focus on the practical effects of web 2.0 for various governmental organizations and draw up a research agenda.


Vincent Homburg
Dr V.M.F. Homburg is universitair hoofddocent bij de opleiding bestuurskunde van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Philip Marcel Karré
Dr P.M. Karré is senioronderzoeker aan de Nederlandse School voor Openbaar Bestuur en program maleider bij de Hogeschool van Amsterdam.
Artikel

Goed bestuur als management van spanningen tussen verschillende publieke waarden

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden Good governance, public values, principles of proper administration, principles of good administration, principles of good governance
Auteurs Gjalt de Graaf, Veerle van Doeveren, Anne-Marie Reynaers e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this literature review we present and discuss the key concepts of this symposium issue: (good) governance, (public) values, and the management of tensions between public values. The article concludes with an overview of strategies on how to deal with public values as a prelude to the remainder of the symposium, and discusses the implications of the distinguished strategies for public administration practice.


Gjalt de Graaf
Dr G. de Graaf, drs A. Reynaers en dr Z. van der Wal zijn verbonden aan de vakgroep Bestuurskunde aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, respectievelijk als universitair hoofddocent, promovenda en universitair docent.

Veerle van Doeveren
Drs V. van Doeveren is als promovenda verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Anne-Marie Reynaers
Dr G. de Graaf, drs A. Reynaers en dr Z. van der Wal zijn verbonden aan de vakgroep Bestuurskunde aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, respectievelijk als universitair hoofddocent, promovenda en universitair docent.

Zeger van der Wal
Dr G. de Graaf, drs A. Reynaers en dr Z. van der Wal zijn verbonden aan de vakgroep Bestuurskunde aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, respectievelijk als universitair hoofddocent, promovenda en universitair docent.
Artikel

De democratische waarde van burgerparticipatie: Interactief bestuur en deliberatieve fora1

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden Citizen participation, democracy, democratic innovations, participatory governance, deliberative forums
Auteurs Ank Michels
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Whilst embedding democratic innovations that increase and deepen citizen participation in decision making now is a common policy of governments in many countries, and theorists in democratic theory also tend to emphasize how good citizen participation is to democracy, the empirical evaluation of democratic innovations is still a rather unexplored area of research.

    This article evaluates two types of democratic innovations, participatory governance and deliberative forums in the Netherlands and a large number of other Western countries. The findings show, for both types of innovation, that citizen participation contributes to the quality of democracy in several ways. The analysis also makes it clear that different designs produce different democratic effects, which also reflects tensions between democratic values; participatory governance projects are better at giving citizens influence, whereas deliberative forums appear to be better at promoting the exchange of arguments. Also, whereas cases of participatory governance are more open than deliberative forums, representation is higher for the deliberative type of cases. As a consequence politicians and policy makers can have a major impact on democracy; by choosing for a specific design of citizen participation they may encourage certain aspects of democracy more than others.


Ank Michels
Dr A.M.B. Michels is universitair docent bij het Departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Verantwoordelijke vrijheid: responsabilisering van burgers op voorwaarden van de staat

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden governance, responsibilisation, political discourse, politics, public administration
Auteurs Rik Peeters en Gerard Drosterij
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Behind many notions of ‘governance’, there lies the image of a ‘modest’ or ‘retreating’ state. The assumption is that local and national authorities can only perform effectively if in cooperation with other public and private actors. Generally, it is said, governments increasingly lack the legitimacy for top-down interventions and hence the need of including participative citizen involvement in policy making and implementation. In recent years this democratic image has been disputed in scientific debates because of its lack of attention for new forms of interventionism by the state in societal processes, e.g. crime, youth care, immigration and integration. In this article, we aim to contribute to this other understanding of modern governance by analysing Dutch political discourse between 2001 and 2010 on (implicit) notions of the role and responsibility of the state. We show how the idea of ‘responsibilisation’ of citizens is turned into an argument for more instead of less state involvement in societal processes and citizens’ lives. By emphasizing ‘shared responsibilities’ between government and society, a tricky picture of parity is sketched of this relation. Dutch government presents itself as ‘an ally’ of citizens in fighting pressing social problems, but in the meantime an ideal of ‘responsible behaviour’ is constructed, namely, citizen behaviour in concordance with government’s policy ambitions. Within this political discourse, the socio-liberal idea of ‘responsibility’ turns into ‘responsibilisation on government’s terms’ and ‘irresponsible’ behaviour becomes a legitimate focal point for deep state interventions through techniques of governance.


Rik Peeters
Rik Peeters is onderzoeker en promovendus bij de Nederlandse School voor Openbaar Bestuur. Correspondentiegegevens: drs. R. Peeters, Nederlandse School voor Openbaar Bestuur, Lange Voorhout 17, 2514 EB Den Haag, peeters@nsob.nl.

Gerard Drosterij
Gerard Drosterij is onderzoeker bij de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur.
Artikel

De investeringsstaat en het verdelingsvraagstuk: waarom is de armoede niet gedaald?

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden welfare state, poverty, inequality, new social risks, labour market, income protection
Auteurs Bea Cantillon en Wim Van Lancker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the past decades, employment and incomes were on the rise, social spending remained high while passive welfare states were progressively transformed into so-called ‘investment states’. Despite these favourable conditions, however, contemporary welfare states did not succeed in reducing poverty and inequality. What lies beneath the disquieting poverty standstill and how did welfare states miss this ‘window of opportunity’? In this article, we aim to shed more light on this question. We identify three structural trends behind the poverty standstill: rising employment has benefited workless households only partially; income protection for the working-age population out of work has become less adequate; social policies and, more generally, social redistribution have become less pro-poor. In other words, the reorientation of social expenditures to the employed occurred at the expense of those at risk in the labour market. The success of future poverty-reducing strategies will depend on the way policies aimed at labour market inclusion will be implemented and the emphasis on redistributive policies.


Bea Cantillon
Bea Cantillon is directeur van het Centrum voor Sociaal Beleid Herman Deleeck van de faculteit Politieke en Sociale Wetenschappen, Universiteit Antwerpen. Correspondentiegegevens: prof. dr. B. Cantillon, Centrum voor Sociaal Beleid Herman Deleeck, Faculteit Politieke en Sociale Wetenschappen, Universiteit Antwerpen, Sint-Jacobstraat 2 - B-2000 Antwerpen, bea.cantillon@ua.ac.be.

Wim Van Lancker
Wim Van Lancker is onderzoeker aan het Centrum voor Sociaal Beleid Herman Deleeck van de faculteit Politieke en Sociale Wetenschappen, Universiteit Antwerpen. Correspondentiegegevens: Wim Van Lancker, Centrum voor Sociaal Beleid Herman Deleeck, Faculteit Politieke en Sociale Wetenschappen, Universiteit Antwerpen, Sint-Jacobstraat 2 - B-2000 Antwerpen, wim.vanlancker@ua.ac.be.
Artikel

De nieuwe burgerlijkheid: participatie als conformerende zelfredzaamheid

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden Participatie, Zelfredzaamheid, legitimatie, Burgerschap, Responsabilisering
Auteurs Dr. Gerard Drosterij en Rik Peeters
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    For many years now, citizenship has been a hot topic in Dutch politics. The activation and participation of citizens has been part and parcel of many policy initiatives. In this fashion, the current cabinet of Prime Minister Rutte has stressed the virtues of a ‘big society’ and a ‘small government’. We call this the new civility: a citizenship philosophy in which an ethico-economic claim of self-sufficiency is accompanied by a strong anticipation of policy conformity. Notably, the democratic legitimation of the new civility has been reversed. Now it is government which demands civic accountability, not the other way around. Responsible citizenship, not responsible government is at its heart. Furthermore, the new civility is based on a reversal of the Mandevillean idea of private vices and public benefits. We illustrate its ambiguous strands by a case study of a citizen’s initiative project in the city of Dordrecht. We conclude by showing how the tension between the values of civil self-sufficiency and policy conformity ironically can turn out in a-political conception of citizenship.


Dr. Gerard Drosterij
dr. Gerard Drosterij is publicist en zelfstandig adviseur. Correspondentie gegevens: Dr. G. Drosterij, Graaf Florisstraat 63b, 3021 CC, Rotterdam, g.drosterij@uvt.nl.

Rik Peeters
drs. Rik Peeters is onderzoeker en promovendus bij de Nederlandse School voor Openbaar Bestuur.
Artikel

Ondersteuning in vieren

Zichtlijnen in het faciliteren van burgerinitiatieven in de buurt

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden burgerinitiatief, ondersteuning, faciliteren, professionals, wijken
Auteurs Dr. Mirjan Oude Vrielink en Drs. Ted van de Wijdeven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands it is widely acknowledged that neighbourhood oriented citizen’s initiatives often require some professional support. Little is known, however, about the various types of support that professionals may provide. Moreover, Dutch policies usually tend to take an instrumental stance towards citizen initiatives, focussing on their possible contribution to governmental goals. In this contribution we make an effort to develop a typology of different types and roles of professional support. Four basic types of professional support are derived from two axis. The first axis distinguishes between an instrumental approach and a more personal approach, the second between professional support focussing on the initiative/the initiator or on the broader institutional and civil society context. From our empirical findings we conclude that a vital context for citizen initiatives may be produced through the combination of an instrumental and personal approach. The latter comprises efforts of empowerment attuned to both the specific personal needs and capacities of citizens and the typical neighbourhood context. A combined approach may reduce the risk of ‘crowding out citizenship’ that exists when citizen’s initiatives become an instrument in a government’s policy.


Dr. Mirjan Oude Vrielink
Mirjan Oude Vrielink is senior onderzoeker aan de faculteit Management en Bestuur, Universiteit Twente. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. M.J. Oude Vrielink, Universiteit Twente, faculteit Management en Bestuur/PolMT, Postbus 217, 7500 AE Enschede, m.j.oudevrielink@utwente.nl.

Drs. Ted van de Wijdeven
Ted van de Wijdeven is onderzoeker aan de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur, Universiteit van Tilburg. Correspondentiegegevens: Drs. T.M.F. van de Wijdeven, Universiteit van Tilburg, Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur, Postbus 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, wijdeven@uvt.nl.
Artikel

Particulier initiatief en overheid in historisch perspectief

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden private initiatives, the Netherlands, pillarization, history, civil society
Auteurs Dr. Marcel Hoogenboom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The central question in this article is whether the relationship between the current citizen’s initiatives and government in the Netherlands shows similarities to the relationship between their predecessors (usually denoted as ‘private initiatives’) and government in the past, and more specifically in the time of pillarization. In the article it is claimed that in the time of pillarization – the period between around 1900 and 1970, when Dutch society was characterized by vertical social divisions along denominational (religious) and ideological lines – private initiatives and Dutch government developed a peculiar symbiotic relationship. In this period, on the one hand the pillarized private initiatives, as a matter of course, expected a large degree of autonomy but at the same time all sorts of support from Dutch government when administering various public tasks. On the other hand, Dutch government took for granted that the pillarized private initiatives highly contributed to the initiation and administration of these public tasks. Since the disintegration of the pillars in 1970s Dutch government has been searching for new ways to relate to the old and new private initiatives, and vice versa. Yet in this search both government and private initiatives still seem driven by the old ‘reflexes’ of pillarization.


Dr. Marcel Hoogenboom
Marcel Hoogenboom is universitair docent algemene sociale wetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. M.J.M. Hoogenboom, Universiteit Utrecht, faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht, m.j.m.hoogenboom@uu.nl.
Artikel

Welke burger telt mee(r) in de doe-democratie?

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden civic participation, citizens’ initiatives, inequalities, neighbourhoods, democracy
Auteurs Drs. Judith Bakker, Prof. dr. Bas Denters en Dr. Pieter-Jan Klok
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In citizens’ initiatives (CI’s) citizens themselves take action to solve problems in their community. Many Dutch municipalities have adopted policies to facilitate CI’s. This raises a number of issues. For example who are involved in such initiatives? And, which problems are likely to be addressed? Such questions are pertinent, because for other forms of civic participation research has demonstrated that privileged social groups are overrepresented. We have compared groups of citizens who are actively involved in CI’s with less active citizens. It is demonstrated that in keeping with previous findings privileged social groups (e.g. high income and well educated people) are overrepresented amongst the more active citizens. This is true for both individual and collective neighbourhood initiatives. However, we did not find an overrepresentation of males amongst the activists. In answering the second question, we have looked at the concerns and worries of the citizens. There is no evidence of systematic differences in the problem definitions of more and less active citizens. This mitigates problem of the social selectivity in civic participation: if citizens agree about the issues to be addressed, who cares about who does the job, provided that someone is willing to do it?


Drs. Judith Bakker
Judith Bakker is junior onderzoeker aan de faculteit Management en Bestuur, Universiteit Twente. Correspondentiegegevens: Drs. J.H.M. Bakker, Universiteit Twente, faculteit Management en Bestuur, vakgroep Political Science and Research Methods, Postbus 217, 7500 AE Enschede, J.H.M.Bakker@utwente.nl.

Prof. dr. Bas Denters
Bas Denters is hoogleraar bestuurskunde aan de Universiteit Twente. Correspondentiegegevens: Prof. dr. S.A.H. Denters, Universiteit Twente, faculteit Management en Bestuur, vakgroep Political Science and Research Methods, Postbus 217, 7500 AE Enschede, S.A.H.Denters@utwente.nl.

Dr. Pieter-Jan Klok
Pieter-Jan Klok is universitair docent beleidswetenschap aan de faculteit Management en Bestuur, Universiteit Twente. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. P.-J. Klok, Universiteit Twente, faculteit Management en Bestuur, vakgroep Science Technology and Policy Studies, Postbus 217, 7500 AE Enschede, P.J.Klok@utwente.nl.
Artikel

Burgerinitiatieven en de bescheiden overheid

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2011
Auteurs Dr. Mirjan Oude Vrielink en Dr. Imrat Verhoeven
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Mirjan Oude Vrielink
Mirjan Oude Vrielink is senior onderzoeker aan de faculteit Management en Bestuur, Universiteit Twente. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. M.J. Oude Vrielink, Universiteit Twente, faculteit Management en Bestuur/PolMT, Postbus 217, 7500 AE Enschede, m.j.oudevrielink@utwente.nl.

Dr. Imrat Verhoeven
Imrat Verhoeven is postdoc onderzoeker aan de afdeling Sociologie en Antropologie, Universiteit van Amsterdam/AISSR. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. I. Verhoeven, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 185, 1012 DK Amsterdam, i.verhoeven@uva.nl.
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