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Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij x Jaar 2009 x Rubriek Artikel x

    Since 1994, the concept of citizenship is a central concept in Dutch Integration policy for immigrants and their descendants. Gradually, the concept has become a moral category of good and active citizenship, associated with all kinds of obligations. Since the turn of the century it is even used to urge on – especially – Muslims to assimilate to mainstream culture and fundamental norms and values. This contrasts sharply with the Dutch multicultural policy of the 1980s. How is it possible for political and policy discourse to change in such a radical way within a few decades? And what role played the concept of citizenship in these changes? This article seeks to answer these questions by investigating how the concept of citizenship has been interpreted and applied differently over time in Dutch discourse on integration policy, focussing on issues of unity versus ethno-cultural diversity. With this purpose, first, the concept of citizenship is defined and differentiated in four dimensions and various perspectives. Next, Dutch political and policy discourse of the last 25 years is examined in broad lines. Subsequently, the Dutch discourse is analysed in more detail in debates of the last decades on dual nationality and on civic integration policy.


Alfons Fermin
Alfons Fermin is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het Rotterdams Instituut voor Sociaal-wetenschappelijk BeleidsOnderzoek (RISBO) van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. A. Fermin Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam RISBO Postbus 1738, kamer T11-08 3000 DR Rotterdam fermin@fsw.eur.nl

    According to many observers, multicultural integration policies have strongly eroded in the Netherlands since the early 1990s and particularly following the rise of Pim Fortuyn in 2002. In this view, the Netherlands now follow harsh, assimilationist policies that threaten the foundations of democracy. Policy studies on the local level have however found strong continuities. This article investigates changes and continuities in Dutch integration policies on the national level. The cross-national policy data compiled in the Migration Policy Index show that the Netherlands are in 2007 still among the European countries that offer immigrants and their descendants the largest degree of legal equality. Comparative data on accommodation policies regarding immigrant cultures and religions show that Dutch policies are still culturally pluralist compared to most other European countries, e.g., by recognizing immigrants' ethnic and religious identities and practices, subsidizing and incorporating their associations, and providing preferential access to public sector jobs. Quantitative comparative policy data are supplemented by qualitative examples of pluralist policies in the media, the police force, and nature conservation and recreation. The article concludes that in spite of rhetoric to the contrary, there is strong path dependence in Dutch integration policies, also on the national level.


Ruud Koopmans
Ruud Koopmans is directeur van de afdeling 'Migration, Integration, Transnationalization' aan het Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB). Correspondentiegegevens: Prof. dr. R. Koopmans Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB) Reichpietschufer 50 10785 Berlijn Duitsland koopmans@wzb.eu
Artikel

Aspecten van burgerschap

Een historische analyse van de transformaties van het burgerschapsconcept in Nederland

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2009
Auteurs Friso van Houdt en Willem Schinkel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The historical transformations of Dutch citizenship are assessed in this article in light of two aspects. One concerns the dimensions and layers of citizenship; the other pertains to the relative stress laid on either formal or moral citizenship. We illustrate how citizenship was broadened from civic to political, social and cultural rights. Then we discuss the recent moralization of citizenship in the context of Dutch debates on immigrant integration. We illustrate how the relative stress on moral citizenship therein pertains to a virtual disenfranchisement of non-native Dutch citizens.


Friso van Houdt
Friso van Houdt is als promovendus verbonden aan de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Willem Schinkel
Willem Schinkel is universitair hoofddocent theoretische sociologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. W. Schinkel Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen Capaciteitsgroep Sociologie Postbus 1738 3000 DR Rotterdam schinkel@fsw.eur.nl

    In public debate on immigrants' political ties with their country of origin, two assumptions prevail. The first assumption is that many immigrants engage in transnational political activities. The second is that forms of transnational citizenship are an impediment for the development of local citizenship. However, so far little research has been done on the importance of, and the relationship between, local and transnational citizenship. In this article, we focus on local and transnational forms of active citizenship, here understood as the total of political practices and processes of identification. Our study, conducted among middle-class immigrants in Rotterdam, indicates that the importance of active transnational citizenship should not be overstated. Among these middle-class immigrants, political practices are primarily focused on the local level; political practices directed to the home country appear to be quite rare. If we look at processes of identification, we see that a majority of the middle-class immigrants have a strong urban identity. Many of them combine this local identification with feelings of belonging with people in their home country. These local and transnational identifications seem to reinforce, rather than impede, each other.


Marianne van Bochove
Marianne van Bochove is als promovendus verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Correspondentiegegevens: M.E. van Bochove, MSc Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen Capaciteitsgroep Sociologie Postbus 1738 3000 DR Rotterdam vanbochove@fsw.eur.nl

Katja Rusinovic
Katja Rusinovic werkt aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam als postdoc onderzoeker.

Godfried Engbersen
Godfried Engbersen is als als hoogleraar algemene sociologie verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

'We can do better than that!'

Over de toekomst van het stelsel van sociale zekerheid in het licht van immigratie en integratie van niet-westerse immigranten

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2009
Auteurs Erik de Gier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article sketches four more or less excluding future scenarios with regard to immigration and social security. Its objective is to find an answer to the question how the Dutch welfare state and more in particular the system of social security can contribute positively to both labour market participation and social integration of non-western immigrants. The four scenarios, constructed on the basis of two dichotomies open versus closed country borders and privatised versus collective social security, can be perceived as ideal types. Although none of the four scenarios will contribute unequivocally to solving the problem of labour market participation and social integration of immigration, it turns out that two scenarios will be more realistic, given in particular the long-term development of the social security system towards further privatisation. These are the scenarios that combine privatised social security with open or closed borders. The first scenario will be more beneficial from an economic viewpoint. By contrast, the second scenario will be more attractive for those people who primarily want to restrict immigration.


Erik de Gier
Erik de Gier is hoogleraar comparatief arbeidsmarktbeleid bij de faculteit Managementwetenschappen van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en zelfstandig beleidsonderzoeker en adviseur. Correspondentiegegevens: Prof. dr. H.G. de Gier Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen Faculteit der Managementwetenschappen Postbus 9108 6500 HK Nijmegen e.degier@fm.ru.nl
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