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Artikel

Borging van het publiek belang in samenwerkingsverbanden

De rol van intermediairs bij de verlaging van de implementatiekosten van overheidsbeleid

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden public interest,, transaction costs, public private partnership, government information, intermediation
Auteurs Prof. dr. Frank Den Butter en Sjoerd Ten Wolde MSc S.A.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A public interest implies that government intervention is needed in order to enhance societal welfare. After the character of the public interest has been determined from the theoretical perspective of public economics, the government has the responsibility to safeguard the public interest at lowest societal costs. This article discusses the supportive role of intermediaries (or ‘middlemen’), using prescriptions from transaction management. A discussion of three case studies shows how in public private partnerships the knowledge of such intermediaries can be used in order to safeguard the public interest in an efficient manner.


Prof. dr. Frank Den Butter
Frank den Butter is hoogleraar Algemene Economie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, f.a.g.den.butter@vu.nl.

Sjoerd Ten Wolde MSc S.A.
Sjoerd ten Wolde is onderzoeker aan het Research Institute for Trade and Transaction Management, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, sjoerdtenwolde@gmail.com.
Artikel

Waarom het maar niet wil lukken…

Rijksbeleid en uitvoeringspraktijk voor cultuur en immigranten 1980-2004

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden immigrants, policy, conceptual-world, failing implementation
Auteurs Dr. Eltje Bos
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the aftermath of the last millennium a vice minister intended to realise what his predecessors of almost 25 years planned but never accomplished. The cultural expressions of immigrants were supposed to become integrated in the general cultural policy and the subsidized cultural organisations. The article explores why the policies never were formulated and implemented as the various (vice-)ministers explicitly intended.The main reason seems to be the dominance of the romantic universal interpretation of the notion ‘artistic quality’. The mentioned vice minister explicitly challenged this dominance, but didn’t succeed.Subsidies in the cultural sector were and are mainly allocated because of the artistic quality of cultural expressions. The majority of the key actors in this sector such as advisors, cultural institutions, politicians tend to have a romantic universal perspective on quality. These actors seemed to be unwilling or unable to broaden up their conception of quality. Due to this special implementation arrangements were created for the cultural expressions of immigrants. This implied the integration never was accomplished, and over time both cultural institutions and immigrant initiatives seemed relatively content with these arrangements.


Dr. Eltje Bos
Dr. Eltje Bos is opleidingsmanager Culturele en Maatschappelijke Vorming en programmaleider onderzoek Culturele en Sociale Dynamiek aan de Hogeschool van Amsterdam, e.bos@hva.nl.
Artikel

Governance by numbers: risico’s verbonden aan de internationale benchmarking en ranking van pensioensystemen

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden Governance by numbers, Commensuratie, comparatief onderzoek, doelmatigheid van pensioenen, standaardisatie
Auteurs Drs. Hans Peeters en Dr. Gert Verschraegen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article points out some of the pitfalls and ambiguities involved in quantified cross-national policy comparisons by looking at the construction and use of standardized indicators in the field of pension policy. The empirical analysis looks at three cases where the OESO and EU use standardized pension indicators to score and rank the performance of national pension systems. The cases illustrate some of the problems associated with scoring and ranking the outcomes of unique and complex pension systems by means of internationally standardized indicators. Our results show that internationally standardised indicators for pension systems are not neutral in the sense that they favor countries with certain institutional pension policy mixes over others. When particular institutional characteristics are treated differently under the same metric, systematically distorted conclusions about the performance of national pension systems may, and likely do, result. Consequently, these observed biases hinder reliable cross-national comparison that is based on these indicators. The article concludes with some recommendations on the construction and use of international indicators in the field of pension policy. It also discusses where research on the process of commensuration – transforming qualities into quantities − in a comparative context should go from here.


Drs. Hans Peeters
Hans Peeters is wetenschappelijk medewerker aan het Centrum voor Sociologisch Onderzoek van de KU Leuven, België, hans.peeters@soc.kuleuven.be.

Dr. Gert Verschraegen
Gert Verschraegen is docent sociologie aan de Universiteit Antwerpen, België, Gert.Verschraegen@ua.ac.be.
Artikel

Watergovernance: het belang van ‘op tijd’ samenwerken

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden cooperation, time, water governance, management
Auteurs Dr. Jasper Eshuis en Dr. Arwin van Buuren
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The factor time is an often neglected issue in the literature on network governance. In this article we analyze the differences in perceptions on time between actors involved in water governance and describe the managerial interventions aimed at synchronizing time horizons, managing the available amount of time and the tempo of the governance process. Two case studies of governance processes in the district of Water Board Delfland are included to provide insight in the question how the factor time influences the governance processes and how aspects of time are managed. The case studies show that different perceptions of time may cause tensions in collaborative relationships, and even cause the end of collaborations. This underscores the importance of time-sensitive governance.


Dr. Jasper Eshuis
Dr. Jasper Eshuis is universitair docent bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, eshuis@fsw.eur.nl.

Dr. Arwin van Buuren
Dr. Arwin van Buuren is universitair hoofddocent bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Burgers als trustees

Participatie, informele vertegenwoordiging en representativiteit

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2013
Auteurs Dr. Bas van Stokkom, Dr. Marcel Becker en Teun Eikenaar MA MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The involvement of citizens in discussions about policy arrangements has been growing in the past decades. These forums of decision-making often provoke criticism because of a so-called ‘lack of representativeness’. Often a small group of active citizens takes the lead and decides which problems have to be dealt with. Some active residents primarily focus on improving the neighbourhood, regardless of whether their activities have everyone’s consent. This raises many questions related their representativeness. Do these participants form an adequate cross-section of the population? Are they speaking on behalf of others? Maybe passive citizens feel fine with the opinions of active citizens and agree that a small group of citizens is taking the lead. In this paper these active citizens are viewed as ‘trustees’: informal representatives who take responsibility to look after the neighbourhood’s interests, expecting that passive residents would support their efforts. The paper has two central questions: First, which ideas do active participants have about representation and representativeness? Second, in what respects can active citizens be characterized as ‘trustees’? In the theoretical part we contend that the notion ‘trustee’ may function as a theoretical framework to understand present-day citizen participation. In local policy networks many informal representatives express views and interests that are recognizable for many citizens. They are trusted, as long as their activities can be checked. The second part of the paper focuses on three projects of citizen decision-making within local safety policies (The Dutch cities Amsterdam, Deventer and Rotterdam). Within these projects, participants prioritize what kinds of activities and interventions police officers and other frontline workers should carry out. A main finding is that many active citizens function as contact persons who are continuously available for other residents. They do not wish to speak ‘on behalf’ of others but they are bestowed – often reluctantly – with the role of representative, as they demonstratively express neighborhood interests (‘clean, intact and safe’). Their reputation seems to be decisive.


Dr. Bas van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is medewerker bestuurswetenschappen aan de faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, b.a.m.van.stokkom@vu.nl.

Dr. Marcel Becker
Dr. Marcel Becker is universitair docent ethiek aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, M.Becker@ftr.ru.nl.

Teun Eikenaar MA MSc
Teun Eikenaar MA MSc is onderzoeker aan het criminologisch instituut van de faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, t.eikenaar@jur.ru.nl.
Artikel

Morele verantwoordelijkheid te midden van meervoudigheid

De toegevoegde waarde van het kritische individu in complexe omgevingen met meervoudige belangen

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden financial markets, financial regulation, lobbying, financial crisis, policy paradigms
Auteurs Dr. Liesbeth Noordegraaf-Eelens en Lotte van Vliet MA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The lessons learned from the financial crisis are not necessarily limited to the financial sector. Both the financial sector and the public sector have to deal with perverse effects. The effects can be related to a reduction of complexity and plurality through introducing (oversimplified and one dimensional) models and financial incentives. However, in doing this, complexity and plurality are often lost: the neglect of multiple interests, goal replacement and too much focus on short term results. As a consequence perverse effects arise.
    Public sectors and organizations face internal and external pressure to act as they do. At the level of organizations or groups this may involve groupthink; at institutional level uniformity is promoted by the dynamics of isomorphism. This article is a critique on simplification and a plea for the (re)introduction of plurality. More specifically, we stress the importance of individual moral responsibility as a resource for and a way to preserve plurality. Not because that is the only option, but because it is an option that we believe deserves more attention. Other options such as changing regulations and changing the structure of supervision are already broadly discussed. We want to draw attention to the individual as parts of multiple organizations and systems. Individuals are therefore a natural carrier of multiplicity and plurality. Taking moral responsibility serious is not an easy task, but a meaningful step towards awareness of perverse effects due to reduction of complexity and plurality.


Dr. Liesbeth Noordegraaf-Eelens
Liesbeth Noordegraaf-Eelens is als universitair docent verbonden aan de Erasmus School of Economics. Eerder verschenen van haar De overspelige bankier (2004) en Op naar de volgende crisis (2009). In 2010 promoveerde zij op het proefschrift Contested Communication. A Critical Analysis of Central Bank Speech. Liesbeth Noordegraaf-Eelens is een van de auteurs van het RMO-advies Tegenkracht organiseren. Lessen uit de kredietcrisis. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. Liesbeth Noordegraaf-Eelens, Erasmus School of Economics, Burgemeester Oudlaan 50, 3000 DR Rotterdam, noordegraaf@ese.eur.nl.

Lotte van Vliet MA
Lotte van Vliet MA werkt als senior adviseur bij de Raad voor Maatschappelijke Ontwikkeling (RMO). Zij is een van de auteurs van het RMO-advies Tegenkracht organiseren. Lessen uit de kredietcrisis. Correspondentiegegevens: l.vliet@adviesorgaan-rmo.nl.
Artikel

Ontbrekende alternatieven en gevestigde belangen

Een studie naar de posities van overheden in hervormingsdebatten tijdens de financiële crisis

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2012
Auteurs Daniel Mügge PhD en Bart Stellinga MA MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The credit crisis that began in the summer of 2007 has fundamentally challenged much financial regulation and the political institutions that produced it. Measured against the criticisms that have been brought forth against previous financial governance, the extent of governments’ overall reform ambitions has been disappointing. Starting from this observation, this article asks: what explains governments’ reform choices, and thus also their limited ambitions? To explore this question, this article focuses on the positions that four governments central to global financial regulation (the USA, the UK, Germany and France) have taken in advance of the G20 meetings in 2009 across four key issue areas: accounting standards, derivatives trading, credit ratings agencies and banking rules. It evaluates both the overlap between positions across domains and governments as well as the differences between them. Such variation, we argue, provides key clues to the overall drivers behind reforms – as well as their limits. The overall picture that emerges can be summarized as follows: governments have been staunch defenders of their national firms’ competitive interests in regulatory reforms. That has not necessarily meant that they followed industry preferences across the board. It has been the relative impact, compared to foreign competitors, that counted in reform positions, not the absolute impact. These differences of opinion have played out within the context and the limits of the overall debates about thinkable policy alternatives. In spite of fundamental criticisms of pre-crisis regulatory orthodoxy, convincing and coherent alternatives have been forthcoming slowly at best. This has made reform proposals less radical than criticisms, seen on their own, might suggest.


Daniel Mügge PhD
Daniel Mügge is universitair docent politicologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Correspondentiegegevens: D. Mügge, PhD, afdeling Politicologie, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 237, 1012 DL Amsterdam, d.k.muegge@uva.nl.

Bart Stellinga MA MSc
Bart Stellinga is medior wetenschappelijk medewerker bij de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid. Correspondentiegegevens: B. Stellinga, MA MSc, Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid, Lange Vijverberg 4-5, 2500 EA Den Haag, stellinga@wrr.nl.
Artikel

Laveren tussen belanghebbenden

Reële autonomie en financieel toezicht

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden regulatory governance, de facto autonomy, financial supervision, bureaucracy, institutional reform
Auteurs Dr. Caelesta Braun
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De facto autonomy, the actual potential of regulatory agencies to go about their daily work, is often conceived to be more important to explain regulatory capacity than its formal autonomy and responsibilities. In this article we investigate whether external context factors, such as the financial and economic crisis have an impact on de facto autonomy. More specifically, we investigate whether the de facto autonomy varies after the crisis and distinctively so for specific subsets of employees within regulatory agencies. According to literature, mid-level managers of agencies are key to de facto autonomy and building a secure reputation for the agency in question. We test these external and internal effects on de facto autonomy with a survey among employees of the Dutch Financial Market Authority (N = 248). The findings show that the perceived influence of stakeholders is relatively constant, but that it is more dynamic for European stakeholders. Both middle managers and employees working at strategic and policy departments of the agency conceive the impact of European stakeholders as increasing in nature. The findings have important implications for our studies of de facto autonomy of regulatory agencies as well as reform potential after major institutional crises.


Dr. Caelesta Braun
Caelesta Braun is universitair docent aan het Department of Governance Studies, Vu University en als gastonderzoeker verbonden aan Antwerp Centre for Institutions and Multilevel Politics (ACIM), University of Antwerp. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. Caelesta Braun, afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen, faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam, c.braun@vu.nl.
Artikel

Handelingsperspectieven in het politiek-financieel complex

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden financial crisis, action logics, decision-making theories, regulatory bodies, financial institutions
Auteurs Dr. Kutsal Yesilkagit
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The world-wide meltdown of financial markets is one of the largest human-made crises in modern times. The question that trembles on the lips of many researcher is why the main actors, all considered as rational, have displayed such self-destructing behaviour. Answers have been sought and partially found in theories as varied as ‘regulatory capture’, ‘failed regulation’, and inadequate crisis management. In this special issue, an alternative view is suggested. The financial sector, like any other complex sector, is made up of loosely coupled actors and actor settings (i.e. financial institutions, regulatory bodies, political actors), each driven by different action logics. The studies in this special issue each deeply examine the action logic of one actor group. The purpose of this issue is hence to parcel out the various action logics and suggest directions for further research to combine better the various actors and their differing action logics.


Dr. Kutsal Yesilkagit
Kutsal Yesilkagit is universitair hoofddocent bestuurskunde aan de Universiteit Utrecht. Correspondentiegegevens: A.K.Yesilkagit@uu.nl.
Artikel

Herziening van sociale zekerheid: het perspectief van flexwerkers en zelfstandigen

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden social security, labour flexibility, policy preferences, risk, solidarity
Auteurs Dr. Fabian Dekker, Prof. dr. Romke van der Veen en Dr. Bram Peper
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The social security system provides some form of protection for its citizens. The social security system depends on public support in society. Support is crucial for legitimacy of the social system. To date, it remains unclear whether social policy preferences will be affected by changes on the labour market. In this article we aim to increase our understanding of individual reactions to increasing labour flexibility and the impact on social policy preferences. From the results of our study, we draw the general conclusion that employees with flexible labour contracts as well as the self-employed do not reject the idea of social security.


Dr. Fabian Dekker
Dr. Fabian Dekker is onderzoeker aan het Verwey-Jonker Instituut. FDekker@verwey-jonker.nl

Prof. dr. Romke van der Veen
Prof. dr. Romke van der Veen is hoogleraar sociologie van arbeid en organisatie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Dr. Bram Peper
Dr. Bram Peper is universitair docent aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Elite ethiek

Hoe politici en topambtenaren invulling geven aan publieke waarden

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden public values, government elites, political-administrative relations, elite interviewing, ethics, elites
Auteurs Dr. Zeger van der Wal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper reports on a qualitative interview study into the prioritization and interpretation of public values government elites in the Netherlands, comparing value preferences between political and administrative elites. Based on 65 in-depth interviews with MPs, ministers and senior civil servants, statements on four public values (responsiveness, expertise, lawfulness, transparency) that have been deducted through a substantive literature review, are coded and categorized. Overall, political and administrative value preferences in the Netherlands turn out to be more similar than they are different. However, mutual perceptions emphasize differences and contrasts. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are offered and hypotheses are formulated for future studies.


Dr. Zeger van der Wal
Dr. Zeger van der Wal is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, en als research fellow aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. www.zegervanderwal.com. sppzvdw@nus.edu.sg.

    The assassination of Pim Fortuyn and the electoral breakthrough of his Lijst Pim Fortuyn sent shockwaves through the Netherlands in May 2002. This article assesses the influence Fortuyn has had on Dutch politics and society. It provides an overview of the research that has been conducted on this topic over the past decade and relates the findings of previous studies to research on the consequences of the emergence of radical right-wing populist parties on West European party systems.


Sarah de Lange
Sarah L. de Lange is als universitair docente verbonden aan de afdeling politicologie, Universiteit van Amsterdam, s.l.de.lange@uva.nl.
Artikel

De tucht der wetenschap

Veranderingstheorieën van polarisatie- en radicalismebeleid op de proef gesteld

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden polarization, radicalization, evaluation research, theory-driven evaluation, social policy
Auteurs Drs. Vasco Lub
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Currently the Dutch government funds dozens of social interventions designed to tackle polarization and radicalization issues. It is still unknown whether the assumptions underlying these interventions are valid. This article puts the theories of change of such interventions to the test. Underlying causal assumptions of four dominant Dutch social policies were confronted with scientific evidence: (1) the system-based approach, (2) peer mediation, (3) intergroup contact and (4) self-esteem enhancement. System-based approaches – comparable to multi-systemic therapy (MST) – seem effective in reducing extremist behaviour in radical youth, but do not necessarily lead to an ideological change. In peer mediation, the causal link between the deployment of young people and the positive outcomes of such methods remains unclear. Peer mediation is also more likely to contribute in conflicts that have not yet escalated. Intergroup contact reduces prejudices about other groups, but has a limited effect. There is also no evidence for a long term effect and positive outcomes of intergroup contact do not automatically apply to adolescents. Finally, it is questionable that enhancing the self-esteem of (moslim) youth makes them more resilient against radical tendencies. In the same vein, the scientific evidence is ambiguous about whether increasing self-esteem results in social desirable behaviour or improved social relations.


Drs. Vasco Lub
Vasco Lub is zelfstandig onderzoeker (Bureau voor Sociale Argumentatie). Hij is daarnaast als buitenpromovendus verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam (capaciteitsgroep Sociologie), waar hij een proefschrift voorbereidt over de bewijsvoering van grootstedelijk sociaal beleid, lub@fsw.eur.nl.
Artikel

Weinig vreemde handen aan de Nederlandse bedden

Arbeidsmigranten in de ouderenzorg in vergelijkend perspectief

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden migrant care work, The Netherlands, elderly care, labour migration, care policy
Auteurs Dr. Franca van Hooren
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In many European countries immigrants play an important role as employees in the elderly care sector. They are employed by a care providing organisation, or directly by a family as private care assistant. By contrast, in the Netherlands such a development is hardly visible. This article investigates why relatively few migrant workers are employed in Dutch elderly care. The Dutch situation is compared with developments in Italy, Great Britain and Austria. I assess explanations based on demand side, supply side and cultural factors and conclude that especially the large public investments in Dutch elderly care can explain the limited demand for migrant workers. A restrictive immigration policy and language and historical factors play only a minor role. Whether a larger demand for migrant workers will emerge in the future, therefore depends on developments in public elderly care policy.


Dr. Franca van Hooren
Franca van Hooren is postdoctoraal onderzoeker aan de universiteit van Bremen. Zij doet onderzoek naar de gevolgen van de economische crisis voor de verzorgingsstaat, franca.vanhooren@sfb597.uni-bremen.de.
Artikel

Overlappende waarden, wederzijdse vooroordelen

Empirisch onderzoek naar de mores van politieagenten en particuliere beveiligers

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden policing, security, public-private values, professional motivation
Auteurs Dr. Zeger van der Wal, Dr. Ronald van Steden en Dr. Karin Lasthuizen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The private security sector is rapidly growing and their operations more and more comprise policing and public order maintenance, tasks which to date have been government’s primary responsibility. Some fear this development because the private sector is characterized by market values as profitability and efficiency instead of public sector values such as lawfulness and impartiality, putting the quality of public safety at risk. In this article the professional values, norms and motivations of police officers and private security employees in the Netherlands are compared on the basis of a standardized survey. The main conclusion is that there are large differences in how both groups perceive each other, however the underlying professional morale is actually more similar than different.


Dr. Zeger van der Wal
Zeger van der Wal is universitair docent bestuurswetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, z.vander.wal@vu.nl.

Dr. Ronald van Steden
Ronald van Steden is universitair docent bestuurswetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Dr. Karin Lasthuizen
Karin Lasthuizen is universitair hoofddocent bestuurswetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

    Cities and regions have long captured the imagination of sociologists, economists, and urbanists. From Alfred Marshall to Robert Park and Jane Jacobs, cities have been seen as cauldrons of diversity and difference and as fonts for creativity and innovation. Yet until recently, social scientists concerned with regional growth and development have focused mainly on the role of firms in cities, and particularly on how these firms make location decisions and to what extent they concentrate together in agglomerations or clusters. This short article summarizes recent advances in our thinking about cities and communities, and does so particularly in light of themes advanced in my recently published book, The Rise of the Creative Class, which focuses on diversity and creativity as basic drivers of innovation and regional and national growth. This line of work further suggests the need for some conceptual refocusing and broadening to account for the location decisions of people as opposed to those of firms as sources of regional and national economic growth. In doing so, this article hopes to spur wider commentary and debate on the critical functions of cities and regions in 21st century creative capitalism.


Richard Florida
Copyright 2004, Richard Florida. Dit artikel wordt gepubliceerd in overeenstemming met Susan Schulman, A Literary Agency, New York. Adres: H. John Heinz School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University, 4800 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburg, PA 15213, Verenigde Staten, e-mail: florida@cmu.edu

    In managing new cleavages between conflicting values (such as materialism and post-materialism), we cannot simply fall back on a classical approach to cleavage management. The segments surrounding the new cleavage are clearly more fluid than those surrounding the religious or socio-economic cleavages from consociationalism and neo-corporatism, such as is rightly emphasised in the network approach. In the conflict between the materialist and post-materialist value pattern, representation logic is not a given certainty. Not only the facts, but also the negotiating players and the decision-making arenas are the subject of negotiation and strategic action. This is reflected in the new forms of consultation politics. Similarly, consensus formation cannot make do with the (party) political integration of the segments because, given the conditions of post-materialism, this integration can only be partial. It seems important in the new cleavage management to devote attention to the existence of several arenas in which political interests are weighed up. For the players involved in a particular policy issue, this means the lure of strategic forum shopping and thus complication of the conflict-resolving ability of each of the forums.


Johan Weggeman
Johan Weggeman is verbonden aan de opleiding bestuurskunde van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Hij studeerde politicologie aan de Universiteit Leiden en promoveerde als bestuurskundige aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. De titel van zijn proefschrift luidt Controversiële Besluitvorming (Lemma 2003). Adres: Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, opleiding bestuurskunde, postbus 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, tel: 010 4082635, e-mail: weggeman@fsw.eur.nl
Artikel

Het falende veld van ondersteuning bij ongelijke behandeling

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden equal treatment, work, social protection, retaliation, interorganizational field
Auteurs Marieke van Genugten en Jörgen Svensson
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    There are many different ways in which employees may choose to address unequal treatment at work. They may do so themselves, in an informal or formal manner on the work floor. They may also, at some stage in the dispute, decide to involve specialized advisers such as legal advisers, anti-discrimination officers, health and safety executives and labour unions. It is generally assumed that consulting such specialized advisers will help the employee to address unequal treatment more successfully. In this paper, the effectiveness of the interorganizational field of specialized advisers is analyzed on the basis of an elaborate study among different types of respondents. The main finding is that fear of retaliation plays a crucial role in seeking and receiving specialized advice and that the existing interorganizational field broadly fails to cope with this fear. To resolve this issue, the field needs an improved governance structure with better co-ordination between different types of advisers.


Marieke van Genugten
Marieke van Genugten is universitair docent bestuurskunde aan het Institute for Management Research, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Correspondentiegegevens: dr. M.L. van Genugten, Institute for Management Research, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Thomas van Aquinostraat 5, 6525 GD Nijmegen, Postbus 9108, 6500 HK Nijmegen, m.vangenugten@fm.ru.nl.

Jörgen Svensson
Jörgen Svensson is universitair docent sociologie aan het Institute for Innovation and Governance Studies, Universiteit Twente.
Artikel

Verantwoordelijke vrijheid: responsabilisering van burgers op voorwaarden van de staat

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden governance, responsibilisation, political discourse, politics, public administration
Auteurs Rik Peeters en Gerard Drosterij
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Behind many notions of ‘governance’, there lies the image of a ‘modest’ or ‘retreating’ state. The assumption is that local and national authorities can only perform effectively if in cooperation with other public and private actors. Generally, it is said, governments increasingly lack the legitimacy for top-down interventions and hence the need of including participative citizen involvement in policy making and implementation. In recent years this democratic image has been disputed in scientific debates because of its lack of attention for new forms of interventionism by the state in societal processes, e.g. crime, youth care, immigration and integration. In this article, we aim to contribute to this other understanding of modern governance by analysing Dutch political discourse between 2001 and 2010 on (implicit) notions of the role and responsibility of the state. We show how the idea of ‘responsibilisation’ of citizens is turned into an argument for more instead of less state involvement in societal processes and citizens’ lives. By emphasizing ‘shared responsibilities’ between government and society, a tricky picture of parity is sketched of this relation. Dutch government presents itself as ‘an ally’ of citizens in fighting pressing social problems, but in the meantime an ideal of ‘responsible behaviour’ is constructed, namely, citizen behaviour in concordance with government’s policy ambitions. Within this political discourse, the socio-liberal idea of ‘responsibility’ turns into ‘responsibilisation on government’s terms’ and ‘irresponsible’ behaviour becomes a legitimate focal point for deep state interventions through techniques of governance.


Rik Peeters
Rik Peeters is onderzoeker en promovendus bij de Nederlandse School voor Openbaar Bestuur. Correspondentiegegevens: drs. R. Peeters, Nederlandse School voor Openbaar Bestuur, Lange Voorhout 17, 2514 EB Den Haag, peeters@nsob.nl.

Gerard Drosterij
Gerard Drosterij is onderzoeker bij de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur.
Artikel

Allochtoon als metafoor en categorie

Over de handelingsimplicaties van beleidstaal

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden category making, administrative practices, migrants, integration policy, race/ethnicity
Auteurs Marleen van der Haar en Dvora Yanow
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper offers a critical empirical analysis of the policy terms ‘allochtoon’ and ‘autochtoon’, which have been used in Dutch public policy and administrative practices in recent years, as well as in general public discourse, to distinguish between people with a migrant background and those with a so-called native background on the basis of birthplace. Taking an interpretive policy analysis perspective, we present metaphor and category analyses to show the determining role that ‘place of origin’ has in the policy terms. The analysis includes a historical contextualization of the categories within Dutch policy discourse. The metaphor analysis focuses on the etymology of the terms, and the category analysis examines the taxonomy used by Statistics Netherlands since 1999. The role of ‘place’, and in particular country or land of birth, in these etymologies and taxonomies link to elements from ancient racial thinking, showing that ‘birthplace’ is a surrogate for race in this policy discourse. The analysis leads us to argue that the terms are inherently exclusive and that the exclusive work that the essentialist categories do is in marked contrast to the policy goal of integration.


Marleen van der Haar
Marleen van der Haar is postdoc onderzoeker en docent aan het Institute for Management Research, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Correspondentiegegevens: dr. M. van der Haar, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, afdeling Politicologie, Thomas van Aquinostraat 5.1.32, 6500 HK Nijmegen, m.vanderhaar@fm.ru.nl.

Dvora Yanow
Dvora Yanow is visiting professor aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.
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