Zoekresultaat: 17 artikelen

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Artikel

What the frack?

Politiserende deliberatie in de besluitvorming over schaliegas

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden wicked problems, shale gas, hydraulic fracturing, deliberation
Auteurs Tamara Metze
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Within the past two years, hydraulic fracturing for shale gas became a highly contested technology in the Netherlands. Possible negative environmental impacts are at strained terms with possible economic, energy and geo-political benefits. In addition, there are many scientific uncertainties about, for example water contamination, methane emissions, the amounts of gas to extract and the risk of earth quakes. Societal conflict and scientific uncertainties make fracking for shale gas a wicked problem for decision makers. This article demonstrates that the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs has implemented several instruments for deliberation, such as a consultation round with stakeholders and a sound board for an independent research. These failed to lead to the desired support for fracking. In this contribution, I demonstrate that these instruments led to reason giving but not to structuring of the problem. They were used by governmental actors and protest groups as a political platform that was fuel for the political conflict.


Tamara Metze
Dr. T. Metze is verbonden aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Wie is hier onredelijk!?

Een analyse van de maatschappelijke dynamiek rondom de HPV-vaccinatiecampagne

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden scientific advice, vaccination, well-ordered science
Auteurs Albert Meijer, Paulus Lips en Huub Dijstelbloem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents an analysis of the introduction of the HPV vaccine into the National Vaccination Program in the Netherlands. This introduction resulted in public debate and resistance and eventually a low turn-out (45% while 85% was expected). The question is what we can learn from this specific case about trust of citizens in scientific advice and political decision-making around medical issues. Our qualitative empirical research highlights that trust in scientific advice was undermined by a combination of criticism from peers, a critical approach in the mass media and a strong campaign through social media. Our analysis shows that these factors can be understood as partly resulting from a transition to a network society. We conclude that the network society demands a more open approach of scientific advice both in terms of who they discuss issues with and what kinds of arguments are permitted in the debate.


Albert Meijer
Dr. A.J. Meijer is universitair hoofddocent van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Paulus Lips
Drs. P. Lips is huisarts.

Huub Dijstelbloem
Prof. dr. H.O. Dijstelbloem is senior scientific staff member WRR.
Artikel

Deliberatie over klimaatkennis

De publieke omgang van het PBL met IPCC-fouten en klimaatsceptici

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden IPCC, ClimateDialogueorg, deliberative assessment, wicked problems
Auteurs Willemijn Tuinstra en Maarten Hajer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Climate change is often referred to as exemplary for ‘wicked’ problems. Wicked problems are referred to in literature as being inherently political problems without a clear definition or solution for which top-down steering using scientific knowledge is not fitting. Paradoxically, international climate change policy is organized in a quite top down manner in which scientific findings have a prominent role. In this paper we explore the effects of a deliberative approach to knowledge generation. We discuss two cases: an assessment of the credibility of the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports and the organization of a scientific dialogue on internet.


Willemijn Tuinstra
Dr. ir. W. Tuinstra is universitair docent milieubeleid aan de Open Universiteit.

Maarten Hajer
Prof. dr. M.A. Hajer is directeur van het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving.
Artikel

Zorgen over zendmasten: hoe een maatschappelijk debat verengd wordt tot de definiëring van gezondheidsrisico’s

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden wicked problems, mobile phone, policy controversy
Auteurs Marijke Hermans, Marjolein van Asselt en Wim Passchier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Concerns about mobile phone masts are often put down as unfounded fears of health risks. However, our ethnographic study of mast siting controversies shows that citizens mostly want to be democratically involved in the siting decisions. There is no room for such engagement in the national antenna policy, thus, citizens shift their attention to the possibility of health risks. The national government responds to this with more research and risk communication. However, the centrality of science leads to a shift in the discussion towards the credibility of science. Even a Klankbordgroep (Sounding Board) with all stakeholders fails to change the focus. This article shows that local conflicts are not so much the result of individual concerns, which is the subject of many social sciences studies, but are the outcome of a dynamic interaction between governments, citizens and scientists. Governments should not frame a local issue only in terms of a scientific problem.


Marijke Hermans
M.A. Hermans is promovendus aan de Faculteit Cultuur en Maatschappijwetenschappen van de Universiteit Maastricht.

Marjolein van Asselt
Prof. ir. M.B.A. van Asselt is hoogleraar Risk Governance aan de Faculteit Cultuur en Maatschappijwetenschappen van de Universiteit Maastricht.

Wim Passchier
Prof. W.F. Passchier is hoogleraar Risk Analysis aan de School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism (NUTRIM) van de Universiteit Maastricht (emeritus).
Artikel

Politiek, participatie en experts in de besluitvorming over super wicked problems

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden wicked problems, scientific knowledge, social engineering, deliberative democracy
Auteurs Tamara Metze en Esther Turnhout
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This special issue focusses on deliberative elements in deciding over wicked problems. We present four case studies in which some form of deliberation was organized: the placement of mobile phone masts, hydraulic fracturing for shale gas, the failed HPV vaccination campaign and climate dialogues organized to enhance deliberative knowledge production over climate change. The case studies demonstrate how each of the deliberative processes has become politicized and that deliberative governance runs the risk of turning into a technocratic policy approach.


Tamara Metze
Dr. T.A.P. Metze is verbonden aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.

Esther Turnhout
Dr. E. Turnhout is verbonden aan de Universiteit van Wageningen.
Artikel

Uitleiding

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden wicked problems
Auteurs Roel in ’t Veld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article draws several conclusions based on the case studies featured in this special issue. It places them amidst broader developments in public administration theory and practice, formulates several lessons and describes possible paths for future research.


Roel in ’t Veld
Prof. dr. R.J. in ’t Veld is verbonden aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Groeiend ongemak

Bestuurderspartijen en de constructie van het vertrouwen in de overheid

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden trust, political parties, party manifestos
Auteurs Thomas Schillemans en Paul den Otter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Decreasing trust in government is almost universally considered to be a troubling fact of life for governments. Even though many politicians, administrators and commentators assume that the public’s trust in government is waning, the empirical data from the Netherlands are not unequivocal. This suggests that the assumed crisis of trust is not ‘just’ an empirical fact but is also to some extent a social construction. This article analyses how the major Dutch political parties have contributed to the narrative of a ‘failing government’. It does so by analysing their party programs over the last half century (95 programs in total). The analysis demonstrates that the major political parties are increasingly inconvenient with the effectiveness and efficiency of government, the traditional role of bureaucracies and the tasks of civil servants. This narrative harks back to the parties themselves and becomes increasingly inconvenient. If it is true that government fails to meet their standards, as they now all claim, what does that disclose about government policies for which those parties have been responsible?


Thomas Schillemans
Dr. T. Schillemans is universitair docent aan de Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap, Universiteit Utrecht.

Paul den Otter
P.H. den Otter, Msc, is bestuurskundige en verbonden aan de gemeente Haarlem.
Artikel

Verandermanagement en beleid: waarom vertonen professionals weerstand tegen nieuw beleid?

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden public policy,, change management, policy implementation, public management, resistance to change
Auteurs Lars Tummers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Professionals often have problems with governmental policies they have to implement. This can lead to diminished legitimacy and lower policy performance. The goal of this article is to identify the main reasons why professionals resist implementing new policies. An interdisciplinary approach is taken. From public administration literature, I use the policy alienation model, which consists of five dimensions: strategic, tactical and operational powerlessness, societal meaninglessness and client meaninglessness. These are possible reasons why professionals resist public policies (‘resistance to change’, a concept drawn from change management literature). I test these assumptions using a survey among 1,317 healthcare professionals. The results show that when professionals experience that a policy is meaningless for society or for their own clients, they show strong resistance. A lack of perceived influence is much less important in explaining resistance, although this is partly dependent on the particular profession someone belong to. The policy alienation model can help policy makers and managers to develop policies which are accepted by professionals. The article ends with practical recommendations for policy makers, managers and professionals.


Lars Tummers
Dr. L.G. Tummers is verbonden aan de opleiding bestuurskunde van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en het Center for the Study of Law & Society van de University of California, Berkeley.
Artikel

De bestuurlijke organisatie in Nederland: spanningsvelden en veranderstrategieën

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden nation state, structural reforms, decentralisation
Auteurs Cees Paardekooper en Harry ter Braak
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch Minister for the Interior Ronald Plasterk has proposed far-reaching reforms for the structuring of the Dutch nation state. These reforms include decentralising tasks to municipalities and merging several provinces. So far, these plans have met with criticism and derision. This article discusses the tensions included in Plasterk’s plans and proposes several strategies for how change could still be possible.


Cees Paardekooper
Drs. C. Paardekooper is adviseur bij WagenaarHoes.

Harry ter Braak
Drs. H. ter Braak is adviseur bij WagenaarHoes.
Artikel

De grote verbouwing

Een bestuurskundig perspectief op veranderingen in stelsels van publieke voorzieningen

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden public management reform, New Public Management, New Public Governance
Auteurs Philip Marcel Karré en Cees Paardekooper
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Netherlands is engaged in reforming several of its public service provision sectors by limiting their hybrid (mixed public/private) character. This special issue deals with these reforms. We have a closer look at the systems of transport, education and housing, and also discuss reforms of the Dutch nation state. Each article poses three basic questions: why has the sector evolved as it has? Why is change seen as necessary? And how does this process take place? By doing so, we draw general lessons on how the Netherlands deals with system change and public management reform.


Philip Marcel Karré
Dr. P.M. Karré is programmaleider van de professional master Urban Management aan de Hogeschool van Amsterdam. Hij doet onderzoek naar de governance van hybride organisaties (www.hybrideorganisaties.nl).

Cees Paardekooper
Drs. C. Paardekooper is adviseur bij WagenaarHoes.
Artikel

Vastgeklonken aan de Fyra

Een pad-afhankelijkheidsanalyse van de onvermijdelijke keuze voor de falende flitstrein

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden complex decision-making, high-speed railways, megaprojects, path-dependency
Auteurs Lasse Gerrits en Peter Marks
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the spring of 2013, the Dutch railway operator, High Speed Alliance, cancelled the acceptance procedures for V250 high-speed train sets they ordered from Italian manufacturer AnsaldoBreda after numerous problems with the build quality and safety systems. It is the latest chapter in a series of failed attempts to build and run a high-speed railway link between Amsterdam and Paris. Inevitably, the question of who was responsible for the decision to order the V250 has become prominent. We study 20 years of public decision-making by analysing the content of over 1,200 documents. Using David’s and Arthur’s theory of path-dependency, we conclude that all the decisions that were taken during those two decades created a situation in which the choice for the V250 was nothing more than an inevitable gamble. It can therefore be concluded that all parties involved, from the railway operator to Parliament, have contributed to the current failure.


Lasse Gerrits
Dr. L.M. Gerrits is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de vakgroep Bestuurskunde van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Peter Marks
Dr. P.K. Marks is als universitair docent verbonden aan de vakgroep Bestuurskunde van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Intergemeentelijk samenwerken: het kan ook licht

Een verkenning van lichte vormen van intergemeentelijke samenwerking

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden inter-municipal cooperation, light forms of cooperation, modes of cooperation
Auteurs Leon van den Dool en Linze Schaap
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Many tasks will be decentralized to municipalities in the Netherlands in the coming years. To deal with these challenges, central government encourages municipal mergers, while municipalities often prefer a light form of cooperation. Since municipal boarders are converging less and less with the boarders inhabitants experience in their daily lives, municipalities feel free to cooperate in a variety of ways with other partners. This poses new challenges to democratic legitimacy, effectiveness and the role local authorities play. Local governments therefore do not need new regulations or legal forms of co-operations, but rather a repertoire fitting their role. We argue that local governments need to analyse their tasks, choose the form of cooperation that fits best and develop a repertoire for their cooperation. Light forms of cooperation are very important for developing a variety of cooperative forms and roles local governments need to play.


Leon van den Dool
Dr. L.T. van den Dool is senior onderzoeker bij de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur (Universiteit van Tilburg) en daarnaast senior manager in de adviespraktijk voor binnenlands bestuur bij PwC. Hij richt zich op de lokale overheid en met name op stedelijke ontwikkeling, leerprocessen, goed bestuur, onafhankelijk onderzoek, bestuurskracht en samenwerkingsvraagstukken.

Linze Schaap
Dr. L. Schaap is universitair hoofddocent bij de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur (Universiteit van Tilburg). Hij richt zich op democratisch besturen op lokaal, intergemeentelijk en regionaal niveau, schaalvraagstukken en bestuurskracht. Veel van zijn onderzoek heeft een internationaal vergelijkend karakter.
Artikel

Lessen en conclusies uit vier keer stelselwijziging

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden public management reform, governance arrangements
Auteurs Philip Marcel Karré en Cees Paardekooper
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This concluding article of our special issue on public management reform in the Netherlands summarizes the information presented in the individual articles. We conclude that reform is often an incremental process, aimed at streamlining existing governance arrangements rather than creating and rolling out grand new designs.


Philip Marcel Karré
Dr. P.M. Karré is als programmaleider van de professional master Urban Management aan de Hogeschool van Amsterdam. Hij doet onderzoek naar de governance van hybride organisaties (www.hybrideorganisaties.nl).

Cees Paardekooper
Drs. C. Paardekooper is adviseur bij WagenaarHoes.
Artikel

Ondoordacht sleutelen

Reflecties op bestuurlijke geilheid en de complexiteit van sociale systemen door Roel in ’t Veld

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden public management reform
Auteurs Philip Karré en Cees Paardekooper
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This text provides a summary of an interview we conducted with Roel in ’t Veld, who (as an academic, advisor and civil servant) is a veteran of public management reform in the Netherlands. In ’t Veld criticizes the approach often taken by these reforms, as they are often not based on an in-depth study of the problem in question and its historic background. Scholars in public administration should not only provide critical assessments of reforms from the side-lines but should also get their hands dirty and participate in them.


Philip Karré
Dr. P.M. Karré is programmaleider van de professional master Urban Management aan de Hogeschool van Amsterdam. Hij doet onderzoek naar de governance van hybride organisaties (www.hybrideorganisaties.nl).

Cees Paardekooper
Drs. C. Paardekooper is adviseur bij WagenaarHoes.
Artikel

Kwaliteit als sleutel tot overheidsinterventie: een reflectie op de beleidsassumpties van autonomievergroting in het primair onderwijs

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden primary education, organizational autonomy, autonomization
Auteurs Marlies Honingh en Sandra van Thiel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the 1980s, the organizational autonomy of primary schools in the Netherlands was increased to improve the quality of education. Today, new restrictions are being imposed on this autonomy, again as a means to improve educational quality. This article discusses whether this change can be seen as a systemic change or rather a further streamlining of the policies started in the 1980s.


Marlies Honingh
Dr. M.E. Honingh is als universitair docent verbonden aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Sandra van Thiel
Prof. dr. S. van Thiel is hoogleraar Bestuurskunde aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Woningcorporaties: meer dan een eeuw hybriditeit

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden housing, social housing associations, hybridity
Auteurs Marja Elsinga en Jan van der Schaar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 1901, Dutch social housing is organized as a hybrid system. Over the years, this system has continually adapted to outside forces and demands. Lately it has come under pressure, especially as the negative side effects of housing associations becoming autonomous have become apparent. This article describes the history of social housing in the Netherlands since 1901, and discusses whether the negative side effects of hybridity should be used as an argument for a major overhaul of the system.


Marja Elsinga
Prof. dr. ir. M.G. Elsinga is hoogleraar Housing Institutions & Governance aan de Technische Universiteit Delft.

Jan van der Schaar
Prof. dr. ir. J. van der Schaar is gasthoogleraar Volkshuisvesting aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en geassocieerd partner bij RIGO Research en Advies BV.
Artikel

Successen en rafelrandjes: Stelselwijzigingen in het Openbaar Vervoer

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden public transport, New Public Management
Auteurs Wijnand Veeneman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During the 1980s and 1990s, successive Dutch governments reformed public transport by introducing market-type mechanisms. However, these New Public Management-style reforms have only been introduced half-heartedly because governments also tried to avoid the negative effects of NPM. On some fronts, the reforms have undoubtedly led to improved quality (better and newer material) and more choice for governments regarding how to organize public transport because there are several new providers. But on other fronts, these positive effects have been hampered by fragmentation, leading to calls for another overhaul of the system. This article chronicles the developments in public transport and discusses which new steps could be taken.


Wijnand Veeneman
Dr. W.W. Veeneman is als universitair hoofddocent Organisatie & Management verbonden aan de Technische Universiteit Delft.
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