Zoekresultaat: 7 artikelen

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Article

Het asielbeleid van de Europese Unie: een veiligheidskwestie?

Een discoursanalytische studie naar de constructie van een gemeenschappelijke asielprocedure in Europa

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 4 2005
Auteurs Dominique Van Dijck
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article explores whether the development of a common European asylum policy, and the construction of a directive on minimum standards for the granting of refugee status, is dominated by a security discourse. In such a security discourse, asylum is considered a cross-border threat to the realization of the internal market and the internal stability of Member States. While the social construction of asylum as a problem puts pressure on the traditional humanitarian framework on which international refugee protection is being based. The tension between these two approaches seems to result in a restrictive European common asylum policy, with a focus on control and prevention of migration into the EU. In this article, we analyse the tensions between the security and the humanitarian discourse in primary and secondary sources, using the model of Laclau and Mouffe. We conclude that while creating a common asylum policy, a securitization process is present.


Dominique Van Dijck
Aspirante van het FWO-Vlaanderen Faculteit Politieke en Sociale Wetenschappen, Universiteit Antwerpen.
Article

Populisme en de ambivalentie van het egalitarisme

Hoe rijmen sociaal zwakkeren een rechtse partijvoorkeur met hun sociaal-economische attitudes?

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 4 2005
Auteurs Anton Derks
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The decline of traditional class voting is at the centre of the Class Politics debate. From the framework of traditional class analysis a labourer’s right wing vote appears ‘unnatural’. A right wing vote is thought to damage the interests of the economically precarious groups. This paper attempts to understand the phenomenon of so-called unnatural voting behaviour starting from the populism concept. From a theoretical literature study we analyse the relationship between populism and attitudes regarding the economic left-right cleavage. We argue that right-wing populism appeals to a cry for equality, yet at the same time mobilises this sentiment against the institutions of the welfare state. In that way populist right parties succeed in attuning their economic discourse to the socio-economic attitudes of broad layers of the population, including economically precarious categories. The empirical relevance of this hypothesis is tested on the case of Flanders.


Anton Derks
Postdoctoraal Onderzoeker FWO-Vlaanderen aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

    On May 29th 2005, 54.8% of the French population rejected the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe in a referendum. Three days later, no less than 61.8% of the Dutch voters followed suit. In the following days, commentators wrote that the French non and the Dutch nee made the EU face its biggest crisis ever. EU President Juncker stated that the EU did no longer inspire “dreaming”. Commission President Barroso warned of “permanent crisis and paralysis” in the EU. At the European Council meeting of June 16th and 17th 2005, European leaders agreed to insert a one-year period of reflection in the ratification process. Moreover, the idea of a deadline for ratification was abandonned. After EU members states also failed to agree on the 2007-2013 budget, a higly disappointed Juncker concluded that the EU found itself in a “deep crisis”.
    In comparison to the spring of 2005, the problems the EU faced in 2004 looked relatively easy to solve. However, this is not to say that 2004 should be seen as the calm before the storm. Indeed, the accession of ten new member states and the political agreement on a constitutional treaty made 2004 a milestone in recent EU integration history. Starting from the policy measures taken by the EU members states in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks in Madrid, this contribution focuses on the major political and economic developments in the EU in 2004. Special attention is paid to the elections for a new European Parliament, the Barroso-Commission taking office and the approval of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe.


Edith Drieskens
Assistente aan het Instituut voor Internationaal en Europees Beleid van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Bart Kerremans
Hoogleraar aan het Instituut voor Internationaal en Europees Beleid van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

    The hollow state is a metaphor for the process in which the position of the nation-state is weakened, as authority is transferred to the EU level or regional level (horizontal shift) and to the private domain (vertical). We argue that the analysis of this process should not focus narrowly on formal rules and sovereignty, but that the most fruitful approach is a thorough empirical assessment of the changes taking place in various aspects of the nation-state. Moreover, the scope should be broadened to include the transformation of political decision making: from government to governance. In particular, we discuss the consequences for the functioning of political parties. We conclude that member states indeed lose policy autonomy to EU integration, and have to share authority with several other actors. Yet, because of its ability to adapt to external challenges, the state remains a relevant and important entity.


Harmen Binnema
Doctoraal onderzoeker aan de Afdeling Politicologie, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Noël P. Vergunst
Postdoctoraal onderzoeker aan de Afdeling Politicologie, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Article

Partis politiques nationaux en crise?

Organisation des partis et décentralisation. Une comparaison de l’Espagne et du Royaume Uni

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 1 2005
Auteurs Elodie Fabre, Bart Maddens, Wilfried Swenden e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article investigates the link between state decentralization and party decentralization. We study the impact of the type (dual, integrative, asymmetrical) and degree of decentralization on two dimensions of the relationship between a party’s central party organs and its regional branches: the autonomy of the regional branches to manage their regional affairs and the degree of participation of the regional branches in the central party. We compare the organization of five state-wide parties in two decentralized multi-national polities, Spain and the UK. Our analysis of their party statutes partly confirms the link between degree and asymmetry of decentralization and party organization. However, the impact of the type of distribution of powers between the state and its regions is much less clear. This article shows the need to investigate the influence of other factors such as regional party competition and electoral rules on the type of central-regional relationships within state-wide parties.


Elodie Fabre
Doctorante au Département de science politique à la Katholieke Universiteit de Leuven.

Bart Maddens
Professeur en science politique à la Katholieke Universiteit de Leuven.

Wilfried Swenden
Professeur en science politique à l’Université de Edimbourg, Ecosse.

Robertas Pogorelis
Collaborateur scientifique au Département de science politique à la Katholieke Universiteit de Leuven.
Article

Het Europese beleid in de Belgische federatie

Standpuntbepaling en vertegenwoordiging van de Belgische belangen

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 1 2005
Auteurs Peter Bursens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we examine the organisation of European policy-making in Belgium. The core question is whether the federal level is hollowing out in favour of the regional level, with respect to European preference formation and interest representation. From a theoretical point of view, it tests the propositions of liberal intergovernmentalism and multi-level governance in two critical cases: environmental policy and the European Convention. The article concludes that neither of the approaches is able to fully understand the complex system of joint preference formation that takes place in Belgium and that they would both benefit from incorporating historical institutionalist insights.


Peter Bursens
Docent aan het Departement Politieke Wetenschappen van de Universiteit Antwerpen.

    Representations of sub-national entities challenge since the mid-1980s the monopoly of the central states on EU representation. Through an analysis of their activities, this article verifies whether their presence may be interpreted as an expression of the hollowing out of the state. The research revealed that these representations have developed a national and an international strategy to fulfil their mission. The international strategy resembles that of interest groups in the European policy space, and it follows the neo-functionalist logic of other European interest groups. The national strategy is more policy-oriented. To influence the decision-making process, representations form networks between themselves and with their permanent representation. Rather than hollowing out the state, the activities of these representations reveal a growing interdependence between the central state and regional authorities resulting from European integration.


Michel Huysseune
Vorser aan de Vakgroep Politieke wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Theo Jans
Vorser aan de Vakgroep Politieke wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
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