Zoekresultaat: 22 artikelen

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Artikel

Het vernieuwde toezicht in het onderwijs

Hooggespannen verwachtingen van kwaliteitszorg, bestuurskracht en maatwerk

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Inspectorate of Education, Renewed customized work approach, Policy Theory, Effects, Supervision
Auteurs Dr. Marlies Honingh, Prof. dr Melanie Ehren en Dr. Cor van Montfort
Samenvatting

    This paper presents the policy theory of the Dutch Inspectorate of Education’s 2017 framework. The framework includes a set of indicators and working methods for the inspections of school boards which are expected to lead to improved quality and organizational learning of the schools and colleges within each board’s portfolio. Inspection feedback, quality assurance, stakeholder involvement and governance are the key mechanisms through which customized inspections are assumed to affect change. These customized inspections start from a set of legal requirements schools and colleges have to meet, but add inspections modules which are agreed on with each school board at the start of an inspection visit. As these inspections are currently being implemented, there is no evidence yet on the validity of these assumptions.


Dr. Marlies Honingh

Prof. dr Melanie Ehren

Dr. Cor van Montfort
Artikel

Diversiteit in bestuurskundig perspectief

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden diversity perspectives, interventions, public sector, business case, binding
Auteurs Dr. Saniye Çelik
Samenvatting

    In practice, diversity interventions do not always appear to be effective. One argument is that there is little or no match between the perspectives of public organizations on diversity and the interventions used. This article provides an overview of the underlying rationales for diversity policy and discusses the perspectives on diversity from the diversity literature, HRM, and management literature and how these overlap, complement each other and differ from each other. What these perspectives have in common is that they all emphasize the added value of diversity. In the diversity literature, the emphasis is on the four perspectives equality, legitimacy, creativity, and the labour market. HRM literature focusses on managing differences. In public administration, there is a shift from active representation by individuals to connecting by all employees. Furthermore, the binding perspective is gaining more and more importance in the public domain because it may be possible to close the gap between the government and its citizen. This perspective emphasizes the importance of the long-term relationship with citizens to strengthen the trust of citizens in the government for realizing social tasks and responsibilities. It makes diversity an issue for all employees. For Hassan and Havva, and also for Hans and Hanna.


Dr. Saniye Çelik
Artikel

Slimme handhaving in de sociale zekerheid

Lessen uit een landelijke enquête onder uitkeringsgerechtigden

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Regulatory enforcement, Social security, Compliance, Motivational postures, Procedural justice
Auteurs Dr. Marc Hertogh en Dr. Willem Bantema
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Using survey data from 1,300 welfare recipients in the Netherlands, this paper explores the effects of different enforcement styles in the field of social security law. Although most policy debates focus on punitive and persuasive enforcement, our findings suggest that both styles only play a limited role in explaining regulatory compliance. Our study also shows that the level of compliance among welfare recipients is related to their ‘motivational postures’ (Braithwaite 2003; 2009; 2011). While some of these ‘postures’ are shaped by elements of procedural justice, others are related to the perceived legitimacy of laws or to instrumental motives. Given these findings, we suggest that compliance with social security laws may not only depend on punitive or persuasive enforcement, but also on the degree in which regulatory enforcement is attuned to the individual characteristics of welfare recipients. Finally, these ideas are translated into several practical suggestions for the ‘smart enforcement’ of social security law.


Dr. Marc Hertogh
Prof. dr. M.L.M. Hertogh is Hoogleraar rechtssociologie aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

Dr. Willem Bantema
Dr. W. Bantema is Senior onderzoeker bij de Onderzoeksgroep Cybersafety aan de NHL Stenden Hogeschool Leeuwarden
Artikel

De opkomst van voedselbeleid: voorbij de tekentafel

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Food policy, Food system, Agricultural policy, Policy integration, Policy instruments
Auteurs Dr. Jeroen Candel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    To address a range of interconnected food-related challenges, Dutch policymakers have invested in the development of integrated food policy in recent years. This article discusses this development in two parts. The first part contains a detailed description of the main events and lines of thinking that characterized the food policy process. From this description it becomes clear that food policy has been gradually developing towards a separate institutionalized policy domain. In the second part, this development is analysed from a policy integration perspective. This analysis shows that although considerable steps towards strengthened policy integration have been made, the Dutch ‘Food agenda’ does not yet proceed beyond symbolic levels. This particularly shows in the absence of concrete policy goals and in a policy instrument mix that has not been adjusted to strengthen consistency and effectiveness. In addition, the involvement of relevant ministries gradually decreased after the initial stages. The article concludes that the food policy process has arrived at a critical juncture: the next steps of the new government will prove decisive for whether food policy integration intentions will advance beyond the drawing board. Political and administrative leadership are identified as key conditions for such further steps to occur.


Dr. Jeroen Candel
Dr. Jeroen Candel is universitair docent bij de Bestuurskundegroep van de Wageningen Universiteit.
Artikel

Access_open In de schaduw, uit de schaduw

Oorsprong, aard en mogelijkheden van schaduwverkiezingen of exit polls

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 4 2018
Auteurs Prof. dr. Jelke Bethlehem en Prof. dr. Joop van Holsteyn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    There is a lot of polling in the Netherlands, especially in the run-up to elections. The assessment of future voting behavior in the run-up to elections is inherently difficult, because many voters do not know in advance whether they will vote, let alone for which party. There is therefore constant debate about the quality of these surveys. However, there are also polls that are not held prior to elections, but on election day instead. They are called exit polls or shadow elections. The sample consists of voters who actually visited the polling station and cast their vote. In this article the authors emphasize the nature and useful and interesting role of exit polls. Exit polls are an important tool for making an accurate prognosis of the results shortly after the closing of the ballot boxes. Secondly, an exit poll can provide further insight into electoral gains and losses, and thus counteract unfounded speculation. After all, the data collected form an empirical source for a first analysis of the outcome and electoral behavior. All in all, the exit poll is a relatively easy-to-organize and attractive ingredient for a results evening. Confusing pre-election polls with exit polls probably does not do justice to the higher quality of exit polls in terms of prognosis. The article explains where exit polls differ from pre-election polls and what the most important choices are when setting up such a poll; it also shows that a well-designed exit poll is accurate and has adds value to a results evening. The authors give practical examples in their argument and discuss the exit poll that was organized in Leiden at the council elections of 21 March 2018.


Prof. dr. Jelke Bethlehem
Prof. dr. J.G. Bethlehem is bijzonder hoogleraar in de survey-methodologie aan het Instituut voor Politieke Wetenschap van de Universiteit Leiden. Hij was tevens senior methodologisch adviseur bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek in Den Haag.

Prof. dr. Joop van Holsteyn
Prof. dr. J.J.M. van Holsteyn is hoogleraar politiek gedrag en onderzoeksmethoden aan het Instituut voor Politieke Wetenschap van de Universiteit Leiden.

    Exploration of the future is about systematically exploring future developments and the possible consequences for an organization or issue. The demand for future explorations at local policy level has increased in recent years. This article focuses on the relationship between participatory future exportations and local strategic policy processes. On the basis of four case studies, the meaning of participatory foresight studies for local policy processes was investigated. The research, which was carried out as action research, shows that future explorations in local strategic policy processes can be significant in different ways: they provide new knowledge, they promote learning in an integral and future-oriented manner and they encourage social learning processes that are independent of the content, which is valuable for group dynamics. In addition, future explorations can be useful in different phases of the policy cycle. Despite the fact that participatory explorations of the future can be meaningful in local strategic policy processes, there is still a bridge between the method of future exploration on the one hand and policy processes and organizations on the other. The research shows that a demand-driven approach starting from the needs of the participants in the policy process and responding to the culture, structure and working method of the organization is a promising approach. At the same time, the research shows that there are several factors that need to be considered in order to achieve a stronger interrelatedness of future exploration and policy. The policy practice and the exploratory practice seem to be gradually evolving towards each other. On the one hand, policy practice is becoming more rational, transparent and analytical in nature through the use of future explorations, at least in policy preparation. The explorations promote substantive discussions on policy agendas and policy intentions. On the other hand, they are becoming more policy oriented through more reasoning from the policy practice in terms of process design and knowledge needs of the policy process.


Dr. Nicole Rijkens-Klomp
Dr. N. Rijkens-Klomp is in 2016 gepromoveerd aan de Universiteit Maastricht bij prof. Pim Martens, met dr. Ron Cörvers als haar co-promotor. Ze heeft sinds 2004 een eigen bedrijf in Antwerpen op het gebied van toekomstverkenning (foresight & design studio Panopticon). Daarnaast werkt ze aan het Scientific Institute for Sustainable Development (ICIS) van de Universiteit Maastricht.

Dr. Ron Cörvers
Dr. R.J.M. Cörvers is wetenschappelijk directeur van het Scientific Institute for Sustainable Development (ICIS) van de Universiteit Maastricht.
Artikel

Access_open Stijlenspagaat van hedendaags bestuur

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden styles of governance, political system, political change, political leadership
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. Stavros Zouridis en prof. dr. Pieter Tops
Samenvatting

    Whereas constitutions establish the institutions of government, human beings actually govern countries, municipalities, and regions. The institutional position of these people may be constitutionally constrained but the people who occupy these positions always have some discretion with regard to the way they fulfil their duties. Either consciously or unconsciously these officials develop their styles of governance. A style of governance reflects a combination of personal traits, institutional constraints, and a genuine set of beliefs with regard to what these duties exactly entail. While some people in a government position believe that a debate in Parliament constitutes the core of their work others may prefer developing policies or meeting citizens. Twenty years ago, observational research conducted in Dutch municipalities led to a set of five coherent beliefs or styles of governance. Over the past two decades, politics in the Netherlands has changed dramatically. The stable pillars that characterized and stabilized the Dutch political system have been replaced by political online and offline swarms, the volatility of the electorate has increased more than in other European countries, and incident driven politics has replaced the ideological and managerial political styles of the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. In this article we explore the implications of these dramatic changes for the styles of governance in the Netherlands. As recent empirical research is not available yet, we analyse the changes in the Dutch political context to derive a number of implications for the styles of governance.


Prof. dr. mr. Stavros Zouridis

prof. dr. Pieter Tops
Artikel

Bekwaam, betrouwbaar en betrokken: over de eigenschappen die volksvertegenwoordigers en bestuurders waarderen in medebestuurders

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden credibility, political leadership, local government, excellence, the Netherlands
Auteurs Dr. Sabine van Zuydam, Dr. Niels Karsten, Drs. Hans Oostendorp e.a.
Samenvatting

    Credibility is an essential quality for executive politicians but cannot be taken for granted. The literature on political leadership suggests that credible politicians are competent, trustworthy, and caring. Existing studies, however, often do not take into account differences between various offices and tend to ignore the distinction between disparate layers of government. In this article, we analyze as yet unutilized data from local and provincial councilors’ and executives’ evaluations on the qualities they ascribe to their fellow executive politicians. The data were collected for the 2015 Best Dutch Executive election and covers almost all executives who were in office at the time. In contrast to what the existing literature often presumes, our secondary quantitative analysis of this data on 1,776 executives shows that there are significant differences in the qualities that are used to evaluate the most appreciated local and provincial chairpersons on the one hand, and the most appreciated executives on the other hand. Whereas municipal mayors and provincial King’s Commissioners are championed for being particularly caring and showing decisiveness, municipal aldermen and provincial executives are valued in particular for their expertise. This finding indicates that a politician’s credibility for his peers depends on his office as each position requires a particular set of qualities.


Dr. Sabine van Zuydam

Dr. Niels Karsten

Drs. Hans Oostendorp

Drs. Maarten Hoogstad

Frank van Kooten MSc

    Een lerende evaluatie combineert leren en verantwoorden. Deze methode past bij complexe beleidsopgaven, waar meerdere actoren en overheden bij betrokken zijn die een behoefte hebben om te leren van elkaars ervaringen. In de evaluatie van het Natuurpact is deze methode op nationale schaal voor het gedecentraliseerde natuurbeleid toegepast. Uit deze casus blijkt dat een succesvolle toepassing vraagt om een voortdurende en zorgvuldige aansluiting van het onderzoek op de beleidspraktijk. Dit is nodig voor het betrekken van en interactie met stakeholders, het combineren van leren en verantwoorden, de wetenschappelijke onafhankelijkheid, het bestuurlijk mandaat en de beheersbaarheid van het onderzoek.


Rob Folkert
Rob Folkert is projectleider van het project lerende evaluatie van het Natuurpact bij het PBL.

Lisa Verwoerd
Lisa Verwoerd is onderzoeker bij de VU en is betrokken bij het uitwerken en toepassen van het procesontwerp van de lerende evaluatie Natuurpact. Ze onderzocht de waarde van deze methode.

Femke Verwest
Femke Verwest is supervisor van project lerende evaluatie van het Natuurpact bij PBL.
Artikel

Herstel en vertrouwen: professionals, ervaringswerkers en de herstelvisie in de Nederlandse geestelijke gezondheidszorg

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Trust, Recovery, Professionals, Peer specialists, Habermas
Auteurs Marijn Kester MSc en Mr. dr. Olivier Lingbeek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This text wants to draw attention to the question: How do peer specialists build a bridge between the modus operandi of health care professionals and the lifeworld problems of clients receiving mental health care? The Dutch mental healthcare system has recently been host to a range of new developments. Two new trends can be distinguished, going by the name of ‘Recovery-oriented healthcare’ and the introduction of ‘Peer Specialists’. These coincide with changes in budget and organization of treatment. There is an increased awareness of the need for efficiency and cost reduction in the organization of care. The meaning and use of recovery-centered approaches and working with peer specialists remain fairly marginal enterprises due to ever increasing pressure emanating from execution of regulations and administrative procedures, and an accompanying decrease of professional autonomy. In the light of Habermas’ theoretical framework, it is an emphasis on a system-oriented organization of care that cause new approaches to barely be able to find a considerable place in the contemporary practice of mental healthcare in the Netherlands. Trust is identified as an essential foundation on the basis of which future principles of organization should be developed.


Marijn Kester MSc
Marijn Kester MSc is medisch socioloog.

Mr. dr. Olivier Lingbeek
Mr. dr. Olivier Lingbeek heeft een eigen adviesbureau op het gebied van bestuurlijke vraagstukken met betrekking tot planologie en sociologie.
Article

De draaideur: van impasse naar uitweg

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden revolving door, lobbying, integrity, public values, polder democracy, regulatory solutions
Auteurs Toon Kerkhoff en Arco Timmermans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The revolving door is an ambiguous concept evoking strong opinions, and often is seen to lead to a decline in trust and legitimacy of the policy-making system of the Netherlands. But the different moral objections against the revolving door between functions and jobs in public and private organizations are barely matched with systematic empirical evidence of negative effects on the policy-making system. In this article, a definition of the concept is presented in order to help focusing the discussion on moral objections and practical implications of the revolving door. Two fundamental contradictions emerge from the panoply of arguments and assertions about this phenomenon. With our definition as a basis, we consider the different forms of the revolving door and discuss conditions under which it may be contained without solutions that are disproportionate to the problem. The way out is to develop clearer norms and integrity-enhancing mechanisms with which negative effects may be avoided and positive effects strengthened.


Toon Kerkhoff
Toon Kerkhoff is universitair docent bij het Instituut Bestuurskunde aan de Universiteit Leiden. Hij geeft leiding aan het Centre for Public Values & Ethics aan de Faculteit Governance & Global Affairs van de Universiteit Leiden, waar wetenschappelijk onderzoek wordt gedaan naar normatieve vraagstukken in de publieke sector en kennis daarover breder toegankelijk wordt gemaakt. Het onderzoek van Kerkhoff richt zich in het bijzonder op good governance en bestuurlijke ethiek, waarover hij ook onderwijs geeft in bachelor- en masteropleidingen.

Arco Timmermans
Arco Timmermans is bijzonder hoogleraar public affairs aan de Haagse Faculteit Governance & Global Affairs van de Universiteit Leiden. Zijn onderzoek en onderwijs gaan over de dynamiek van de maatschappelijke en politieke agenda, issuemanagement, lobbycoalities en de professionalisering van public affairs als terrein van wetenschap en praktijk. Hij is mede-oprichter en leider van de Nederlandse deelname in het internationale Comparative Agendas Project. Naast onderzoek en onderwijs in reguliere academische programma’s zoals de masterspecialisatie public affairs aan de Universiteit Leiden is hij ook intensief betrokken bij cursussen voor werkende professionals op het terrein van public affairs.
Artikel

Access_open Wat maakt slimme sturing slim?

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden smart governance, hybrid governance, self-organization, adaptive capacity
Auteurs Prof. dr. Joop Koppenjan, Prof. dr. ir. Katrien Termeer en Dr. Philip Marcel Karré
Samenvatting

    Wicked problems ask for new, smart forms of governance beyond a singular focus on hierarchy, market or community. Based on the case studies presented in the individual articles of this special issue, this concluding article describes what smart governance could entail and discusses its strengths and weaknesses, both as a concept and a practical tool.


Prof. dr. Joop Koppenjan

Prof. dr. ir. Katrien Termeer

Dr. Philip Marcel Karré
Artikel

Platformsturing van zelforganisatie tijdens rampen

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden crisis governance, self-organizing, online platforms, adaptive capacity
Auteurs Kees Boersma PhD, Julie Ferguson PhD, Peter Groenewegen PhD e.a.
Samenvatting

    During a disaster or crisis, the response capacity of the government is put under extreme pressure. At the same time, citizens are often resilient in times of crisis and are increasingly capable of organizing themselves. Social media and online platforms have increased the possibilities for self-organization through improved connectivity. In practice, we see that governments struggle to deal with this form of self-organization, while it also offers a unique opportunity to increase the response capacity. The smart use of citizens’ initiatives offers opportunities and can increase the effectiveness of the government’s action. This article focuses on the following question: what role do online platforms play in smartly guiding the self-organization of citizens during crises and disasters? We answer the question on the basis of two examples: the role of online platforms in the aftermath of the earthquakes in Nepal in 2015, and the coordination of the reception of refugees during the crisis in the Netherlands in the winter of 2015-2016.


Kees Boersma PhD

Julie Ferguson PhD

Peter Groenewegen PhD

Femke Mulder MSc

Arjen Schmidt MSc

Jeroen Wolbers PhD
Artikel

Slimme sturing van publiek-private samenwerking bij publieke infrastructuur

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Public private partnership, DBFM(O)-contracts, Public infrastructure projects, Relational contracting
Auteurs Joop Koppenjan, Erik Hans Klijn, Rianne Warsen e.a.
Samenvatting

    In the Netherlands, the Dutch government public private partnerships (PPP) using DBFMO contracts has become the default option for realizing complex public infrastructures. DBFMO contracts imply the integrated outsourcing of the design (D), building (B), financing (F), the maintenance (M), and also often the exploitation (O) of projects to private actors. The general idea is that by bundling public and private resources, the increasing complexity of today’s public infrastructure projects can be tackled more easily. However, reality is contumacious. As a consequence of several problems related to DBFMO collaborations, the Dutch highway and water management agency Rijkswaterstaat and several private actors recently put forward a new market vision. This vision is a call to reinvent the dominant collaboration practice between public and private actors: relational aspects should be central. In managing projects, more attention should be given to the quality of relations, attitudes, openness and trust. Recent research confirms that the success of DBFMO projects is not only contingent on contractual aspects but also, and maybe even more importantly, on relational aspects. Smart governance involves a shift from the current dominant financial economic-oriented contractual approach to PPP towards a more sociologically inspired relational form of governance.


Joop Koppenjan

Erik Hans Klijn

Rianne Warsen

José Nederhand
Artikel

Waarderen of veroordelen?

De betekenis van kritische burgers die niet meepraten voor lokale participatieprocessen

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 2 2018
Auteurs Drs. Christine Bleijenberg, Prof. dr. Noëlle Aarts en Dr. Reint Jan Renes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    To be able to realize the ambitions of citizen participation, diversity of participants is a crucial condition. At the same time excluding groups of citizens, amongst them critical citizens, is inextricably linked with citizen participation. In this article in the series ‘Local democratic audit’, the authors wonder what the exclusion of critical citizens means for the process and outcome of citizen participation. Through two empirical studies during a spatial intervention in different municipalities in the Netherlands, they investigated how people involved in a participation process spoke about critical citizens and their manifestations. The results show that the way these critical citizens are discussed either legitimizes exclusion or questions it critically. The legitimization of exclusion is detrimental to the support for spatial intervention. The problematization of exclusion results in a responsive approach to critical citizens, which is beneficial for both the course of the participation process and for the support for the spatial intervention.


Drs. Christine Bleijenberg
Drs. C. Bleijenberg is promovendus aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en is verbonden aan het lectoraat Crossmediale Communicatie in het Publieke Domein van de Hogeschool Utrecht.

Prof. dr. Noëlle Aarts
Prof. dr. M.N.C. Aarts is hoogleraar Socio-Ecological Interactions aan het Institute for Science in Society (ISiS) van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Dr. Reint Jan Renes
Dr. R.J. Renes is lector Crossmediale Communicatie in het Publieke Domein aan de Hogeschool Utrecht en universitair hoofddocent aan de Wageningen Universiteit.
Artikel

Slanker maar topzwaar, meer vrouwen maar vergrijsd: het veranderende gezicht van de rijksoverheid 2002-2015

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Cutbacks, Government spending, Civil servants, Public service, Open data
Auteurs Dr. Dimiter Toshkov, Eduard Schmidt MSc en Prof. dr. Caspar van den Berg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article analyses the transformations of the Dutch civil service over the last 15 years, during which numerous cutbacks and reorganizations took place. While existing research predominantly focused on changes in the total number of civil servants, we examine how the distribution of civil servants changed in terms of rank, gender and age. We theorize four methods for shrinking the government apparatus, and for each method, we identify the possible consequences for the composition of the central civil service in terms of hierarchical make-up and of age. Our results indicate that the total number of civil servants only slightly decreased, but the decrease affected differentially the various ranks of the civil service. While at the lower ranks the number of civil servants decreased strongly, at the upper ranks the number actually increased slightly. The number of women in the civil service increased, also in the higher echelons. Regarding the age distribution, we found considerable changes, with the modal age shifting upwards with up to ten years. Altogether, the civil service has become slightly smaller, more gender-balanced, and significantly more senior (both in terms of ranks and age). The results of this study show that it is important for researchers and practitioners to look beyond the trends in the total number of civil servants and explore the deeper changes within the civil service.


Dr. Dimiter Toshkov
Dr. Dimiter Toshkov is werkzaam bij het Instituut Bestuurskunde, Faculty of Governance and Global Affairs, Universiteit Leiden.

Eduard Schmidt MSc
Eduard Schmidt MSc is werkzaam bij het Instituut Bestuurskunde, Faculty of Governance and Global Affairs, Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Caspar van den Berg
Prof. dr. Caspar van den Berg is werkzaam bij de Campus Fryslan, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Artikel

Hoezo zijn (on)veiligheidsbeslissingen lastig publiekelijk te verantwoorden?

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden justification of risk policies, risk perception, risk acceptance, intractable citizen
Auteurs Prof. dr. Ira Helsloot
Samenvatting

    This article analyses a cause for the abundance of disproportional risk policies in the Netherlands. Many policymakers and academics believe that people in the Netherlands today are so risk averse that they are not willing to accept any risk that may result from reasonable risk policies. However, as some examples that we present show, there appears to be another kind of Dutch citizen: a citizen that understands and supports the decision of authorities that increase the risk to citizens but are necessary from the perspective of the common good. We argue that the belief in the unreasonable citizen is informed by one-sided research that only asks citizens how they perceive risks and what they want as risk consumers. Asking the same respondents face-to-face what they would do as policymakers themselves, however, results in diametric answers that show a rational and social side of those respondents. Respondents give higher priority to the education system or traffic safety than to preventing unusual risks such as asbestos or terrorism to themselves. Hence, the justification of reasonable risk policies is not as difficult as generally assumed.


Prof. dr. Ira Helsloot
Artikel

Access_open Verantwoordelijkheid, veiligheid en strafrecht

Over het bestraffen van feilbaarheid

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden accountability, blame, criminal law, professional error, safety
Auteurs Dr. mr. Willem-Jan Kortleven
Samenvatting

    This paper analyses various landmark criminal cases in the Netherlands that saw individual professionals being blamed for allegedly contributing to safety-critical events occurring in the past twenty years. These cases can be seen as symbolizing an increasingly risk-averse society whose expectations of human capacity for securing safety have reached unprecedented levels. In this view, punishing professionals who make dangerous mistakes serves to re-establish the illusion of being in control and to satisfy emotions. In practice, however, the prosecution of professional error appears to be somewhat out of touch with public sentiment, as responses to the cases discussed revealed little public support and a backlash among professionals. Moreover, safety science and practice claim that punishing individual error tends to undermine safety and overemphasizes the role of individual error compared to systemic failures. This begs the question of whether criminal liability should be imposed at the system level, as recently happened when local governments were sentenced following fatalities on dangerous road spots. Sentencing ‘system administrators’ may have advantages, but probably produces negative effects as well. Therefore, it would be ideal if administrators reduced the need for resorting to criminal law by proactively and generously taking responsibility for their organisation’s share in accidents.


Dr. mr. Willem-Jan Kortleven
Article

Voorstel tot een historische kritiek van het neoliberalisme

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Neoliberalism, Friedrich Hayek, Walter Eucken, classical liberalism, Michel Foucault
Auteurs Lars Cornelissen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article I argue that the commonplace interpretation of neoliberalism in the Netherlands is mistaken. According to this interpretation the term ‘neoliberalism’ refers to a series of policies, including privatisation and deregulation, that were implemented in the Netherlands in the 1980’s in imitation of Thatcher and Reagan. I argue that it is not this series of policies but the justification underpinning them that is of a neoliberal nature. To support this claim I offer a brief genealogical history of neoliberal thought, which developed in the interwar period, by explicitly distinguishing itself from both 19th-century classical liberalism and contemporary modern liberalism. On the basis of this historical account I assert that neoliberalism adopts the foundational principles of classical and modern liberalism, but that it prescribes different formal principles of rational government. I conclude that this diction makes it possible to write a critical history of neoliberalism.


Lars Cornelissen
Lars Cornelissen doet doctoraal onderzoek aan de University of Brighton (Verenigd Koninkrijk). Hij is gespecialiseerd in de geschiedenis van het neoliberalisme en schrijft zijn dissertatie over het antidemocratische aspect van neoliberale politieke economie.
Artikel

Access_open De griffier in gemeenteland

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 1 2018
Auteurs Linze Schaap, Peter Kruyen, Merlijn van Hulst e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The introduction of dualistic administration in the municipal government in the Netherlands in 2002 created the profession of the registrar. This article contains a description of the way Dutch municipal registrars fill in their office nowadays. The research shows that registrars deal with a wide range of tasks, that can be divided in four task fields: secretarial tasks, facilitating, representing and advising councillors. In the filling in of these task fields several profiles of registrars arise. So the basic registrar mainly organizes council meetings and reports on these meetings. The basic registrar plus performs the same tasks, but is also active in a few other task fields. The strategic advisor is the most active on all task fields. There are some significant differences between the three profiles when it comes to the importance of registrars to their activities, their value orientations and their competences. Contextual factors are hardly important, except the size of the municipality. It is also remarkable that the registrar has shown little activity with respect to two developments that are becoming increasingly important for municipal councils: regionalization and socialization of local government.


Linze Schaap
Dr. L. Schaap is universitair hoofddocent aan de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur van de Universiteit van Tilburg.

Peter Kruyen
Dr. P.M. Kruyen is universitair docent bestuurskunde aan de Faculteit Managementwetenschappen van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Merlijn van Hulst
Dr. M.J. van Hulst is universitair hoofddocent aan de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur van de Universiteit van Tilburg.

Julien van Ostaaijen
Dr. J.J.C. van Ostaaijen is universitair docent aan de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur van de Universiteit van Tilburg en voorzitter van de Rekenkamercommissie in de gemeente Zundert.
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