Zoekresultaat: 19 artikelen

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‘Macho-meritocratie’ Singapore

Vijf lessen uit het genadeloze streven naar ambtelijke excellentie

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Singapore, public service excellence, Performance, comparative public administration
Auteurs Prof. dr. Zeger van der Wal
Samenvatting

    Singapore and the Netherlands are small, export- and trade-dependent countries that perform excellently in many areas, such as good governance and integrity, policy effectiveness, liveability, innovation, and e-government. At the same time there are clear differences in political culture and history: Singapore has a more authoritarian governance style including limitations in press freedom, freedom of speech, and political activism. Within these contrasting contexts, both countries have introduced and implemented similar public management reforms since the 1990s. The aim of these reforms is to maintain public service excellence in a dynamic environment but the countries make contrasting choices in achieving this aim. This article describes how administrative excellence is organised and pursued in Singapore and identifies five lessons for the Netherlands: (1) Use positive narratives about government often; (2) be nuanced about capping top-level remuneration; (3) enhance the attractiveness of government as an employer; (4) invest in life-long learning; (5) be an authoritative expert amidst horizontalisation hypes.


Prof. dr. Zeger van der Wal
Thema-artikel

Bestuur in een low-trust context

De vicieuze cirkels in de hervorming van de Mexicaanse overheid

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden low trust, vicious circles, administrative reforms, authoritarian legacies, Mexico
Auteurs Dr. Rik Peeters
Samenvatting

    Since the late eighties, Mexico has experienced profound economic modernisation and political democratisation. However, the corresponding administrative reforms have lagged: professionalisation of the public sector, improvement of public service delivery and development of modern management principles are plagued by a lack of coherence, implementation, and continuity. This can be traced back to several historically rooted and structural characteristics of Mexican public administration, which reproduce vicious circles of low trust and dysfunction. For example, (1) the extreme spoils system maintains a culture of distrust towards civil servants; (2) Mexico’s weak state capacity is a consequence of a lack of collective action, but also further undermines citizens’ trust in government; (3) strong labour unions are a response to poor labour rights, but also uphold a system of capture and confrontation; and (4) corruption is inevitable if cooperation depends on personal loyalties.


Dr. Rik Peeters
Artikel

Access_open HASHTAG POLITIE

Hoe politieagenten omgaan met waardeconflicten die ontstaan door sociale media

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 3 2018
Auteurs Prof. dr. Gjalt de Graaf en Prof. dr. Albert Meijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Social media changes society and causes new dilemmas in local government. Little is known about the nature of these conflicts and the way government organizations deal with them. Therefore the authors of this article have carried out empirical research into the manner in which police officers deal with value conflicts concerning the use of social media. Their research shows that the well-known conflicts in the literature between effectiveness and efficiency and between effectiveness and legality were also dominant in this case, but that many more conflicts than are known from other studies concerned transparency and participation. In addition they discovered that the bias strategy was often used, which suggests that a conservative response is preferable in a situation with a lot of dynamics. In this way the research shows how government officials deal with the tension between a stable organization and a dynamic environment and look for appropriate forms of coping at this specific interface. The authors stress in their recommendations that the further strengthening of the learning ability of organizations deserves attention: not just to find the right way to deal with value conflicts, but to be able to find new ways to deal with the new conflicts that arise.


Prof. dr. Gjalt de Graaf
Prof. dr. G. de Graaf is hoogleraar Integriteit van Academisch Onderwijs aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam en redacteur van Bestuurswetenschappen.

Prof. dr. Albert Meijer
Prof. dr. A.J. Meijer is hoogleraar Publieke Innovatie aan de Universiteit Utrecht en redacteur van Bestuurswetenschappen.
Artikel

Bekwaam, betrouwbaar en betrokken: over de eigenschappen die volksvertegenwoordigers en bestuurders waarderen in medebestuurders

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden credibility, political leadership, local government, excellence, the Netherlands
Auteurs Dr. Sabine van Zuydam, Dr. Niels Karsten, Drs. Hans Oostendorp e.a.
Samenvatting

    Credibility is an essential quality for executive politicians but cannot be taken for granted. The literature on political leadership suggests that credible politicians are competent, trustworthy, and caring. Existing studies, however, often do not take into account differences between various offices and tend to ignore the distinction between disparate layers of government. In this article, we analyze as yet unutilized data from local and provincial councilors’ and executives’ evaluations on the qualities they ascribe to their fellow executive politicians. The data were collected for the 2015 Best Dutch Executive election and covers almost all executives who were in office at the time. In contrast to what the existing literature often presumes, our secondary quantitative analysis of this data on 1,776 executives shows that there are significant differences in the qualities that are used to evaluate the most appreciated local and provincial chairpersons on the one hand, and the most appreciated executives on the other hand. Whereas municipal mayors and provincial King’s Commissioners are championed for being particularly caring and showing decisiveness, municipal aldermen and provincial executives are valued in particular for their expertise. This finding indicates that a politician’s credibility for his peers depends on his office as each position requires a particular set of qualities.


Dr. Sabine van Zuydam

Dr. Niels Karsten

Drs. Hans Oostendorp

Drs. Maarten Hoogstad

Frank van Kooten MSc
Artikel

De redzaamheidsnotie als dekmantel

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden (zelf)redzaamheid, Participatiesamenleving, Maatschappelijke onzekerheden, Verzorgingsstaat, Morele strijd
Auteurs Sjouke Elsman MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years few political ambitions enjoyed so much political support as the striving to let the welfare state become more of a ‘participation society’. This ‘participation society’ should be a society with self-reliant citizens; before turning to the state for support, citizens should first of all look at their own capacities, and only in the last case ask the state for help. The premise is promising: collective well-being. However, the fundamental assumptions behind this notion do raise questions. This article argues that the notion for citizens to be self-reliant easily builds on questionable assumptions; these assumptions on the one hand raise hope for collective well-being, but on the other hand easily catalyze citizens’ contemporary uncertainties. It indeed is desirable to restate the relation between state and citizens, but the contemporary focus on citizens’ self-reliance should watch for building on unstable foundations to easily.


Sjouke Elsman MSc
Sjouke Elsman MSc is werkzaam aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen & Politicologie.
Artikel

Woede door verwaarlozing

Waarom veel burgers zich verzetten tegen verandering

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden societal unease, political discontent, angry citizens, modernity
Auteurs Prof. dr. Gabriël van den Brink
Samenvatting

    In this very personal narrative, Gabriël van den Brink analyses why many citizens seem to oppose change instigated by government. In his view, this is due to government and society elites embracing a paradigm of change which is based on an unrealistic view on modernity. He analyses what this means, what its effects are and proposes a new way to go forward.


Prof. dr. Gabriël van den Brink
Artikel

Iedereen kent iedereen

De invloed van kleinschaligheid en informele politiek op bestuur in Caribisch Nederland

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden Dutch Caribbean, informal politics, Smallness, Governance, non-sovereignty
Auteurs Dr. Wouter Veenendaal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2010, the three Dutch Caribbean islands of Bonaire, St. Eustatius, and Saba (the BES islands) were constitutionally integrated into the Netherlands, and were administratively reorganized on the basis of the Dutch municipal model. While this reform was anticipated to mitigate some of the governance problems of these islands, so far this expectation has remained unmet. Using the literature on the effects of smallness on the relation between formal and informal politics as a baseline, this article investigates why the new institutional structure has so far not resulted in improved governance in the Caribbean Netherlands. On the basis of three stages of field research resulting in over forty semi-structured interviews with political elites on the three islands, the analysis highlights the influence of two contextual factors – the small scale and the political culture of the postcolonial Caribbean – that have a powerful, and in many ways negative, impact on governance performance. Subsequently, the article highlights the inapplicability of the Dutch municipal model to the Dutch Caribbean islands, and also pays attention to a number of differences between the three islands, which are explained on the basis of their divergent historical and demographic trajectories, as well as differences in individual leadership.


Dr. Wouter Veenendaal
Dr. Wouter Veenendaal is werkzaam als universitair docent bij het Instituut Politieke Wetenschap van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

De demos digitaal bekrachtigd?

Zes e-democracy cases uit binnen- en buitenland

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Ict, Vergelijking / comparison, Innovatie / innovation, Democratie / democracy, Case study
Auteurs Merlijn van Hulst, Colette Cuijpers, Frank Hendriks e.a.
Samenvatting

    E-democracy incorporates digital tools, the internet and social media to enhance democracy. There are many of these tools available to improve governmental responsiveness, transparency, and accountability, but also to support the inclusiveness, representativeness and influence of citizens’ participation. Examples are online petitions, apps for neighborhood watches, wikiplanning and social media monitoring. Web 3.0, which is more interactive and less location specific, enables governments to take a more personalized approach. It also allows for participation across administrative and geographical boundaries. In this symposium two contributions address the question of the influence of e-democracy on the democratization of governmental decision-making, information and service delivery, and of citizens’ participation.


Merlijn van Hulst

Colette Cuijpers

Frank Hendriks

Tamara Metze

    In recent decades, the Dutch labour market has become more flexible. Flexible labour contracts enable firms to adjust employment to a changing market environment and to competitive pressures. Almost without exception, academic studies on the drivers behind the use of flexible labour contracts at the company level, are motivated by competitive pressures. However, companies may be susceptible to institutional pressures as well. Based on a survey among more than 650 managers in the Netherlands, we conclude that firms are vulnerable to institutional (mimetic) forces. This finding has several implications for policy-making and labour flexibility research.


Fabian Dekker
Artikel

Doorgeven, negeren of vervormen?

Media als kritische transparanteurs van beleid

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden transparency, media, policy
Auteurs Thomas Schillemans en Anne Klijn MSc.
Samenvatting

    Transparency is a token of modern governance and is said to serve many different goals. Earlier research has shown that the disclosure of information will only be seen by the public and serve its goals if ‘transparators’, such as news media, pay attention to the information. The news media cannot be expected to be uncritical implementers of transparency policies; they will only do so when the policy and ensuing story fit their criteria for newsworthiness. This paper analyzes when and how news media pay attention to different types of policies serving different types of goals. It does so on the basis of quantitative and qualitative content analysis of 8 important cases of transparency-policies in the Netherlands in the past decade. The analysis shows that, even for these high profile cases, the amount of media attention for disclosed information is limited. The analysis also suggests that the media primarily tend to treat items in neutral or critical frames. Particularly in cases where the disclosed information is about the government itself, media stories seem to be primarily negative. These results suggest, in line with prior research, that transparency-policies may easily fail to be effective.


Thomas Schillemans

Anne Klijn MSc.
Artikel

Nieuw systeem, nieuwe kansen?

Ouders in Amsterdam-West over (de)segregatie in het basisonderwijs.

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Segregation, Educational reform, Parents, Attitudes, Amsterdam
Auteurs Dr. Bowen Paulle, Drs. Jonathan Mijs en Drs. Anja Vink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2015 Amsterdam introduced a new primary school admissions system. This system is rooted in various desegregation pilots, including two based on the ‘controlled choice’ approach. In conjunction with one of these pilots located in West Amsterdam, we researched the criteria parents used while thinking about (de-)segregation in primary schools and parents’ attitudes regarding the controlled choice approach. Due to political developments between 2008 and 2011, we considered our data useless for policy discussions. The introduction of a new admissions system, however, gives our data a newfound relevance. This article therefore describes how parents in socio-economically diverse neighbourhoods think about segregation and school choice. The 249 parents we interviewed or surveyed supported schools with a ‘good mix’, but they had diverging opinions about the meaning of such terms. The parents were optimistic with regard to controlled choice, even if this could in some ways limit their own options. We conclude that the political resistance to desegregation at the primary school level cannot be justified by empirically unfounded claims about the perceptions and preferences of parents. We hope that our findings may lead to empirically grounded policy evaluation and policy making.


Dr. Bowen Paulle
Dr. Bowen Paulle is universitair docent sociologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Drs. Jonathan Mijs
Drs. Jonathan Mijs is promovendus in de sociologie aan Harvard University.

Drs. Anja Vink
Anja Vink is journalist voor onder andere Vrij Nederland, NRC Handelsblad en De Correspondent, en auteur van Witte zwanen, zwarte zwanen de mythe van de zwarte school. Ze heeft gedoceerd aan onder andere de Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open De 21ste-eeuwse overheidsmanager

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Public management, 21st century skills, Megatrends, Strategic HRM, Public managers
Auteurs Zeger van der Wal
Samenvatting

    This article examines who ‘21st century public managers’ are and which skills and roles they have to master to function effectively in the 21st century. Based on a large scale analysis of literature and years of interaction with senior practitioners, seven key 21st century demands for public managers are identified, each of which creates dilemmas as well as opportunities. 21st century public managers utilize a combination of traditional and new roles, competencies, and values to turn demands into opportunities. The article concludes with implications for public administration research and education.


Zeger van der Wal
Artikel

Parliamentary oversight via evaluaties?

De positie van het Vlaams parlement in een internationale context

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden beleidsevaluatie / policy evaluation, Wetsevaluatie / law evaluation, Parlement / parliament, ex post / ex post, Vlaanderen / Flanders
Auteurs Peter Van Humbeeck en Prof. Dr. Tim Buyse
Samenvatting

    Ex post evaluation is important for various reasons, in particular also from the perspective of parliaments. Evaluations feed and deepen the democratic debate by adding evidence on the results and real world impacts of laws. This strengthens each of the three institutional tasks of parliaments (initiating and approving laws, supervising government and approving the budget). Yet few parliaments in OECD countries have deployed ex post evaluation systematically.
    While the rationale for ex post evaluation is broadly understood, initiatives often run into political logics. The role that parliaments play also differs greatly between countries. There is no clear best practice. Ambition, tradition, culture, political will, capacity and resources determine what is possible and desirable. A positive trend is however noticeable.
    Building on examples and experiences in several parliaments, we make some recommendations to upgrade ex post evaluation practice within Parliaments. We elaborate on the Flanders’ case, where the Parliament is looking for mechanisms to extend its role in ex post evaluation. We recommend i.a. the introduction of an annual momentum on which the results of Government policies can be discussed and the performance of a number of ex post evaluations by the Parliament following the example of the French system of ‘rapports d’information’.


Peter Van Humbeeck

Prof. Dr. Tim Buyse
Artikel

Ambtenaren en levensbeschouwelijke tekens – een pleidooi voor inclusieve neutraliteit

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Inclusieve neutraliteit, hoofddoekendebat, ambtenarij, multiculturele samenleving, levensbeschouwelijke diversiteit
Auteurs dr. François Levrau
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Every now and then the question whether or not civil servants are allowed to wear religious and ideological signs divides the minds of the people, and leads to societal and political controversy. In this article we examine this controversy by contrasting two different conceptions of neutrality, an inclusive and an exclusive account. We illustrate why the former is to be preferred and hence that a neutral government should not necessarily ask its servants to abstract from religious and cultural expressions. This however does not imply that all kinds of expressions should be allowed. In order to prevent a slippery slope, we formulate a number of formal criteria that can help to separate the proverbial wheat from the chaff: (1) the interpretation of neutrality in relation to a minimum and objective review; (2) the proportionality criterion; (3) the functionality criterion; and (4) the criterion of contact with the public.


dr. François Levrau
Dr. François Levrau is algemeen coördinator van het Steunpunt Inburgering & Integratie (Universiteit Antwerpen) en als postdoctoraal onderzoeker verbonden aan het Centrum voor Migratie & Interculturele Studies (Universiteit Antwerpen).
Artikel

Big Data: een revolutie in gemeentelijk beleid?

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 3 2015
Auteurs Tom Daalhuijsen MSc, Sebastiaan Steenman MSc en Prof. dr. Albert Meijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Big Data is the new hype in municipal policy and the promise of Big Data is rationalization: better policy that is based on better information. In this article the authors investigate the extent to which the use of Big Data in municipal organizations results in a more rational policy process. Their empirical research was held in two Dutch municipalities: Tilburg, in the south of the Netherlands, and Assen, in the north of the Netherlands. They investigated how Tilburg deploys Big Data for the fight against crime and Assen is trying to improve its traffic management with Big Data. Their analysis shows that policy, more so than in the past, is being steered by specific information because Big Data is being used. The rationalization of policy, however, is limited by the possibilities of Big Data and by political dynamics. Their final conclusion therefore is that the uncertainty, unfamiliarity, complexity and constant change are partly made manageable and controllable by the use of Big Data in municipal organizations. Politics is also partly ‘tamed’ because politicians have to relate to ‘objective data’ from information systems.


Tom Daalhuijsen MSc
T. Daalhuijsen MSc werkt sinds kort als business analist bij Capgemini Nederland. Hij is in 2014 afgestudeerd bij de masteropleiding Bestuur en Beleid van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Sebastiaan Steenman MSc
S.C. Steenman MSc is docent in de bacheloropleiding Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap en de masteropleiding Bestuur en Beleid van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Prof. dr. Albert Meijer
Prof. dr. A.J. Meijer is hoogleraar Publieke Innovatie aan de Universiteit Utrecht en redacteur van Bestuurswetenschappen.
Artikel

Pas op! Over beheerst risico’s beheersen in het governancetijdperk

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden risk management, governance, inspection, organization, hybridization
Auteurs Dr. Mark de Bruijne, Dr. Bauke Steenhuisen en Dr. Haiko van der Voort
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Risks taken by some organizations may have considerable impact on society. In this contribution the assessment and management of risk are perceived to take place in a multi-actor setting. Within an organization operators, risk managers, and top managers interact about risk assessments and risk mitigation strategies. Public regulators and inspectorates increasingly focus on risk management systems instead of the operational activities or organizational outputs. Are organizations systematically assessing their risks? This contribution identifies two contrasting perspectives on risk assessment and risk mitigation in literature: risk management and risk governance. An empirical study in three sectors reveals evidence of both perspectives in practice. Companies adopt hybrid approaches, which are essential for the quality of risk assessment and mitigation. Indeed, adopting just one perspective seems dangerous. We conclude that public regulators and inspectorates might provide incentives to focus on just one perspective and suggest two heuristics for public inspectorates that respect hybrid approaches of risk assessment and mitigation.


Dr. Mark de Bruijne
Dr. M.L.C. de Bruijne is als universitair docent werkzaam aan de TU Delft, Faculteit Techniek, Bestuur en Management.

Dr. Bauke Steenhuisen
Dr. M.L.C. de Bruijne is als universitair docent werkzaam aan de TU Delft, Faculteit Techniek, Bestuur en Management.

Dr. Haiko van der Voort
Dr. H.G. van der Voort is als universitair docent werkzaam aan de TU Delft, Faculteit Techniek, Bestuur en Management.

    The focus of the diversity policy in the Dutch public sector has moved during the past decennia. In the eighties offering equal chances for the different target groups was the central policy goal, after the millennium this became the effective and efficient management of a diverse work force in order to arrive at a better performing public sector, also called the business case of diversity. This article investigates the question how far the Dutch cabinet has influenced the diversity policy of public organizations. The answer to the question is that there was limited influence from the Dutch cabinet on the arguments for diversity of public organizations, but there was greater influence on the diversity interventions, especially in three sectors: central government, municipalities and police. This influence on interventions of other (‘fellow’) governments is caused by the strong steering of the cabinet. The interventions undertaken therefore reflect to a more limited extent the business case of diversity and remain stuck in the old target group policy. However, public organizations with a longer history in diversity policy, that operate closer to society and see the necessity for diversity, are more inclined to embrace the business case and start interventions that are related to this new approach.


Drs. Saniye Celik
Drs. S. Celik is accountmanager voor de decentralisaties in het sociaal domein bij het Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties en buitenpromovenda aan het Instituut Bestuurskunde van de Universiteit Leiden, Campus Den Haag.

    Internationaal stijgt de aandacht voor evidence-based policy (EBP); de term duikt steeds vaker op in het beleidsdiscours. Het empirisch onderzoek naar kennisgebruik en doorwerking van wetenschappelijk onderzoek is evenwel eerder gelimiteerd, al bestaat er consensus dat de doorwerking van sociaalwetenschappelijk onderzoek beperkt is. De vraag stelt zich of het recente EBP-discours hierin verandering kan brengen. Kan EBP leiden tot meer doorwerking van sociaalwetenschappelijk onderzoek, gelet op de inherente kenmerken van beleid en wetenschappelijk onderzoek die belangrijke obstakels blijken te vormen voor kennisgebruik en doorwerking? Kunnen we in Vlaanderen reeds spreken over een EBP? Wat verstaan beleidsmakers onder ‘evidence-based’? Is een EBP überhaupt mogelijk? Wat zijn de belangrijkste obstakels voor kennisgebruik volgens beleidsmakers en wat zijn de belangrijkste gebruiksverhogende factoren? In dit artikel wordt aan de hand van een literatuurstudie, een bevraging van (Vlaamse) beleidsmakers en een citaats- en inhoudsanalyse van Vlaamse parlementaire bronnen gepoogd een antwoord te bieden op deze vragen.


Valérie Smet
Dr. Valérie Smet werkt als wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het IRCP (Institute for international Research on Criminal Policy), een onderzoeksinstituut van de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie (Universiteit Gent).

    In deze bijdrage plaatsen we de gezagscrisis van de hedendaagse wetenschap in cultuur en politiek in een breder, cultuursociologisch perspectief.


Dick Houtman
Dick Houtman is als hoogleraar cultuursociologie verbonden aan het Centre for Rotterdam Cultural Sociology (CROCUS). Contact: www.dickhoutman.nl / houtman@fsw.eur.nl

Stef Aupers
Stef Aupers is als UHD verbonden aan het Centre for Rotterdam Cultural Sociology (CROCUS). Contact: / aupers@fsw.eur.nl

Peter Achterberg
Peter Achterberg is als UHD verbonden aan het Centre for Rotterdam Cultural Sociology (CROCUS). Contact: www.peterachterberg.com / p.achterberg@fsw.eur.nl
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