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Article

Interest Representation in Belgium

Mapping the Size and Diversity of an Interest Group Population in a Multi-layered Neo-corporatist Polity

Tijdschrift Politics of the Low Countries, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden interest groups, advocacy, access, advisory councils, media attention
Auteurs Evelien Willems, Jan Beyers en Frederik Heylen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article assesses the size and diversity of Belgium’s interest group population by triangulating four data sources. Combining various sources allows us to describe which societal interests get mobilised, which interest organisations become politically active and who gains access to the policy process and obtains news media attention. Unique about the project is the systematic data collection, enabling us to compare interest representation at the national, Flemish and Francophone-Walloon government levels. We find that: (1) the national government level remains an important venue for interest groups, despite the continuous transfer of competences to the subnational and European levels, (2) neo-corporatist mobilisation patterns are a persistent feature of interest representation, despite substantial interest group diversity and (3) interest mobilisation substantially varies across government levels and political-administrative arenas.


Evelien Willems
Evelien Willems is a postdoctoral researcher at the Department of Political Science, University of Antwerp. Her research focuses on the interplay between interest groups, public opinion and public policy.

Jan Beyers
Jan Beyers is Full Professor of Political Science at the University of Antwerp. His current research projects focus on how interest groups represent citizens interests and to what extent the politicization of public opinion affects processes of organized interest representation in public policymaking.

Frederik Heylen
Frederik Heylen holds a PhD in Political Science from the University of Antwerp. His doctoral dissertation addresses the organizational development of civil society organizations and its internal and external consequences for interest representation. He is co-founder and CEO of Datamarinier.
Artikel

Access_open Ontwikkeling en institutionalisering van een anti-establishmentpartij

De casus Leefbaar Rotterdam

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2021
Trefwoorden party institutionalization, political parties, local government, Governance, anti-establishment party
Auteurs Gideon Broekhuizen en Julien van Ostaaijen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    There is much research available about the development and government participation of new political parties (e.g. Pedersen, 1982; Deschouwer, 2008). Scholars show that survival for new political parties is often difficult, as they in general had little time for party building (Bollyer & Bytzek, 2017). Moreover, the expectation for specific types of new parties, mainly anti-establishment parties, is that they pay a high(er) electoral price when participating in government (Van Spanje, 2011). The Dutch case of the local political party of ‘Leefbaar Rotterdam’ (Livable Rotterdam, LR) is a noteworthy exception to this rule. It won the Rotterdam local election in 2002 with almost 35 percent of the votes, only months after its establishment. Until this day, LR remains an electorally large and relevant political party, participating in Rotterdam government twice (2002-2006 and 2014-2018). The article shows that in comparison to some national new political parties, LR succeeded in building a solid party organization and that from a party institutionalization perspective, it can be considered an institutionalized party. Regarding theory, it provides some additions to party building literature, such as the importance of personal relations and the balance between organizational unity and member autonomy.


Gideon Broekhuizen
Gideon Broekhuizen MSc LLB is werkzaam als beleidsadviseur bij het ministerie van Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport.

Julien van Ostaaijen
Dr. Julien van Ostaaijen is werkzaam als universitair docent bestuurskunde aan Tilburg University en lector Recht en Veiligheid bij Avans Hogeschool.
Artikel

Gemeentelijke bestuurskracht in de energietransitie

Het operationaliseren en kwantificeren van een ongrijpbaar begrip

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden governing capacity, local energy policy, sustainability, climate governance
Auteurs Rick de Vries MSc, Dr. Kees Vringer en Dr. ir. Hans Visser
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Municipalities play an important role in the Dutch energy transition. Therefore, they are expected to deal both sufficiently and timely with their tasks. The question is whether they have the capacity to do so (governing capacity). This study aims to assess whether improving governing capacity can be used to improve the policy performance. We operationalized governing capacity and built a model to assess the relation between several conditions for governing capacity and policy performance for three domains of the energy transition: built environment, mobility and renewables. We found no direct relationship between perceived governing capacity and energy transition policy output. However, we found relationships between conditions for governing capacity, and the policy output. About 25 percent of the total variance in policy performance could be attributed to population size. This percentage levels up to 55 to 60 percent if the motivation of the local administration, cooperation between municipalities and other governmental organisations and the participation of citizens and businesses are also taken into account. This contradicts the idea that enlarging municipalities is the most important way to achieve a higher policy performance.


Rick de Vries MSc
Rick de Vries MSc is onderzoeksmedewerker bij het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving.

Dr. Kees Vringer
Dr. Kees Vringer is senior onderzoeker bij het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving.

Dr. ir. Hans Visser
Dr. ir. Hans Visser is senior onderzoeker statistische analyses bij het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving.
Thema-artikel

In de schaduw van prestige

De noodzakelijke behoefte aan een volwassen vastgoedorganisatie

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden public real estate agency, prestigious projects, project fiascoes, fraud, business maturity model
Auteurs Dr. Wouter Jan Verheul en Ir. Wicher Schönau
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Some prestigious urban projects demonstrate many forms of misfit, misfortune, or mismanagement. Without big plans and high ambitions large projects don’t get off the ground, however, with a lack of attention for a diligent implementation and organization, fiascoes will follow. In the city of Rotterdam, the realization of a pop music hall, failed completely. In this case, the municipal public real estate agency played a central role in the failure of this urban project, and even a huge fraud that wasted millions of euros came out in the open. The main question in this article is: what can we learn from projects that fail during the implementation phase, and how can we professionalize public real estate agencies to avoid mistakes, fraud and other fiascoes? Such questions are relevant for public agencies that have to deal with both high and ever changing political and managerial ambitions, as well as with several commercial actors. This article offers insights behind the scenes of a public real estate agency, based on an in-depth case study. The authors demonstrate mechanisms of organizational vulnerability during the implementation of urban projects, as well as critical success factors of a professional, mature public real estate agency.


Dr. Wouter Jan Verheul
Dr. W.J. Verheul is universitair docent en onderzoeker aan de Technische Universiteit Delft en bestuurskundig adviseur te Rotterdam.

Ir. Wicher Schönau
Ir. W. Schönau is vastgoedkundig adviseur en partner bij TwynstraGudde.
Thema-artikel

De depressieve nasleep van bestuurlijke manie en verval bij corporatiebestuurders

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden managerial mania and decline, corporation directors, internal and external supervisors, weak signals, countervailing power
Auteurs Dr. Meike Bokhorst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Incidents in the semi-public sector regularly reveal the underlying problems of managerial mania and decline. Since the Parliamentary Committee of Inquiry into Housing Associations and the new Housing Act, there have been fewer incidents involving managerial hubris and risky projects. However, in the event of incidents, the share of administrative decline of often long-serving directors of small corporations in particular is still considerable. The question in this article is what forms of managerial mania and decline occur among corporation directors and what internal and external supervisors can do to identify and mitigate this in a timely manner. To answer that question, this article examines the theory and practice of managerial mania and decline. Case analysis shows which manifestations of managerial mania and decline there were in the housing association sector. Internal and external supervisors can counter managerial mania and decline by exchanging knowledge with each other about the weak signals of decline and effective forms of countervailing power.


Dr. Meike Bokhorst
Dr. A.M. Bokhorst is senior onderzoeker bij de Universiteit Utrecht en senior wetenschappelijk medewerker bij de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid.
Artikel

De energietransitie: wie kunnen, willen en mogen er meedoen?

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden renewable energy policies, energy poverty, environmental justice, social resilience
Auteurs Dr. Sylvia Breukers, Dr. Susanne Agterbosch en Dr. Ruth Mourik
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we discuss the role and position of different types of low income households in Dutch renewable energy transition processes using the concept of energy poverty. We explore which benefits and/or (dis)advantages (unintentionally) result from energy policies and regulations. And to what extent the distribution of these (dis)advantages benefit the position of different types of households. To this end we present an analytical perspective that enables us to evaluate renewable energy transition policies and governance on procedural and distributional aspects: paying attention to issues of recognition, equity and justice. The perspective draws on ideas in environmental justice literature and on ideas in social resilience literature. Combining these ideas in a new analytical framework proved to be useful in articulating some major policy challenges in relation to energy poverty in the Netherlands today.


Dr. Sylvia Breukers
Dr. Sylvia Breukers is onderzoeker en partner bij Duneworks. www.duneworks.nl/team-nl/dr-sylvia-breukers/

Dr. Susanne Agterbosch
Dr. Susanne Agterbosch is plaatsvervangend directeur van het PON&Telos. https://hetpon.nl/wie-we-zijn/dr-susanne-agterbosch-2/

Dr. Ruth Mourik
Dr. Ruth Mourik is onderzoeker en partner bij Duneworks. www.duneworks.nl/team-nl/dr-ruth-mourik/
Article

Political Sophistication and Populist Party Support

The Case of PTB-PVDA and VB in the 2019 Belgian Elections

Tijdschrift Politics of the Low Countries, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden populist voters, political sophistication, voting motivations, Belgium, elections
Auteurs Marta Gallina, Pierre Baudewyns en Jonas Lefevere
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, we investigate the moderating role of political sophistication on the vote for populist parties in Belgium. Building on the literature about the diverse determinants of populist party support, we investigate whether issue considerations and populism-related motivations play a bigger role in the electoral calculus of politically sophisticated voters.
    Using data from the 2019 general elections in Belgium, we focus on the cases of Vlaams Belang (VB) and Parti du Travail de Belgique- Partij van de Arbeid (PTB-PVDA). We find evidence suggesting that political sophistication enhances the impact of populism-related motivations on populist party support, although the effects are contingent on the party. Moreover, we show that, for issue considerations, the moderation effect only comes into play for VB voters: the impact of anti-immigrant considerations is greater at increasing levels of political sophistication.


Marta Gallina
Marta Gallina is a PhD Student at the Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium. She obtained her BA and MA in Social Sciences at the University of Milan. Her research interests regard the study of political behaviour, political sophistication, issue dimensionality, populism and Voting Advice Applications. Her work appeared in scientific journals such as Statistics, Politics and Policy, Environmental Politics and Italian Political Science.

Pierre Baudewyns
Pierre Baudewyns is Professor of political behaviour at UCLouvain. He is involved in different projects (voters, candidates) related to National Election Study. Results of his research have been published in Electoral Studies, European Political Science, Regional & Federal Studies, West European Politics and Comparative European Politics.

Jonas Lefevere
Jonas Lefevere is research professor of political communication at the Institute for European Studies and assistant professor of communication at Vesalius College. Since 2018, he is also vice-chair of the ECPR Standing Group on Political Communication. His research interests deal with the communication strategies of political parties, and the effects of election campaigns on voters’ electoral behaviour. He has published on these topics in, amongst others, Electoral Studies, Public Opinion Quarterly, Political Communication and International Journal of Public Opinion Research.
Article

Access_open Voters of Populist Parties and Support for Reforms of Representative Democracy in Belgium

Tijdschrift Politics of the Low Countries, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Belgian politics, democratic reforms, elections, populist voters, representative democracy
Auteurs Lisa van Dijk, Thomas Legein, Jean-Benoit Pilet e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recently, studies have burgeoned on the link between populism and demands for democratic reforms. In particular, scholars have been debating the link between populist citizens or voters and support for referendums. In this article, we examine voters of populist parties (Vlaams Belang (VB) and Parti du Travail de Belgique-Partij van de Arbeid (PTB-PVDA)) in Belgium in 2019 and we look at their attitudes towards various types of democratic reforms. We find that voters of populist parties differ from the non-populist electorate in their support for different kinds of reforms of representative democracy. Voters of VB and PTB-PVDA have in common stronger demands for limiting politicians’ prerogatives, for introducing binding referendums and for participatory budgeting. While Vlaams Belang voters are not significantly different from the non-populist electorate on advisory referendums, citizens’ forums or technocratic reform, PVDA-PTB voters seem more enthusiastic.


Lisa van Dijk
Lisa van Dijk (corresponding author), KU Leuven.

Thomas Legein
Thomas Legein, Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB).

Jean-Benoit Pilet
Jean-Benoit Pilet, Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB).

Sofie Marien
Sofie Marien, KU Leuven.
Thema-artikel

Niet toegeven maar teruggeven bij protest

Effecten van beleid bij vestiging van een asielzoekerscentrum in Utrecht

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden asylum seeker centres, local opposition, policy effects, inter-group contact, Utrecht
Auteurs Dr. Rianne Dekker, Dr. Karin Geuijen en Dr. Caroline Oliver
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The refugee crisis of 2015-2016 prompted European governments to quickly institute new asylum seeker centres. Often however, plans for opening new reception centres are met with protest in surrounding localities. Gaining public support for new ASCs has become a pressing governance issue facing local governments. This research looks at whether a policy strategy of ‘giving back’ to the neighbourhood rather than ‘giving in’ to the demands of protesters can minimise local opposition and alleviate negative attitudes . A door-to-door survey of N = 511 neighbourhood residents is combined with semi-structured interview data of N = 31 neighbourhood residents. We find that attitudes were already neutral to fairly positive shortly after the centre opened and fears of nuisance and crime did not materialise. Those who became involved in the ASCs’ courses and activities are a small and selective group who were already fairly accepting of the centre. Contact between asylum seekers and neighbours developing within and beyond the ASC was valued but did not develop into stronger ties due to frequent moves of asylum seekers and early closure of the ASC.


Dr. Rianne Dekker
Dr. R. Dekker is universitair docent en onderzoeker bij het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap van de Universiteit Utrecht. Zij doet onderzoek naar de invloed van nieuwe media in verschillende beleidsterreinen waaronder integratie en veiligheid.

Dr. Karin Geuijen
Dr. K. Geuijen is universitair docent en onderzoeker bij het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap van de Universiteit Utrecht. Zij doet onderzoek naar multi-sector en multi-level governance, voornamelijk op het terrein van asielmigratie.

Dr. Caroline Oliver
Dr. C. Oliver is universitair hoofddocent aan het Institute of Education van University College London. Zij doet onderzoek naar de gevolgen van migratiebeleid en instituties voor sociale rechtvaardigheid.
Artikel

Het prestatievoordeel van publiek-private samenwerking

Een analyse van transportinfrastructuurprojecten in Nederland

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs), Cost Performance, Time Performance, Netherlands, Principal-Agent Relationships
Auteurs Dr. Stefan Verweij, Dr. Ingmar van Meerkerk en Prof. dr. ir. Wim Leendertse
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Compared to regular contracts, infrastructure development and management through Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) is expected to lead to better cost and time performance. However, the evidence for this performance advantage of PPPs is lacking. This article analyzes the performance differences of projects with a Design-Build-Finance-Maintain (DBFM) contract (a type of PPP) and a Design-and-Construct (D&C) contract. Project performance data were collected (N = 65) from the Project Database of Rijkswaterstaat and analyzed using non-parametric tests. Rijkswaterstaat is the executive agency of the Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management. The results show that DBFM-projects have a significantly higher cost performance than D&C-projects. In particular, DBFM-projects have less additional costs related to technical necessities in the implementation phase. Regarding time performance, DBFM-projects seem to perform better although the difference with D&C-projects is not statistically significant. The article discusses explanations for the performance advantage of PPPs, rooted in principal-agent theory. From this discussion, an agenda is presented for further research into the performance advantage of Public-Private Partnerships.


Dr. Stefan Verweij
Dr. Stefan Verweij is universitair docent infrastructuurplanning, governance en methodologie aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, faculteit Ruimtelijke Wetenschappen, basiseenheid Planologie.

Dr. Ingmar van Meerkerk
Dr. Ingmar van Meerkerk is universitair docent bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, School of Social and Behavioural Sciences, afdeling Bestuurskunde.

Prof. dr. ir. Wim Leendertse
Prof. dr. ir. Wim Leendertse is bijzonder hoogleraar management in infrastructuurontwikkeling aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, faculteit Ruimtelijke Wetenschappen, basiseenheid Planologie. Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Waterstaat, Rijkswaterstaat, Grote Projecten en Onderhoud.

    Large government investments are regularly preceded by an ex-ante evaluation. This article examines the quality of two ex-ante studies and considers the use made by administrators and representatives of the people of these ex-ante studies. In both cases it concerned qualitatively sound ex-ante studies. In both cases, these studies also demonstrably affected the debate about these investment plans in the people’s representations. But there was no question of power-free decision making. In both cases, the representatives of the people were put under great pressure. Not only was there time pressure. The public debate came late. The use of sound ex-ante studies is not only an investment in rationality, but is also accompanied by political-strategic manoeuvring. The relevance of this article to practitioners is that it (a) contains four reasonable requirements that the representative may make of each ex-ante study offered by the executive board; (b) also shows that an ex-ante analysis on which important decisions are based should not be characterised by secret parts or by undefined assumptions and an ex-ante analysis must be transparent; and (c) demonstrates it is important as a representative to be tenacious, to keep a firm hand and not to decide before all questions have been answered and a full list of safeguards is on the table.


Prof. dr. Michiel Herweijer
Prof. dr. M. Herweijer is bijzonder hoogleraar Bestuurskunde aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en redacteur van Bestuurswetenschappen. Hij was tot 1 januari 2019 directeur van de Noordelijke Rekenkamer. Sinds 1 november 2018 is hij docent publiek management aan de Universitaire Campus Fryslân te Leeuwarden (een nevenvestiging van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen).
Artikel

Diversiteit en inclusie in verschillende typen kindercentra

Ervaringen van managers en medewerkers

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Diversity, Inclusion, Privatization, Organizational climate, Childcare centers
Auteurs Drs. Willeke van der Werf, Dr. Pauline Slot, Prof. dr. Patrick Kenis e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Childcare centers are organizations that differ in structural and cultural characteristics. The present comparative case study examined how Dutch childcare centers match different organization types and related the identified organization types to the implementation of diversity and inclusion policy. Diversity and inclusion in organizations concerns climate-dimensions, such as providing equal opportunities, allowing influence on decision-making and stimulating professional development for all staff. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 managers and 24 pedagogical practitioners in 13 childcare centers. Content-analysis of the interviews showed that employees in all centers experience equal opportunities, however the content and form of these opportunities differed according to the type of organization. Employees in childcare centers with a comparatively strong orientation on professional performance reported positive experiences with group-collaboration, team-professionalization and collective decision-making. Employees in childcare centers with a comparatively strong market orientation reported positive experiences with possibilities for individual development and autonomy in their daily work. The experiences of the employees match the differences in organizational climate as reported by the location managers, emphasizing either collaboration in teams or employees’ individual responsibility, depending on the type of organization.


Drs. Willeke van der Werf
Drs. Willeke van der Werf, promovendus, is werkzaam bij het departement Educatie en Pedagogiek van de Universiteit Utrecht. www.uu.nl/medewerkers/WMvanderWerf

Dr. Pauline Slot
Dr. Pauline Slot is universitair docent en onderzoeksprojectleider bij het departement Educatie en Pedagogiek van de Universiteit Utrecht. www.uu.nl/medewerkers/PLSlot

Prof. dr. Patrick Kenis
Prof. dr. Patrick Kenis is hoogleraar public governance aan Tilburg University, Tilburg School of Economics and Management. www.tilburguniversity.edu/nl/medewerkers/p-n-kenis

Prof. dr. Paul Leseman
Prof. dr. Paul Leseman is hoogleraar orthopedagogiek bij het departement Educatie en Pedagogiek van de Universiteit Utrecht. www.uu.nl/staff/PPMLeseman
Artikel

Sturing op toeristische gentrificatie in stadscentra

Lessen uit Amsterdamse stadsstraten

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Urban governance, policy fit, tourism gentrification, city centre, Amsterdam
Auteurs Ir. Simon van Zoest en Dr. Wouter Jan Verheul
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The extensive growth of urban tourism has influenced the living environment of urban citizens worldwide, which is among others due to changes in the range of commercial amenities. As a manifestation of this development, the existing supply of retail and hospitality services gradually changes from a focus on inhabitants to the tourist. As a result, the call for municipal intervention grows. However, little is known about the steerability of this development. In this article we therefore asses how tourism affects the range of commercial amenities in city streets, and what local policy responses are most suitable. The research builds on the concepts of tourism gentrification and different types of ‘policy-instrument fit’. Our case study of the city centre of Amsterdam, including a media and policy document analysis, as well as in-depth interviews with stakeholders, show that some problems caused by mass tourism require ‘hard’ forms of government control, while others require a ‘softer’ process approach, linking local parties to jointly improve a city street. The presented steering perspectives are not only relevant for the city of Amsterdam, but also for many other towns within, and beyond, the Netherlands, that have been struggling with the growth of tourism. The open attitude towards urban mass tourism has come up for discussion and urban (tourism) policy calls for reconsideration.


Ir. Simon van Zoest
Ir. Simon van Zoest is promovendus aan de Technische Universiteit Delft.

Dr. Wouter Jan Verheul
Dr. Wouter Jan Verheul is universitair docent en onderzoeker aan de Technische Universiteit Delft. Beide zijn verbonden aan de afdeling Urban Development Management.

    The vast majority of Dutch municipalities organize part of their activities on a smaller scale than those of the municipality as such: it is called intra-municipal organization. In this article an inventory is made of the existing knowledge about the effects of various forms of intra-municipal organization in the Netherlands. On the basis of recent research, this knowledge is supplemented and it is also made clear which forms of intra-municipal organization are currently used. An analysis is also made of what legal leeway Dutch municipalities have in this regard. A new and richer typology of intra-municipal organization is also being developed. Finally, the authors place the results of the research reported here in a broader perspective. In particular, they reflect on two presuppositions under many forms of intra-municipal organization, namely that activities are location specific and democracy must necessarily be of the ‘representative’ type. Its relevance for practitioners is that the article provides insight into the legal leeway for intra-municipal organization and into the design of intra-municipal organization. It also contains a reflection on the design of the intra-municipal organization.


Dr. Linze Schaap
Dr. L. Schaap was tot 1 augustus 2019 universitair hoofddocent aan de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur van de Universiteit van Tilburg en is sindsdien directeur van de Noordelijke Rekenkamer.

Dr. Gert-Jan Leenknegt
Dr. G. Leenknegt is universitair hoofddocent constitutioneel recht aan de Tilburg Law School van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Article

Populism as a Visual Communication Style

An Exploratory Study of Populist Image Usage of Flemish Block/Interest in Belgium (1991-2018)

Tijdschrift Politics of the Low Countries, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden Populism, image use, visual style, campaign, posters, visual, Flanders, populist right, Belgium
Auteurs Kevin Straetemans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article analyses the visual communication of the Flemish populist right-wing party Vlaams Blok/Vlaams Belang, and investigates whether or not the party uses a specific populist communication style in its campaign posters, whether or not its visual style evolves over time and how the party distinguishes itself from other (right-wing) parties in its use of images. To do this, the image use will be compared with the CVP/CD&V and the Volksunie/N-VA. This use of images will be investigated by analysing election posters from 1991 to 2018. The analysis shows that there is indeed a ‘populist visual style’. These items consist mainly of (negative) metaphors, false dilemmas, caricatures and the use of so-called ‘agonic’ visual techniques.


Kevin Straetemans
Kevin Straetemans attained a Master’s degree in Political Sciences at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel in 2018. He is currently pursuing an Educational Master in Social Sciences at the same university. His research interests are political parties, elections, extremism, propaganda and political communication.

    Information platforms can facilitate data sharing and make new applications possible. It is essential to connect a wide range of both public and private parties to a platform if real data-based transformation is to get off the ground. However, organizations are reluctant to share data if they do not know exactly what it can be used for or if they have no direct interest in it. Achieving a good solution requires a lot from the innovation process itself and the way it is managed. This article uses three innovation perspectives for the analysis of a logistics information platform. This analysis shows that different stages in the development of an information platform can be distinguished, each with its own dynamic. For local government the involvement of and connection to local parties is important, while innovation as a whole benefits from the link with an overarching agenda that transcends the local level.


Prof. dr. Bram Klievink
Prof. dr. ing. A.J. Klievink is hoogleraar Bestuurskunde aan de Universiteit Leiden, met een speciale focus op digitalisering en publiek beleid.
Article

How to Improve Local Turnout

The Effect of Municipal Efforts to Improve Turnout in Dutch Local Elections

Tijdschrift Politics of the Low Countries, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden turnout, local elections, get out the vote, campaign, the Netherlands
Auteurs Julien van Ostaaijen, Sabine van Zuydam en Martijn Epskamp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Even though many municipalities use a variety of means to improve turnout in local elections, citizen participation in local elections is a point of concern in many Western countries, including the Netherlands. Our research question is therefore: How effective are municipal efforts to improve turnout in (Dutch) local elections? To this end, we collected data from three sources: (1) a survey sent to the municipal clerks of 389 Dutch municipalities to learn what they do to improve turnout; (2) data from Statistics Netherlands on municipalities’ socio-demographic characteristics; and (3) data on the turnout in local elections from the Dutch Electoral Council database. Using hierarchical multiple regression analysis, we found that the direct impact of local governments’ efforts to improve turnout is low. Nevertheless, some measures seem to be able to make a difference. The relative number of polling stations was especially found to impact turnout.


Julien van Ostaaijen
Julien van Ostaaijen is assistant professor of public administration at the Tilburg Institute of Governance (Tilburg University).

Sabine van Zuydam
Sabine van Zuydam is assistant professor of public administration at the Tilburg Institute of Governance (Tilburg University) and researcher at Necker van Naem.

Martijn Epskamp
Martijn Epskamp is a researcher of the municipality of Rotterdam (Research and Business Intelligence department)
Vrij artikel

Paradox van het Pact van de Waard

Dynamische regionale samenwerking in een krimpende Hoeksche Waard

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden shrinking regions, regime theory, population decline, regional collaboration, regional strategies
Auteurs Janneke Rutgers-Zoet Msc en Dr. Tamara Metze
Samenvatting

    In several regions in the Netherlands there are declining population numbers. In those regions, administrators, companies and societal organisations often start regional collaborations in order to anticipate population decline and maintain a good quality of life. This is a logical step, but in practice the collaborating partners face challenges. For this article we analysed over a period of eight years the dynamics of cooperation in the Hoeksche Waard, a region in the province of South Holland that is dealing with a decrease in the number of inhabitants. On the basis of the regime model (Stone 1989), and by conducting qualitative research, in this exploratory study we discerned a paradox of regional cooperation in this ‘shrinking’ region: a decline of population numbers is the reason to initiate informal cooperation in networks, but the complexity of the regional agenda leads to the desire for formalisation of the collaborations in formal decision making structures. This formalisation, in its turn, leads to less commitment from the parties and makes cooperation and achieving results difficult, which increases the need for informalisation.


Janneke Rutgers-Zoet Msc

Dr. Tamara Metze
Vrij artikel

Burgerparticipatie: ontwikkelingstypen van bewonersverbanden

Interactie tussen participatieprofessionals en bewonersverbanden in beeld

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden citizen participation, self-organisation, public participation professionals, community enterprises, Amsterdam
Auteurs Dr. ir. Anna de Zeeuw, Eelco van Wijk MSc en Dr. Alex Straathof
Samenvatting

    Local authorities expect citizens to fulfil an increasing number of public services. In that context, citizen-based networks are emerging as means to fulfil a variety of public tasks, varying from supporting young entrepreneurs and strengthening social cohesion, to providing local care. In this article, we address the following questions: Which phases do community enterprises pass through in their efforts towards realising a sustainable contribution and how do participation professionals support these phases? To respond to this question, researchers followed seven community enterprises based in Amsterdam over a two-year period. We identified a typology of four development phases, with particular attention to the interaction between external participation professionals and the key persons of community enterprises. The study has practical relevance for governance of citizen participation and also raises important follow-up questions about the role of the local government.


Dr. ir. Anna de Zeeuw

Eelco van Wijk MSc

Dr. Alex Straathof
Article

Split Offer and Homogeneous Response in Belgium

The Conceptual and Empirical Limitations of (De)Nationalization

Tijdschrift Politics of the Low Countries, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden (de-)nationalization, voting behaviour, party offer, voter response, methodological nationalism
Auteurs Luana Russo, Kris Deschouwer en Tom Verthé
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    By examining the Belgian case, this article aims to show that methodological nationalism is strongly present in the literature on nationalization of party offer and voting behaviour. In nationalization studies, Belgium is often presented as a typical example of a denationalized country. This is true for the party offer, as it is de facto split between the two language groups since the 1980s, and therefore also voter response at the national level. However, voter response within each separate subnational party system is very homogeneous and shows interesting differences between these party systems that inform us about important electoral dynamics. We argue, on the basis of our results, that rather than stretching the concept of nationalization, it is preferable and justified to treat the concepts of nationalization of the party offer and homogenization of voter response as analytically distinct and not as two sides of the same coin.


Luana Russo
Luana Russo, Maastricht University.

Kris Deschouwer
Kris Deschouwer, Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Tom Verthé
Tom Verthé, Ghent University & Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
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