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Functionele politisering en politieke fragmentatie

Ontwikkelingen in de ambtelijke top in de periode 2007-2021

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2022
Trefwoorden polarization, functional politicization, senior civil servants, bureaucratic powers, civil service scrutiny
Auteurs Caspar van den Berg en Alexandre Belloir
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Functional politicization – political activities and capacities taken on by bureaucrats within their administrative function – has received increased academic attention over recent years. Regardless, the factors and determinants behind this phenomenon remain a point of uncertainty and debate. Within this study, we explore whether increased political polarization and fragmentation in the Dutch political landscape from 2007 to 2019 and functional politicization are related. To do so, we analyze data from surveys conducted in 2007, 2013 and 2019 and semi-structured interviews conducted in 2019 to establish which skills – political-strategic insight, substantive expertise (Fachwissen), or procedural knowledge (Dienstwissen) – are perceived by senior civil servants to be the most prevalent in exercising their profession. The data depicts the prevalence of political astuteness in the profession and highlights three causal dimensions: institutional, organizational, and interpersonal dynamics. It however fails to highlight a cross-time evolution, which is hypothesized to be due to a ceiling effect of this competence having constantly been perceived as the most prevalent. The latter adds a theoretical dimension to the notion of functional politicisation, as it aligns with other academic findings that suggest senior civil servants are now subject to heightened pressures due to being increasingly monitored and in the (public) spotlight.


Caspar van den Berg
Caspar van den Berg is hoogleraar Global and Local Governance aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en bijzonder hoogleraar Transities in de Publieke Sector aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Alexandre Belloir
Alexandre Belloir is promovendus bij het Departement Global and Local Governance van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Thema-artikel

Op zoek naar publiek leiderschap

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2022
Trefwoorden Public leadership, Search, Compass, Movement, Dilemmas and paradoxes, No jumping to solutions
Auteurs Mark Frequin
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    At the request of the General Administrative Service (ABD) of the Government in the Netherlands Mark Frequin developed a vision for public leadership. In his opinion it’s not about a paper-reality but about a movement to more leadership. For that reason he made a Compass for public leadership. If you want to set steps to more leadership it’s all about looking for direction. And despite what normally happens in the public sector, jumping to solutions, it’s therefore much more important to find out what are the dilemmas, the problems, the paradoxes, the puzzles…Mark is giving attention to some of them in this article: the need for more long-term-planning and at the same time short-term political promises; the importance of more knowledge in public on the one hand and the same time seeing more opinions in society and media; the information-paradox: not too much and not too little information; being in control and at the same time accepting uncertainty; and being a (civil) servant and also a (public) leader. The search for public leadership is understanding the difficulties. It’s therefore a search given the fact that there are not one-time answers.


Mark Frequin
Drs. M. Frequin is voormalig directeur-generaal bij meerdere departementen en inmiddels buitengewoon adviseur voor publiek leiderschap bij het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties (BZK); tevens is hij voorzitter van de Vereniging voor Overheidsmanagement (VOM).
Vrij artikel

Access_open De wethouder en de wereld

Hoe de bouw van datacenters de noodzaak van een krachtige, hybride overheid laat zien

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2022
Trefwoorden hybrid government, data centres, privatisation, globalisation, digital transformation, spatial planning law
Auteurs Cees-Jan Pen en Bart Wernaart
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recently, the construction of large datacentres has led to intense societal debate in the Netherlands. Political decision making preceding the building of these centres is usually done at a decentralized governance level. However, at that level, it appears to be challenging to balance the relevant interest with integrity, and the living environment of citizens is easily overlooked. At the core of this debate lies a systemic challenge that comes with the changing role of the local government. Driven by privatization, globalization, digital transformation and citizen emancipation, the identity of governments transforms. Consequentially, governments are not only legislators and policy makers, but also – and increasingly – business partner, shareholder and client. Local politicians struggle with combining and switching between these roles. The case of datacentres is the embodiment of these challenges, and it takes a powerful, hybrid government to address these challenges in a meaningful manner and adopt a more active role for civilians in line with the new Dutch spatial planning law. Above all, it is necessary to focus on acting as a professional and stable partner. This is not only in the interest of citizens, but also in the interest of the related private organizations.


Cees-Jan Pen
Dr. C.J. Pen is lector de Ondernemende Regio aan de hogeschool Economie en Communicatie van Fontys Hogescholen.

Bart Wernaart
Mr. dr. B.F.W. Wernaart is Lector Moral Design Strategy aan de hogeschool Economie en Communicatie van Fontys Hogescholen.

    When the corona virus was reported in the Netherlands in March 2020, it also had a major impact on public administration. At that time it was still completely unclear which consequences would be temporary and which would be permanent, but it was immediately clear that it presented unique study material. There was every reason to quickly start describing, analysing and interpreting the first consequences of the fight against corona for politics, administration and policy, with a focus on local authorities. That is why in April 2020, with the support of the Dutch Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations, the ‘Corona papers’ research programme was set up by the Thorbecke Chair (Geerten Boogaard), in which a number of renowned scientists took part. Platform31 (Rogier van der Wal) was also involved. It took care of the accompanying website and newsletters and organised the final conference. Five of these ‘Corona papers’ have been revised and updated for this special issue.


Geerten Boogaard
Prof. mr. dr. G. Boogaard is bijzonder hoogleraar Decentrale Overheden (Thor­becke Leerstoel) aan de Universiteit Leiden en redactielid van Bestuurswetenschappen.

Rogier van der Wal
Dr. R.L. van der Wal is senior-projectleider bij Platform31 en redacteur van Bestuurswetenschappen. Per 1 april 2022 is hij benoemd tot lector Ethiek en Landbouw bij Aeres Hogeschool in Dronten.

    A crisis brings existing vulnerabilities to the surface and clearly shows where the strong qualities of a society and its governance can be found. In the Netherlands, the corona pandemic has also exposed strengths and weaknesses according to that pattern. An important example of this is the region’s strong and complex position in our domestic governance. The author points out three lessons from the long post-war history of failed attempts to adjust the administrative organisation of our country. This leads to three proposals for embedding the region in the existing administrative organisation. The three steps would not be necessary if there were political support for a small adjustment to the administrative structure of the Netherlands, namely a reduction of the provincial scale. A step-by-step, cautious adjustment in the eyes of the author therefore gives more chance of success than a radical administrative reorganisation, which is doomed to fail in this country. For example, the cautious steps could be a prelude to a new and smaller provincial scale.


Rien Fraanje
Drs. M.J. Fraanje is secretaris-directeur van de Raad voor het Openbaar Bestuur. Hij schreef tal van artikelen over het functioneren van het openbaar bestuur en samen met anderen boeken over intergemeentelijke samenwerking, gemeentelijke herindeling en de bestuurlijke organisatie van Nederland.

    This article examines the rally round the flag in the Netherlands during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the spring of 2020, i.e. the rise in trust in political authorities in response to the external threat. The authors use unique panel data to do this, the first of which took place in the days before the announcement of the first national lockdown (mid-March 2020), and the second shortly after the announcement of the reopening of schools (late April/early May 2020). This allows them to isolate the rally in time. Their research shows that the government in particular has gained confidence. Confidence in other political institutions rose to a lesser extent; confidence in the police and the judiciary did not increase. We can best understand the rise in confidence as a decline in cynicism: during the first wave, politicians were less often portrayed as incompetent, which proved to be a motivator for increasing confidence. Fear of contamination was an important motivation for increasing confidence. Under the influence of the external threat, people placed their hopes on political authorities. Both mechanisms may explain that confidence rose particularly sharply among voters of radical right parties, although radical right voters remained the least trusting voters.


Tom van der Meer
Prof. dr. T.W.G. van der Meer is hoogleraar politicologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en codirecteur van het Nationaal Kiezersonderzoek.

Eefje Steenvoorden
Dr. E.H. Steenvoorden is universitair docent bij de afdeling Politicologie van de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Ebe Ouattara
E.M.S. Ouattara MSc is werkzaam als promovendus bij de afdeling Politicologie van de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

    The corona crisis has shaken up the tasks, roles and relationships in the Municipal Executive (B&W) in the Netherlands. The question is what this has meant for the role and for the position of aldermen: the relationship between aldermen themselves, their relationship with the mayor, the municipal council, the civil service and society. A digital survey was used to investigate whether and how the crisis measures have changed the role and the position of aldermen. In addition, questions were asked about policy changes as a result of the corona crisis. The survey was completed by 145 aldermen, bringing the response rate to 10%. The corona crisis had a major impact on the role and position of aldermen. Their contacts with civil servants have become more intensive across the board, their boards have become more collegial and their mayors have taken on a more guiding and coordinating role. Contacts with the municipal councils are less intensive as a result of the corona crisis, which does not apply to their own groups. Relations with companies and institutions have been strengthened; those with citizens have remained unchanged.


Marcel Boogers
Prof. dr. M.J.G.J.A. Boogers is hoogleraar Innovatie en Regionaal Bestuur aan de Universiteit Twente, onderzoeker bij Necker van Naem en hoofdredacteur van Bestuurswetenschappen.
Artikel

Access_open Van ‘alternatieve’ relaties naar de openstelling van het huwelijk voor mensen van hetzelfde geslacht

De politieke geschiedenis van de Nederlandse relatiewetgeving

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2022
Trefwoorden Gay and lesbian history, Legal individualisation, Marriage equality, Registered partnership, Relationship law
Auteurs Joke Swiebel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The history of the opening-up of marriage in the Netherlands is mostly portrayed as a fight started by the Gay Krant in the 1980ies resulting in a clear victory in 2001, the ‘purple’ government of Social Democrats and Liberals being pictured as the heroes. This one-dimensional and triumphalist narrative needs correction. Already in the 1970ies the COC initiated a discussion on law reform for non-marital relationships, but rejected marriage as the model to be followed. In the 1980ies both the gay movement and the feminist movement demanded legal individualisation. This avenue was closed off by the review of the social security system in 1987. A clear defeat. The role of the ‘purple’ coalition also needs revision. It was a more traditional cabinet of Social Democrats and Christian Democrats that in 1994 tabled the first proposal, be it not for marriage but for registered partnerships for couples of the same sex. Consensual politics found its limits in the demand for marriage equality. But also the ‘purple’ cabinet had to be forced by parliament to table this new legislation. The acceptance of marriage equality by the Christian Democrats – a decade later – fits in with integration of same sex relationships in a society where heterosexuality still is the dominant organizing principle.


Joke Swiebel
Drs. Joke Swiebel studeerde politicologie. Zij werkte negen jaar aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en 22 jaar als beleidsambtenaar voor de rijksoverheid. Daarna (1999-2004) was zij lid van het Europees Parlement voor de PvdA. Website: https://jokeswiebel.nl/.
Artikel

Access_open Financiële surveillance en de rol van de Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) in Nederland

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2022
Trefwoorden Financial surveillance, Financial Intelligence Unit, encircling secrecy, Privacy, Proportionality
Auteurs Pieter Lagerwaard
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2019, the Financial Intelligence Unit of the Netherlands (FIU-the Netherlands) celebrated its 25th anniversary. This article uses the occasion to reflect on the pivotal role of the FIU in financial surveillance and to describe its core practices of collecting, analyzing, and disseminating financial intelligence. What makes an FIU particularly interesting is that it operates at various intersections: not only on the nexus of finance and security, but also between private and public actors, by transforming unusual transaction information into suspicious financial intelligence. Given this pivotal position of the FIU, it is surprising that little is known about its core activities. Because its practices are often secret and its data are classified as state secrets, its daily operations and operational processes remain obscure. By drawing on interviews, public reports, and an online training programme this article aims to encircle the secrecy, zoom in on the case-study of FIU-the Netherlands and offer a fine-grained analysis of each of the three core FIU activities. Such a case-study is important not only for the study of finance and security as well as financial surveillance, but also for policy makers and the broader public who merit an understanding of how their financial behaviour is being surveilled.


Pieter Lagerwaard
Pieter Lagerwaard is promovendus aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam (politicologie).
Artikel

Waarom ontbreekt een conservatieve politieke partij in Nederland?

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering Online First 2022
Trefwoorden Dutch political history, conservatism, populism, pillarization, regency
Auteurs Ron Stevens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Because of the existing conservative-religious set of values in a dominant bourgeois culture, as historian Von der Dunk concluded in 1975, a conservative political party never came to fruition. In this article the author examines this observation on the basis of politically pivotal years: 1868, 1917, 1950, 1972 and 2002. At these moments the connection of the conservative-religious values with the age-old regent administrative culture appears to be cast in iron.
    The author considers Von der Dunk’s conclusion to be proven: in the Netherlands a conservative party has never been viable as long as the Christian political parties represent conservative values adequately. Today’s right-wing populist parties adorn themselves with conservative values, but are essentially and act non-conservative.


Ron Stevens
Drs. Ron Stevens is historicus en werkzaam als consultant. Eerder was hij verbonden aan het Centrum voor Parlementaire Geschiedenis, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en Instituut voor Nederlandse Geschiedenis (Huygens instituut). Hij werkt aan een politieke biografie van Ch.I.J.M. Welter; de laatste koloniaal.
Artikel

Klokkenluiden in de wetenschap

In het hol van de leeuw

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering Online First 2022
Trefwoorden whistleblowing, research integrity, research misconduct, retaliation, stress
Auteurs Steven De Peuter en Gert Storms
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Research integrity has received increased attention, in the literature as well as in policy. A host of initiatives is supporting its promotion. However, misconduct will not cease to exist and needs to be reported, by whistleblowers. It takes a lot of courage to blow the whistle as it can have an enormous impact on the whistleblower’s career and personal well-being – and that of colleagues and researchers associated with the perpetrator. Therefore, it is important to be cognisant of the stressful process that accompanies the act of whistleblowing, to provide clear and accessible procedures to report misconduct, and to support whistleblowers throughout the process. Furthermore, it is essential that appropriate whistleblower protection measures are in place and enforced. Based on the current review of the literature, we provide some recommendations for policy and argue that an obligation to report scientific misconduct would currently do more harm than good.


Steven De Peuter
Dr. Steven De Peuter is postdoctoraal onderzoeker wetenschappelijke integriteit aan KU Leuven.

Gert Storms
Prof. Dr. Gert Storms is gewoon hoogleraar aan de faculteit Psychologie en Pedagogische Wetenschappen van KU Leuven.
Artikel

Interbestuurlijke verhoudingen in de bed-bad-broodcasus

Een lokaal perspectief

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering Online First 2022
Trefwoorden policy freedom, multilevel governance, principal agent theory, stewardship theory, management style
Auteurs Niek Bakker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the relationship between central government and municipalities and to what extent this relationship has an impact on local decision-making. The commonly used characterization of this relationship as a principal-agent relationship offers many leads but has some shortcomings. That is why this is compared with the stewardship theory, assuming a more equal and constructive cooperation. Both theories have been incorporated into a broader model on management styles, which creates a more nuanced description of the cooperation in public administration. The article focuses on the case of Rotterdam in 2015, at a time of political turmoil in the Netherlands about the shelter of people without residence permit. The analysis is carried out using a measuring instrument for policy freedom, as policy freedom is a good determinant for which management style is used. The research is conducted from a local perspective, with emphasis on the position of councilors. The national government sometimes profiles itself as a principal to them, but in practice council members resist and turn the relationship around, hereby holding the government accountable for its role and responsibility.


Niek Bakker
Niek Bakker, MSc, is docent maatschappijleer aan het Calvijn College in Goes.
Article

Access_open Is Euroscepticism Contagious?

How Mainstream Parties React to Eurosceptic Challengers in Belgian Parliaments

Tijdschrift Politics of the Low Countries, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden Euroscepticism, parliaments, party competition, Belgium, federalism
Auteurs Jordy Weyns en Peter Bursens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Euroscepticism has long been absent among Belgian political parties. However, since the start of the century, some Eurosceptic challengers have risen. This article examines the effect of Eurosceptic competition on the salience other parties give to the EU and on the positions these parties take in parliament. Using a sample of plenary debates in the federal and regional parliaments, we track each party’s evolution from 2000 until 2019. Our findings both contradict and qualify existing theories and findings on Eurosceptic competition. When facing Eurosceptic challengers, all parties raise salience fairly equally, but government and peripheral parties adopted (soft) Euroscepticism more often than other parties.


Jordy Weyns
Jordy Weyns is a doctoral student at the European University Institute in Florence.

Peter Bursens
Peter Bursens is professor of political science at Universiteit Antwerpen, at the research group Politics and Public Governance and the GOVTRUST Centre of Excellence.
Article

Fit for Office? The Perception of Female and Male Politicians by Dutch Voters

Tijdschrift Politics of the Low Countries, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden political underrepresentation, gender stereotypes, role incongruity, candidate evaluation, experimental vignette study
Auteurs Rozemarijn E. van Dijk en Joop van Holsteyn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The underrepresentation of women in politics is a worldwide phenomenon and the Netherlands fit the pattern: about 39% of the Dutch MPs are female. Based on social role incongruity theory, it is expected that female politicians are evaluated more negatively than male politicians since women do not fit the dominant male politician role. However, most research is conducted in the United States, that is, a candidate-centred system where individual characteristics play an important role. This article focuses on the party-centred parliamentary context in which we examine (1) whether gender stereotypes are present among citizens and (2) to what extent these stereotypes influence the evaluation of politicians. We do this by conducting an experimental vignette survey design. We find that at the mass level there is no difference between the evaluation of male and female politicians, although gender stereotypes are present.


Rozemarijn E. van Dijk
Rozemarijn E. van Dijk is a PhD student at the department of political science at the University of Antwerp, Belgium.

Joop van Holsteyn
Joop J.M. van Holsteyn is Professor in Political Behaviour and Research Methods at Leiden University, the Netherlands.
Article

Morality in the Populist Radical Right

A Computer-Assisted Morality Frame Analysis of a Prototype

Tijdschrift Politics of the Low Countries, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden Populist radical right, morality, frame analysis, word2vec, crimmigration
Auteurs Job P.H. Vossen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article provides a computer-assisted morality framing analysis of Vlaams Belang’s 2019 manifesto. The VB is regarded in the literature as a prototypical example of the Populist Radical Right (PRR). We first concisely review what PRR politics is and what it consists of, tentatively distinguishing four elements that we hypothesise will materialise in corresponding subframes running throughout the manifesto. We point to a mismatch between the omnipresent role of morality in all PRR subframes and the little attention devoted to the concept in the PRR literature. We introduce a useful theory from social psychology into framing literature to create a novel methodological approach to frame analysis that builds a bridge between a qualitative content and a quantitative context approach. The results support our hypothesis that populism, nationalism, nativism and authoritarianism can be distinguished from one another. Additionally, we detect a fifth PRR subframe, crimmigration, by its unique role of morality.


Job P.H. Vossen
Job Vossen is a PhD candidate at the University of Antwerp. His research investigates (im)morality in political discoursing and its interacting with fear, solidarity and gender and sexuality. The corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
Vrij artikel

Access_open Bestuurlijke geloofwaardigheid in het primair onderwijs

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden credibility, educational governance, educational law, schoolboards, school leaders, governing capacity
Auteurs Marlies Honingh, Martijn Nolen en Margriet van der Sluis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Both in a legal and in a practical sense, the tasks of executives in school boards are difficult to delineate. Consequently, credibility of boards and their members has become topical. What makes an executive board credible? How do executives become and remain credible? In this article we address these questions and present the results of our qualitative analysis of the way in which executives in primary education give meaning and substance to their efforts. Based on the empirical results, it appears that executives of the board are well aware of the need to be perceived credible. It also appears that they take this into account in their daily behavior and interactions.


Marlies Honingh
Dr. M.E. Honingh is universitair hoofddocent bestuurskunde aan het Institute for Management Research van de Radboud Universiteit.

Martijn Nolen
Mr. dr. M.F. Nolen is hoofd juridische zaken aan Tilburg University.

Margriet van der Sluis
Dr. M.E. van der Sluis is universitair docent aan de TIAS School for Business and Society.
Thema-artikel

De nieuwe Omgevingswet en versnelling van woningbouw: over veranderingen, mogelijkheden en (onjuiste) verwachtingen

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden planning law, Acceleration, residential development, the Netherlands, Time
Auteurs Fred Hobma
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Legislation is seen both as a problem and a solution for the lengthy process of spatial decision-making. The new Environment and Planning Act aims to speed up and improve decision-making on spatial projects. That sounds promising as an answer to the housing shortage. Can we indeed expect the Act to speed up housing projects? Will legal problems such as the protracted nitrogen crisis and appeals by opponents of new construction be prevented from now on? To answer these questions, this contribution first examines the (im)possibilities of using the instrument of legislation to tackle (spatial) problems. The subsequent analysis of accelerating measures in the Environment and Planning Act shows that a great deal of time is actually spent on activities that are not affected by legislative measures. High expectations of acceleration should therefore be tempered.


Fred Hobma
Mr. dr. F.A.M. Hobma is universitair hoofddocent omgevingsrecht aan de TU Delft.
Thema-artikel

Participeren, juridiseren of politiseren?

De effectiviteit en legitimiteit van verschillende routes voor de strijd om de ruimte

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden public participation, legalizing, politicizing, effective and legitimate decision-making, spatial claims
Auteurs Wouter Jan Verheul, Feie Herkes en Stavros Zouridis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The effectiveness and legitimacy of action strategies in the realm of spatial decision making Increasing spatial claims require careful decision-making. The question is where, from an institutional point of view, decision-making can best take place. Traditionally, balancing interests takes place in the political arena. Our legal system also guarantees legally anchored interests. In addition, we have expected for decades that participation processes stimulate participation, creativity and co-creation of citizens and entrepreneurs. Moreover, the arrival of the new Environment Act in the Netherlands gives participation a more compelling character: for private initiators, such as project developers, the organization of participation is even a hard requirement in a number of cases. Under the new Environment Act, policymakers, administrators, citizens and companies must constantly make a choice between participating, legalizing or politicizing in decision-making processes. This article analyses this choice from the perspectives of effectiveness and legitimacy. Is decision-making through participation more effective, or are parties better off in the courtroom, or the local council for effective and legitimate decisions? Theoretically, this question is interesting because the answer teaches us about effective and legitimate governance. For the practice of environmental decision-making, we consider when the participatory, legal or political route can best be followed to create both effective and legitimate decisions.


Wouter Jan Verheul
Dr. W.J. Verheul is senior onderzoeker gebiedsontwikkeling en universitair docent urban development management aan de TU Delft en daarnaast zelfstandig bestuurskundig adviseur.

Feie Herkes
F.J. Herkes MSc is promovendus aan Tilburg University en is tevens verbonden aan het kennisprogramma Bindend Besturen in Brabant.

Stavros Zouridis
Prof. dr. mr. S. Zouridis is hoogleraar bestuurskunde aan Tilburg University en is tevens verbonden aan het kennisprogramma Bindend Besturen in Brabant.
Thema-artikel

De woningcrisis in Nederland vanuit een bestuurlijk perspectief: achtergronden en oplossingen

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden the Netherlands, housing policy, governance of the housing market, building production, spatial policy
Auteurs Peter Boelhouwer en Harry van der Heijden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Partly as a result of major problems on the housing market and in particular the large housing shortage, there is now a lot of attention for housing in both the press and politics. After many years of focus on more market forces and decentralization, the national government recently seems prepared to take more responsibility. In this contribution we try to interpret this turnaround by successively considering the main problems in the housing market, the development of government policy and possible solutions to the problems that have arisen. The emphasis is on the role of the national government. We conclude that, in view of the many spatial claims and the major investment tasks, it is important that the national government takes control and makes clear choices, which can then be worked out at regional and local level. By subsequently closely monitoring the developments and intervening if necessary, the central government can make adjustments on the intended housing policies.


Peter Boelhouwer
Prof. dr. P.J. Boelhouwer is hoogleraar huisvestingssystemenaan de Faculteit Bouwkunde van de Technische Universiteit Delft.

Harry van der Heijden
Dr. H.M.H. van der Heijden is universitair hoofddocent aan de Faculteit Bouwkunde van de Technische Universiteit Delft.
Vrij artikel

De drie deconcentraties in het sociaal domein

Verbeter verhoudingen tussen Rijk en gemeenten

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden decentralization, deconcentration, municipalities, public finances, public policy
Auteurs Nils Nijdam
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2015, the three decentralizations in the social domain took place, a transfer of tasks and resources from the national government to municipalities in the Netherlands. Since then, the Dutch municipalities have been responsible for tasks related to work, care and youth. How the municipalities have tackled these tasks? What is the situation in the social domain seven years later? And what is the relationship between municipalities and national government?
    It appears that municipalities are struggling with their new tasks, mainly because of the insufficient financial resources and the limited freedom of choice. With regard to the characterization of the transfer of tasks, it is better to speak of the three deconcentrations, instead of the three decentralizations. Municipalities have received new tasks, but experience little policy freedom to tackle those tasks. In order to achieve the goals associated with the transfer to municipalities, it is necessary to increase the scope for municipalities to make their own choices. In this way, national government and municipalities can work on more equal relations.


Nils Nijdam
Dr. mr. N. Nijdam heeft van 2014 tot 2020 gewerkt in het sociaal domein van de gemeente Den Haag en is in oktober 2020 gepromoveerd op een onderzoek naar gemeentelijke sturing op de drie decentralisaties in het sociaal domein van 2015. Tegenwoordig is hij als onderzoeker en specialist bestuurlijke en financiële verhoudingen en sturingsvraagstukken verbonden aan de Algemene Rekenkamer en doceert hij aan de opleiding Bestuurskunde en Overheidsmanagement van de Haagse Hogeschool.
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