Zoekresultaat: 16 artikelen

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Jaar 2005 x

    The EU is transforming the function and power of the Dutch parliament as an institution, and the way in which its principal actors, the governing and opposition parliamentary party groups, interact with each other and the government. This article seeks to address the question: How does parliamentary scrutiny over EU decision-making function in the Netherlands and how has this new role for parliament changed both parliamentary and executive relations in the country and the interaction of parties in parliament? For the purposes of this research, this paper uses the typology of King. The author has conducted a number of in-depth interviews with Dutch MPs. Overall, this article concludes the process of parliamentary scrutiny over EU matters in the Netherlands is no longer exclusively about finding a national consensus towards the outside world, but increasingly mirrors the rough and tumble of normal, domestic politics.


Ronald Holzhacker
Ronald Holzhacker is werkzaam bij de Universiteit Twente.

    This article examines the impact of the EU on the content of policy. It analyses two cases in which the EU affected Dutch policies in different ways: in the case of packaging waste policy the EU exerted direct influence through EU legislation, whereas in the case of railway policy, the EU only had an indirect impact through policy models. Nevertheless, the impact of the EU was greater in the railway policy case than in the packaging waste case. This suggests that domestic political processes are more important in explaining the impact of the EU on policy content, than the degree of legal adaptation pressure. In addition, the article shows that the EU has affected the policy networks in the area of packaging waste policy, even though Dutch corporatist structures have shown remarkable resilience and have even been strengthened by the implementation requirements of EU legislation in this field.


Markus Haverland
Dr. Markus Haverland is docent/onderzoeker bij het departement Bestuurskunde van de Universiteit Leiden. Adres: Pieter de la Court gebouw, Postbus 9555, 2300 RB Leiden, e-mail: mhaverland@fsw.leidenuniv.nl

    This article is the introduction to this special issue in which the Europeanisation of Dutch polity, politics and policy forms the central focus of attention. The main question we address in this special issue is to what extent the Netherlands has changed under the influence of processes of Europeanisation. This article first discusses the state-of-the-art Europeanisation literature; then it sets out to discuss four problems with this literature. Based on the insights generated by the contributors to this special issue, the authors conclude that for a better understanding of processes of Europeanisation, the EU should no longer be seen as an actor, but rather as an (cluster of) arena(s) in which a variety of actors (member states, EU institutions, interest groups, et cetera) are trying to achieve their political goals.


Sebastiaan Princen
Verbonden aan de Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap van de Universiteit Utrecht Adres: Bijlhouwerstraat 6, 3511 ZC Utrecht, e-mail: s.princen@usg.uu.nl

Kutsal Yesilkagit
Verbonden aan de Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap van de Universiteit Utrecht Adres: Bijlhouwerstraat 6, 3511 ZC Utrecht, e-mail: k.yesilkagit@usg.uu.nl

    Child labor evokes deep emotions and is cause for growing international concern. What, if anything, should governments of liberal-democratic societies do to combat child labor?

    This paper discusses the possibilities and pitfalls of Western policies that seek to curb child labor abroad. Since such policies aim to combat practices in another society, policy makers should be aware of the many relevant differences between developing and developed countries. We discuss three issues that are central to this debate: socioeconomic causes of child labor, different conceptions of childhood, and the distinction between child work and child labor. Studying the historical example of the emergence and disappearance of child labor in nineteenth-century Netherlands broadens our analysis. We then evaluate the implications of these investigations and conclude the paper by suggesting five recommendations for Western policy makers that would avoid the pitfalls discussed.


Mijke Houwerzijl
Mijke Houwerzijl is juriste en als onderzoeker (NWO-SaRO project 'Flexicurity') verbonden aan het departement sociaal recht en sociale politiek, Universiteit van Tilburg. Adres: Departement encyclopedie en rechtsgeschiedenis, Faculteit Rechten, Universiteit van Tilburg, Postbus 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, e-mail: m.s.houwerzijl@uvt.nl. Zij is begin 2005 gepromoveerd op een onderzoek naar de detachering van werknemers in de Europese Unie (De Detacheringsrichtlijn, Deventer: Kluwer 2005 (reeks Europese Monografieën, nr. 78). Eerder publiceerde zij over verschillende arbeidsrechtelijke en sociaal-politieke onderwerpen. Over kinderarbeid: 'Wettelijk minimumjeugdloon voor 13- en 14-jarige kinderen?' Arbeid Integraal 2003, p. 28-30. Een overzicht is te vinden op www.uvt.nl/webwijs/show.html?anr=527432).

Roland Pierik
Dr. Roland Pierik is universitair docent politieke theorie aan de Rechtenfaculteit van de Universiteit van Tilburg. In het voorjaar van 2005 was hij visiting scholar aan de filosofiefaculteit van University College Londen. Adres: Departement encyclopedie en rechtsgeschiedenis, Faculteit Rechten, Universiteit van Tilburg, Postbus 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, e-mail: r.pierik@ uvt.nl, www.rolandpierik.nl. Recente publicaties:

    Member states must transpose European directives into national rules. This process, however, is not without problems. The Netherlands regularly transposes directives too late. Moreover, very often the content of the national transposition rules does not match the adaptations required by the directives. This article examines whether political resistance or administrative and legal weaknesses cause these problems. The author concludes that problems regarding transposition are caused by a culture of neglect and lack of priority for EU policies. Improving coordination procedures, formal legislative processes, and information facilities will not solve transposition problems as long as the cultural aspect of the problem isn't adequately addressed.


Ellen Mastenbroek
Drs. Ellen Mastenbroek is Assistent in Opleiding bij de departementen Bestuurskunde en Politieke Wetenschap aan de Universiteit Leiden. Adres: Pieter de la Court gebouw, Postbus 9555, 2300 RB Leiden, e-mail: mastenbroek@fsw.leidenuniv.nl

    This article poses the question whether the Dutch system of organized interest representation faces a transformation from neo-corporatist mediation to lobbyism similar to Scandinavian countries. Its main claim is that this has so far not been the case, because two essential features of neo-corporatist interest mediation have remained prominent in the Netherlands. First, policies regarding labour conditions continue to be determined within a network of employers' organisations, trade unions, and the government that is essentially closed to outsiders. Second, the system continues to be hierarchical in nature: the government, often below the surface, demonstrates a considerable capacity to steer the participants in its preferred direction. Such a closed network still allows for lobbying the parliament by both network members and outsiders. Lobbying may thus be complementary to closed neo-corporatist networks rather than a substitute. The article offers a research agenda exploring the latter suggestion.


Agnes Akkerman
Agnes Akkerman is als universitair docent verbonden aan de Faculteit der Management Wetenschappen van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Recente publicaties van haar hand zijn 'Identifying Latent Conflict in Collective Bargaining', Rationality and Society 15(1): 15-43; 'A theory of soft policy implementation in multilevel systems with an application to Dutch social partnership', Acta Politica 39(1): 31-58. Adres: Thomas van Aquinostraat 5, Postbus 9108, 6500 HK Nijmegen,
Artikel

In een groen, groen polderland

De mix tussen corporatisme en lobbyisme in het Nederlandse milieu-beleid

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2005
Auteurs Dave Huitema
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses the degree to which Dutch environmental policy exhibits a shift from corporatism to lobbyism. Based on a general analysis of environmental policy making in the Netherlands and two specific cases of environmental decision making, the author draws the conclusion that such a shift has not happened. At the level of policymaking it is rather the opposite: in the 1980s the Ministry of the Environment introduced a certain level of corporatism. This was possible because of a clear framework of environmental policy goals shaped by the National Institute for Public Health and Environment (RIVM), because the environmental movement began to see the Ministry as an ally and because business interests preferred self-regulation (one element of corporatism) to government regulations. In two concrete case of environmental decision-making that are discussed here, environmental goals are being discussed once more. During such discussion, it appears that Dutch ministries have close connection to 'their' target groups. For the coming years, environmental policy will 'Europeanize' further and Dutch economic interest groups, although being remarkably late in responding to this shift, will start to influence the Brussels policymaking game instead of the Dutch implementation game.


Dave Huitema
Dave Huitema is als senior-bestuurskundig onderzoeker verbonden aan het Instituut voor Milieuvraagstukken (IVM) van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Huitema is docent en modulecoördinator bij de masteropleiding 'Environment and Resource Management' (ERM) aan de VU en leidt het onderzoekscluster 'Water Governance and Economics' van het IVM. Recente publicaties zijn: Calculating the Political: Election Manifestoes as a Meeting Point for Experts and Politicians. The case of the RIVM (Amsterdam: Instituut voor Milieuvraagstukken) en Hazardous Decisions: Hazardous Waste Facility Siting in the UK, Netherlands and Canada: Institutions and Discourses (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers). Adres: Instituut voor Milieuvraagstukken, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam, e-mail: dave.huitema@ivm.vu.nl
Artikel

Onderwijssegregatie in de grote steden

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2005
Auteurs Sjoerd Karsten, Charles Felix, Guuske Ledoux e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Across Europe, urban education systems are struggling with the process of integration of immigrants in its schools. This article explores the most important aspects of this new urban phenomenon and its impact on urban school systems in the Netherlands. It clearly shows that ethnic segregation in elementary and secondary schools is widespread in Dutch cities. This ethnic segregation is caused by a combination of residential segregation, and, as our own studies prove, of parental choice. The article also deals with recent Dutch studies on the effects of segregation. Finally, it treats the question how schools and authorities, in a long-standing tradition of parental choice, are dealing with this segregation.


Sjoerd Karsten
Sjoerd Karsten is Universitair hoofddocent onderwijsbeleid, Universiteit van Amsterdam. Adres: SCO-Kohnstamm Instituut, Wibautstraat 4, 1091 GM Amsterdam, tel.: 020 - 525 1232, e-mail: S.Karsten@uva.nl

Charles Felix

Guuske Ledoux

Wim Meijnen

Jaap Roeleveld

Erik van Schooten
Article

Het asielbeleid van de Europese Unie: een veiligheidskwestie?

Een discoursanalytische studie naar de constructie van een gemeenschappelijke asielprocedure in Europa

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 4 2005
Auteurs Dominique Van Dijck
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article explores whether the development of a common European asylum policy, and the construction of a directive on minimum standards for the granting of refugee status, is dominated by a security discourse. In such a security discourse, asylum is considered a cross-border threat to the realization of the internal market and the internal stability of Member States. While the social construction of asylum as a problem puts pressure on the traditional humanitarian framework on which international refugee protection is being based. The tension between these two approaches seems to result in a restrictive European common asylum policy, with a focus on control and prevention of migration into the EU. In this article, we analyse the tensions between the security and the humanitarian discourse in primary and secondary sources, using the model of Laclau and Mouffe. We conclude that while creating a common asylum policy, a securitization process is present.


Dominique Van Dijck
Aspirante van het FWO-Vlaanderen Faculteit Politieke en Sociale Wetenschappen, Universiteit Antwerpen.
Article

Populisme en de ambivalentie van het egalitarisme

Hoe rijmen sociaal zwakkeren een rechtse partijvoorkeur met hun sociaal-economische attitudes?

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 4 2005
Auteurs Anton Derks
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The decline of traditional class voting is at the centre of the Class Politics debate. From the framework of traditional class analysis a labourer’s right wing vote appears ‘unnatural’. A right wing vote is thought to damage the interests of the economically precarious groups. This paper attempts to understand the phenomenon of so-called unnatural voting behaviour starting from the populism concept. From a theoretical literature study we analyse the relationship between populism and attitudes regarding the economic left-right cleavage. We argue that right-wing populism appeals to a cry for equality, yet at the same time mobilises this sentiment against the institutions of the welfare state. In that way populist right parties succeed in attuning their economic discourse to the socio-economic attitudes of broad layers of the population, including economically precarious categories. The empirical relevance of this hypothesis is tested on the case of Flanders.


Anton Derks
Postdoctoraal Onderzoeker FWO-Vlaanderen aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Mark Deweerdt
Licentiaat in de Politieke Wetenschappen. Politiek redacteur bij De Tijd.

    On May 29th 2005, 54.8% of the French population rejected the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe in a referendum. Three days later, no less than 61.8% of the Dutch voters followed suit. In the following days, commentators wrote that the French non and the Dutch nee made the EU face its biggest crisis ever. EU President Juncker stated that the EU did no longer inspire “dreaming”. Commission President Barroso warned of “permanent crisis and paralysis” in the EU. At the European Council meeting of June 16th and 17th 2005, European leaders agreed to insert a one-year period of reflection in the ratification process. Moreover, the idea of a deadline for ratification was abandonned. After EU members states also failed to agree on the 2007-2013 budget, a higly disappointed Juncker concluded that the EU found itself in a “deep crisis”.
    In comparison to the spring of 2005, the problems the EU faced in 2004 looked relatively easy to solve. However, this is not to say that 2004 should be seen as the calm before the storm. Indeed, the accession of ten new member states and the political agreement on a constitutional treaty made 2004 a milestone in recent EU integration history. Starting from the policy measures taken by the EU members states in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks in Madrid, this contribution focuses on the major political and economic developments in the EU in 2004. Special attention is paid to the elections for a new European Parliament, the Barroso-Commission taking office and the approval of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe.


Edith Drieskens
Assistente aan het Instituut voor Internationaal en Europees Beleid van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Bart Kerremans
Hoogleraar aan het Instituut voor Internationaal en Europees Beleid van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

    The hollow state is a metaphor for the process in which the position of the nation-state is weakened, as authority is transferred to the EU level or regional level (horizontal shift) and to the private domain (vertical). We argue that the analysis of this process should not focus narrowly on formal rules and sovereignty, but that the most fruitful approach is a thorough empirical assessment of the changes taking place in various aspects of the nation-state. Moreover, the scope should be broadened to include the transformation of political decision making: from government to governance. In particular, we discuss the consequences for the functioning of political parties. We conclude that member states indeed lose policy autonomy to EU integration, and have to share authority with several other actors. Yet, because of its ability to adapt to external challenges, the state remains a relevant and important entity.


Harmen Binnema
Doctoraal onderzoeker aan de Afdeling Politicologie, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Noël P. Vergunst
Postdoctoraal onderzoeker aan de Afdeling Politicologie, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Article

Partis politiques nationaux en crise?

Organisation des partis et décentralisation. Une comparaison de l’Espagne et du Royaume Uni

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 1 2005
Auteurs Elodie Fabre, Bart Maddens, Wilfried Swenden e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article investigates the link between state decentralization and party decentralization. We study the impact of the type (dual, integrative, asymmetrical) and degree of decentralization on two dimensions of the relationship between a party’s central party organs and its regional branches: the autonomy of the regional branches to manage their regional affairs and the degree of participation of the regional branches in the central party. We compare the organization of five state-wide parties in two decentralized multi-national polities, Spain and the UK. Our analysis of their party statutes partly confirms the link between degree and asymmetry of decentralization and party organization. However, the impact of the type of distribution of powers between the state and its regions is much less clear. This article shows the need to investigate the influence of other factors such as regional party competition and electoral rules on the type of central-regional relationships within state-wide parties.


Elodie Fabre
Doctorante au Département de science politique à la Katholieke Universiteit de Leuven.

Bart Maddens
Professeur en science politique à la Katholieke Universiteit de Leuven.

Wilfried Swenden
Professeur en science politique à l’Université de Edimbourg, Ecosse.

Robertas Pogorelis
Collaborateur scientifique au Département de science politique à la Katholieke Universiteit de Leuven.
Article

Het Europese beleid in de Belgische federatie

Standpuntbepaling en vertegenwoordiging van de Belgische belangen

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 1 2005
Auteurs Peter Bursens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we examine the organisation of European policy-making in Belgium. The core question is whether the federal level is hollowing out in favour of the regional level, with respect to European preference formation and interest representation. From a theoretical point of view, it tests the propositions of liberal intergovernmentalism and multi-level governance in two critical cases: environmental policy and the European Convention. The article concludes that neither of the approaches is able to fully understand the complex system of joint preference formation that takes place in Belgium and that they would both benefit from incorporating historical institutionalist insights.


Peter Bursens
Docent aan het Departement Politieke Wetenschappen van de Universiteit Antwerpen.

    Representations of sub-national entities challenge since the mid-1980s the monopoly of the central states on EU representation. Through an analysis of their activities, this article verifies whether their presence may be interpreted as an expression of the hollowing out of the state. The research revealed that these representations have developed a national and an international strategy to fulfil their mission. The international strategy resembles that of interest groups in the European policy space, and it follows the neo-functionalist logic of other European interest groups. The national strategy is more policy-oriented. To influence the decision-making process, representations form networks between themselves and with their permanent representation. Rather than hollowing out the state, the activities of these representations reveal a growing interdependence between the central state and regional authorities resulting from European integration.


Michel Huysseune
Vorser aan de Vakgroep Politieke wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Theo Jans
Vorser aan de Vakgroep Politieke wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
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