Zoekresultaat: 50 artikelen

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    Large government investments are regularly preceded by an ex-ante evaluation. This article examines the quality of two ex-ante studies and considers the use made by administrators and representatives of the people of these ex-ante studies. In both cases it concerned qualitatively sound ex-ante studies. In both cases, these studies also demonstrably affected the debate about these investment plans in the people’s representations. But there was no question of power-free decision making. In both cases, the representatives of the people were put under great pressure. Not only was there time pressure. The public debate came late. The use of sound ex-ante studies is not only an investment in rationality, but is also accompanied by political-strategic manoeuvring. The relevance of this article to practitioners is that it (a) contains four reasonable requirements that the representative may make of each ex-ante study offered by the executive board; (b) also shows that an ex-ante analysis on which important decisions are based should not be characterised by secret parts or by undefined assumptions and an ex-ante analysis must be transparent; and (c) demonstrates it is important as a representative to be tenacious, to keep a firm hand and not to decide before all questions have been answered and a full list of safeguards is on the table.


Prof. dr. Michiel Herweijer
Prof. dr. M. Herweijer is bijzonder hoogleraar Bestuurskunde aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en redacteur van Bestuurswetenschappen. Hij was tot 1 januari 2019 directeur van de Noordelijke Rekenkamer. Sinds 1 november 2018 is hij docent publiek management aan de Universitaire Campus Fryslân te Leeuwarden (een nevenvestiging van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen).

Dr. Rik Reussing
Dr. G.H. Reussing is onderwijscoördinator van de joint degree Public Governance across Borders aan de Universiteit Twente en redactiesecretaris van Bestuurswetenschappen.
Research Notes

Sub-Constituency Campaigning in PR Systems

Evidence from the 2014 General Elections in Belgium

Tijdschrift Politics of the Low Countries, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Sub-constituency campaigning, PR system, political advertisements, election campaign, content analysis
Auteurs Jonas Lefevere, Knut De Swert en Artemis Tsoulou-Malakoudi
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Sub-constituency campaigning occurs when parties focus their campaign resources on specific geographical areas within an electoral district. This behaviour was traditionally thought to occur only in single-member plurality elections, but recent research demonstrates that proportional systems with multi-member districts can also elicit sub-constituency campaigning. However, most studies of sub-constituency campaigning rely on self-reported measures of campaigning, not direct measures of campaign intensity in different regions and communities. We present novel data on geographical variations in the intensity of Flemish parties’ campaign advertising during the 2014 general elections in Belgium, which provides a direct measure of sub-constituency campaigning. Our findings show clear evidence of sub-constituency campaigning: parties campaign more intensely in municipalities where they have stronger electoral support and in municipalities with greater population density.


Jonas Lefevere
Jonas Lefevere is assistant professor at Vesalius College and the Institute for European Studies (VUB). His research interests include the strategic communication of political elites, the effects of campaign communication on political attitudes and electoral choice and the role of issue perceptions in electoral behavior.

Knut De Swert
Knut De Swert is Assistant Professor, Political Communication and Journalism, at the Amsterdam School of Communication Research (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands). His research is situated in the field of media and politics, and mainly focuses on the quality of (political) journalism and foreign news in a comparative perspective.

Artemis Tsoulou-Malakoudi
Artemis Tsoulou-Malakoudi is a student research assistant for the EOS research project RepResent which focuses on representation and democratic resentment. She is currently following a Research Master’s at the University of Amsterdam with an interest in political communication research.

Dr. Rik Reussing
Dr. G.H. Reussing is onderwijscoördinator van de joint degree Public Governance across Borders aan de Universiteit Twente en redactiesecretaris van Bestuurswetenschappen.
Thema-artikel ‘Uitgesproken Bestuurskunde’

Toezicht en governance in de open samenleving

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden corporate crime, Governance, Enforcement, Regulation, public administration
Auteurs Prof. dr. Judith van Erp
Samenvatting

    Regulation and markets have become central steering mechanisms in modern states, but have received relatively little attention in public administration. This contribution argues that questions around regulation, monitoring and enforcement deserve more attention in public administration scholarship. It sketches the development of ‘Regulatory Governance’ as a scholarly field, and discusses the added value of a criminological perspective on relations between state and market. A research agenda on ‘naming and shaming’ brings these perspectives together.


Prof. dr. Judith van Erp
Thema-artikel

‘Macho-meritocratie’ Singapore

Vijf lessen uit het genadeloze streven naar ambtelijke excellentie

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Singapore, public service excellence, Performance, comparative public administration
Auteurs Prof. dr. Zeger van der Wal
Samenvatting

    Singapore and the Netherlands are small, export- and trade-dependent countries that perform excellently in many areas, such as good governance and integrity, policy effectiveness, liveability, innovation, and e-government. At the same time there are clear differences in political culture and history: Singapore has a more authoritarian governance style including limitations in press freedom, freedom of speech, and political activism. Within these contrasting contexts, both countries have introduced and implemented similar public management reforms since the 1990s. The aim of these reforms is to maintain public service excellence in a dynamic environment but the countries make contrasting choices in achieving this aim. This article describes how administrative excellence is organised and pursued in Singapore and identifies five lessons for the Netherlands: (1) Use positive narratives about government often; (2) be nuanced about capping top-level remuneration; (3) enhance the attractiveness of government as an employer; (4) invest in life-long learning; (5) be an authoritative expert amidst horizontalisation hypes.


Prof. dr. Zeger van der Wal
Dossier

De aanpak van belastingontwijking door de EU: gerichte maatregelen zonder structurele verandering.

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Tax, EU/European Union, Corporate taxation, Tax avoidance, Tax policy
Auteurs Indra Römgens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    According to the outgoing European Commissioner Pierre Moscovici, the European Union (EU) has made more progress in tackling tax avoidance and evasion in the last five years than in the twenty years before that. This article argues that although several targeted measures have indeed been adopted, such as automatic exchange of tax rulings and limitations on interest deductions, this has not led to a structural change in EU corporate tax policies, nor in underlying power relations. The article discusses the politics of a number of recent policy developments related to tax avoidance and evasion by transnational corporations. It argues that the adoption of targeted measures, and the simultaneous stalling of more comprehensive approaches – in terms of tax transparency or a common consolidated corporate tax base – can be explained by recent tax controversies, international politics, and the dynamics within and between EU institutions. Particular attention is paid to the role of the European Parliament that is formally limited, but still houses progressive forces that have continuously pushed for a clampdown on tax avoidance. Finally, the article pleads for more transparent EU decision-making, specifically concerning discussions with and within the Council, in order to improve the democratic legitimacy of EU corporate tax policies and processes.


Indra Römgens
MSc Indra Römgens is Promovendus aan de Roskilde Universiteit in Denemarken en de Radboud Universiteit in Nijmegen.
Article

Transformative Welfare Reform in Consensus Democracies

Tijdschrift Politics of the Low Countries, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden consensus democracy, welfare state, social investment, transformative reform, Belgium and the Netherlands
Auteurs Anton Hemerijck en Kees van Kersbergen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article takes up Lijphart’s claim that consensus democracy is a ‘kinder, gentler’ form of democracy than majoritarian democracy. We zoom in on contemporary welfare state change, particularly the shift towards social investment, and argue that the kinder, gentler hypothesis remains relevant. Consensus democracies stand out in regard to the extent to which their political institutions help to overcome the politically delicate intricacies of governing for the long term. We theorize the features that can help to solve the problem of temporal commitment in democracy through processual mechanisms and illustrate these with short case studies of the contrasting welfare state reform experiences in the Netherlands and Belgium.


Anton Hemerijck
Anton Hemerijck is Professor of Political Science and Sociology at the European University Institute (EUI) in Florence, Italy.

Kees van Kersbergen
Kees van Kersbergen is Professor of Comparative Politics at the Department of Political Science of Aarhus University, Denmark.
Dossier

Access_open De politiek van buy-to-let

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Housing, Financialization, Private investors, Buy-to-let, Private rent
Auteurs Jelke Bosma MSc, Dr. Cody Hochstenbach, Dr. Rodrigo Fernandez e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this feature authors discuss recent research findings that are of interest to readers of Beleid en Maatschappij.
    Mounting concerns exist that small private investors exacerbate the urban housing crisis, by purchasing dwellings to rent out so-called ‘buy-to-let’ purchases. By buying up property, they may drive up house prices and exclude regular house-seekers. In this paper, we show that buy-to-let purchases constitute an increasing share of all purchases on the Dutch housing market, and especially so in larger cities and university cities. We argue these local trends do not emerge out of thin air and are not a ‘natural’ market process but should be considered the product of both global economic developments and national policies supporting these changes. Global developments include the increased mobility and ample availability of capital, exemplified by a prolonged low interest environment and a growing scarcity of high quality collateral and investment opportunities, making housing attractive for storing capital. Dutch housing policies have increasingly restricted access to social rent to low-income groups, while blowing up house prices fuelled with mortgage debts. As a consequence, a growing number of households falls in-between these two tenures: they have to resort to private rent. Private investors respond to and accommodate this demand through buy-to-let investments. Furthermore, the Dutch national government has made steps to relax regulation on the private-rental market and weakened tenant rights. In so doing, it sets the scene for amplifying social and spatial inequalities between the property rich and the property poor.


Jelke Bosma MSc
Jelke Bosma MSc is junior onderzoeker aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Dr. Cody Hochstenbach
Dr. Cody Hochstenbach is postdoctoraal onderzoeker stadsgeografie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam, en redactielid van Beleid en Maatschappij.

Dr. Rodrigo Fernandez
Dr. Rodrigo Fernandez is postdoc aan de KU Leuven en onderzoeker bij SOMO.

Prof. dr. Manuel Aalbers
Prof. dr. Manuel Aalbers is hoogleraar sociale en economische geografie aan de KU Leuven.
Dossier

Access_open De opkomst van private verhuur in Nederland: woningnood als winst

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Private rental market, Buy-to-let, Welfare state, Pensions, Self-employment
Auteurs Dr. Barend Wind
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During the last ten years, the private rental sector in the Netherlands has experienced a rapid growth. In the larger cities, this sector grew with 30 percent, mainly as a result of the large amount of private persons operating as small scale landlords (buy-to-let). This article reflects on the findings of a recent report on the nature of the buy-to-let sector in the Netherlands, carried out by Manuel Aalbers, Jelke Bosma, Rodrigo Fernandez and Cody Hochstenbach. This takes their findings as a starting point, and positions the Dutch private rental sector in an internationally comparative perspective. Furthermore, this article explains the rise of the buy-to-let sector not just from a housing market point of view, but from a welfare state perspective. In different European countries, the private rental sector plays a different role in the housing market, which impacts on the availability and affordability of housing in urban areas. Moreover, rental income for buy-to-let or small-scale private landlords can be seen as part of the provision of welfare. For some it is a pension arrangement, for others a speculative investment. This article reflects on the policy recommendations that Aalbers cum suis propose in their report. To what extent are their proposals able to increase the availability and affordability of housing, without undermining the livelihood of landlords for whom the rental incomes function as social security arrangement?


Dr. Barend Wind
Dr. Barend Wind is universitair docent sociale planologie bij de Basiseenheid Planologie, faculteit Ruimtelijke wetenschappen van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Dossier

Access_open Reactie op Buy-to-let gewikt en gewogen

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Buy-to-let, House price bubbles, Private rental sector, Housing policy, International trends
Auteurs Dr. ir. Maartje Martens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Socialist Party commissioned this academic study into the scale and impact of the recent rise of buy-to-let transactions in Dutch urban housing markets. The study focusses, however, on the rise of private rental housing. This definition of buy-to-let is challenged in this review, as is the impact of the recent rise of buy-to-let on the Dutch owner occupied housing market.


Dr. ir. Maartje Martens
Dr. ir. M. Martens is onafhankelijk woningmarktexpert Housing Analysis.
Artikel

Lokaal bestuur en burgerkracht: slimme sturing in het sociale domein

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Family Group Conference, participatory governance, professional care worker, care system reform, municipal care teams
Auteurs Dr. Annie de Roo en Dr. Rob Jagtenberg
Samenvatting

    The Dutch social care system was fundamentally reformed in 2015. A key policy aim was to activate citizens and their social networks, turning them from mere consumers into co-producers of care. The expectation was that, by doing so, public spending could be reduced and community engagement could be restored at the same time. Regulation was put in place to incentivize network support.
    Whether this constitutes ‘smart governance’, however, depends on whether the variety of factors determining sustainable network support can be identified in the first place. At present, the new care policy is supposed to apply indiscriminately, and is as such not yet evidence based. In addition, flaws in the present budgetary and regulatory steering mechanisms need to be addressed. Potential users are not very familiar with the regulation in place for incentivizing network support, and the regulation is currently neutralized by law courts, unaware of the participatory relationship between care authorities and citizens as envisaged by the 2015 reform. Moreover, engaging networks is time-consuming and requires investments before returns can start to materialize. From a normative stance, network volunteers moreover ought to participate in decision-making, as they will be investing their private resources (such as time) instead of tax payers money. Effectiveness and legitimacy are thus two prerequisites for governance in the social domain to be genuinely ‘smart’.


Dr. Annie de Roo

Dr. Rob Jagtenberg
Article

TTIP, business as usual?

Europees handelsbeleid en zijn democratische legitimiteit

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Democratic legitimacy, input legitimacy, throughput legitimacy, European Union, trade policy, TTIP
Auteurs Joke Matthieu
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Transatlantic Trade and Investment partnership (TTIP) can be considered a game changer among trade agreements. TTIP not only aims to shape tomorrow’s trade policy, but has also had a huge influence on the democratic legitimacy of the EU. Based on recent literature on democratic legitimacy in the EU, this paper studies how the TTIP negotiations score in terms of input and throughput legitimacy. Our results show that these negotiations have had their fair share of problems, such as the disproportionally large influence of corporations and a lack of transparency and accountability. However, these legitimacy problems occurred mainly in the first months of the negotiation process. Due to large scale protests and critiques from civil society, measures were taken to boost the legitimacy of the process.


Joke Matthieu
Joke Matthieu studeerde politieke wetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) waar ze in 2016 afstudeerde met grootste onderscheiding. Voor haar masterproef onderzocht ze de democratische legitimiteit van de TTIP-onderhandelingen en daarvoor kreeg ze de prijs voor de beste masterproef van de faculteit Economische en Sociale wetenschappen. Ze zette haar academische carrière verder aan de VUB, waar ze momenteel werkt als onderwijsassistent en doctoraatsonderzoeker. Haar voornaamste onderzoeksinteresses zijn democratische innovatie, politieke socialisatie en burgerschap. Ze bereidt momenteel een doctoraat voor over de effecten van deliberatie op het burgerschap van jongeren.
Artikel

Het succes van de business case(s)?

Een casestudy naar de totstandkoming van Wildlands Adventure Zoo

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 4 2017
Auteurs Drs. Maarten Hoekstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2012, the municipal council of Emmen (a municipality of 107,000 inhabitants in the northeast of the Netherlands) took the final decision for the transformation and rehousing of the Wildlands Adventure Zoo on the basis of a so-called business case. Business cases are also being increasingly used in other organizations and sectors. However, not much is known yet about the qualities of the instrument. This article shows that the use of the business case in a specific case had value. For this case study, over 100 very diverse mainly digital sources, such as official decision-making documents, research reports and statement via social and other media, were used. In this way, in-depth knowledge was acquired about one of the mechanisms that underpinned the creation of the park. The sources are carriers of the narrative ‘Wildlands Emmen.’ Despite the success, a warning is called for. A healthy focus on results can result in ‘escalating’ commitment. Then the parties involved are linked to the project to such an extent that a way back is excluded by definition. Although the business case should be a ‘business-like’ justification, it seems that the mechanism of ‘self-justification’ enters into force. One shows through rationalization that previous decisions were right and then acts on these decisions in a sensible and competent manner. However, alternatives are not explicitly weighed against each other and there can be a tendency to underestimate the risks.


Drs. Maarten Hoekstra
Drs. M.J. Hoekstra is verbonden aan het lectoraat Persoonlijk Leiderschap & Innovatiekracht van de NHL Hogeschool te Leeuwarden en is buitenpromovendus aan de faculteit Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences (BMS) van de Universiteit Twente.
Artikel

Iedereen kent iedereen

De invloed van kleinschaligheid en informele politiek op bestuur in Caribisch Nederland

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden Dutch Caribbean, informal politics, Smallness, Governance, non-sovereignty
Auteurs Dr. Wouter Veenendaal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2010, the three Dutch Caribbean islands of Bonaire, St. Eustatius, and Saba (the BES islands) were constitutionally integrated into the Netherlands, and were administratively reorganized on the basis of the Dutch municipal model. While this reform was anticipated to mitigate some of the governance problems of these islands, so far this expectation has remained unmet. Using the literature on the effects of smallness on the relation between formal and informal politics as a baseline, this article investigates why the new institutional structure has so far not resulted in improved governance in the Caribbean Netherlands. On the basis of three stages of field research resulting in over forty semi-structured interviews with political elites on the three islands, the analysis highlights the influence of two contextual factors – the small scale and the political culture of the postcolonial Caribbean – that have a powerful, and in many ways negative, impact on governance performance. Subsequently, the article highlights the inapplicability of the Dutch municipal model to the Dutch Caribbean islands, and also pays attention to a number of differences between the three islands, which are explained on the basis of their divergent historical and demographic trajectories, as well as differences in individual leadership.


Dr. Wouter Veenendaal
Dr. Wouter Veenendaal is werkzaam als universitair docent bij het Instituut Politieke Wetenschap van de Universiteit Leiden.

Philippe De Vries
Philippe De Vries is docent in de masteropleiding Politieke Communicatie en lid van de Political Communication Research Unit aan de Universiteit Antwerpen. Zijn expertise ligt in de politieke marketing, politieke communicatie en politieke psychologie.

    Last year the first Dutch municipalities declared themselves TTIP-free and the list is growing. The count now stands at 27 Dutch municipalities, three Dutch provinces and two Dutch water boards. TTIP means that foreign companies can be confident that investments in a host country are secure and cannot simply be eliminated or nullified. But what if investments are at odds or will be become at odds with measures a government has taken or intends to take, for example to protect the environment? Does the government still have that freedom under TTIP? Or is it only if it is prepared to pay large amounts of money? Comparable practices show that it may involve significant amounts of money. What can we expect from TTIP in this respect? The question central in this essay is if and, if so to what extent, does the investment protection that TTIP offers, in combination with the arbitration that is foreseen in the treaty, impede local authorities in taking decisions in the general interest.


Prof. mr. dr. Helen Stout
Prof. mr. dr. H.D. Stout is hoogleraar Juridische aspecten van hybride organisaties aan de Erasmus School of Law van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en redacteur van Bestuurswetenschappen.

    Nationaal en internationaal staat onderzoek dat maatschappelijk relevant is, wetenschappelijk gezien hoge kwaliteit heeft, en zowel integer als efficiënt wordt uitgevoerd in de schijnwerpers. Het achterliggende idee is dat alleen zo de gewenste maatschappelijke impact kan worden bereikt. Door het bevorderen van verantwoorde onderzoekspraktijken, waarbij er onder andere expliciet aandacht is voor aspecten als stakeholderparticipatie, interdisciplinaire samenwerking, replicatie en systematische reviews, kunnen financiers of programmeurs van onderzoek hieraan bijdragen. In dit artikel wordt een overzicht gegeven van de wijze waarop ZonMw dat doet als kennisprogrammeur op het gebied van het gezondheidsonderzoek. Hiertoe is een toetsingskader ontwikkeld en toegepast op zestien lopende onderzoeksprogramma’s, dat ook voor andere domeinen en actoren betekenis heeft. Een belangrijke aanbeveling is dat ‘verantwoord programmeren’ een eigen kennisbasis behoeft om de toegevoegde waarde ervan te kunnen bepalen. Naast investeringen in metaonderzoek vraagt dat om een goede monitoring en informatievoorziening bij de kennisprogrammeur.


Wendy Reijmerink
Wendy Reijmerink is stafmedewerker Strategie en Innovatie bij ZonMw. Zij werkt aan een promotie over de maatschappelijke impact van publieke kennisprogrammering.

Wija Oortwijn
Wija Oortwijn is sectorleider Zorg bij Ecorys. Zij heeft jarenlange ervaring met evaluaties van beleid en onderzoeksprogramma’s alsmede impactanalyses op het terrein van de zorg.

Dr. Alexandre Afonso
Dr. Alexandre Afonso is assistant professor aan de Universiteit van Leiden.
Research Note

Waarom zijn laagopgeleiden vaker tegen vrijhandel?

Drie verklaringen getoetst in Nederland

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 4 2016
Auteurs Jeroen van der Waal en Willem de Koster
Auteursinformatie

Jeroen van der Waal
Jeroen van der Waal is universitair hoofddocent sociologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Veel van zijn onderzoek beoogt te verklaren hoe sociale stratificatie verbonden is met waardeoriëntaties, stemgedrag en gezondheidsverschillen in westerse landen.

Willem de Koster
Willem de Koster is universitair hoofddocent cultuursociologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Veel van zijn onderzoek betreft de ontwikkeling, achtergronden en gevolgen van cultureel conflict en onbehagen in westerse landen.
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