Zoekresultaat: 27 artikelen

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Dr. Rik Reussing
Dr. G.H. Reussing is onderwijscoördinator van de joint degree Public Governance across Borders aan de Universiteit Twente en redactiesecretaris van Bestuurswetenschappen.
Article

How to Improve Local Turnout

The Effect of Municipal Efforts to Improve Turnout in Dutch Local Elections

Tijdschrift Politics of the Low Countries, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden turnout, local elections, get out the vote, campaign, the Netherlands
Auteurs Julien van Ostaaijen, Sabine van Zuydam en Martijn Epskamp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Even though many municipalities use a variety of means to improve turnout in local elections, citizen participation in local elections is a point of concern in many Western countries, including the Netherlands. Our research question is therefore: How effective are municipal efforts to improve turnout in (Dutch) local elections? To this end, we collected data from three sources: (1) a survey sent to the municipal clerks of 389 Dutch municipalities to learn what they do to improve turnout; (2) data from Statistics Netherlands on municipalities’ socio-demographic characteristics; and (3) data on the turnout in local elections from the Dutch Electoral Council database. Using hierarchical multiple regression analysis, we found that the direct impact of local governments’ efforts to improve turnout is low. Nevertheless, some measures seem to be able to make a difference. The relative number of polling stations was especially found to impact turnout.


Julien van Ostaaijen
Julien van Ostaaijen is assistant professor of public administration at the Tilburg Institute of Governance (Tilburg University).

Sabine van Zuydam
Sabine van Zuydam is assistant professor of public administration at the Tilburg Institute of Governance (Tilburg University) and researcher at Necker van Naem.

Martijn Epskamp
Martijn Epskamp is a researcher of the municipality of Rotterdam (Research and Business Intelligence department)
Thema-artikel ‘Uitgesproken Bestuurskunde’

Gedragen gedragsverandering

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden public administration, public management, psychology, behavioral public administration, behavior change, design science
Auteurs Prof. dr. Lars Tummers
Samenvatting

    Changing behavior is often necessary to tackle societal problems. Governments can change behavior via economic incentives (such as subsidies for electric cars), bans/mandates (such as prison sentences for drug smuggling), communication (for example information campaigns) and nudges (for example, being a donor by default). However, the government should not be a manipulator that applies the latest behavioral tricks without societal support. Public administration research shows that support cannot be taken for granted. If there is no support for behavioral change, well-intended interventions can even be counterproductive. I therefore develop a model for supported behavioral change. I provide five criteria that indicate when there is supported behavioral change: if the behavioral change is both effective (1) and efficient (2), and when there is support for behavioral change among politicians (3), among implementing organizations (4), and among citizens (5).


Prof. dr. Lars Tummers

    Het ontwikkelen van succesvol overheidsbeleid vraagt om een systematische benutting van kennis uit wetenschap én praktijk. In dit artikel wordt beschreven op welke manier die systematische benutting kan worden bewerkstelligd. Als de afstand tussen kennis en beleidsontwikkeling kan worden verkleind en tevens wordt gekozen voor een proces van open beleidsontwikkeling, zal de benutting van kennis tijdens het beleidsproces beter verlopen. Daarbij dienen tegelijkertijd diverse voorwaarden te worden gesteld aan een adequate programmering van het corresponderende beleidsonderzoek.


Peter van Hoesel
Peter van Hoesel is emeritus hoogleraar toegepast beleidsonderzoek bij de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Hij was gedurende zijn gehele loopbaan actief als beleidsonderzoeker bij meerdere onderzoeksbureaus. Hij geeft regelmatig adviezen ten behoeve van beleidsevaluaties bij enkele ministeries. Hij is auteur en redacteur van diverse boeken over beleidsonderzoek.

Max Herold
Max Herold is expert op het gebied van open beleidsvorming en is werkzaam bij de rijksoverheid als senior organisatieadviseur ‘leren en ontwikkelen’. Hij promoveerde in 2017 bij de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam op ‘ongeschreven regels’ bij beleidsprocessen van de overheid en de wijze waarop die de omgang met de samenleving beïnvloeden.
Artikel

Zonder publieke liefde

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Participatiesamenleving, Publieke liefde, Zelfliefde, Homo economicus, Neoliberalisme
Auteurs ing. Tessa Klarenbeek MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Decades of neoliberalism have placed emphasis on individualism, self-responsibility, and self-interest. As a result solidarity, and charity are losing ground and inter-subjective suspicion enters society. With a dominant focus on the economic life, happiness can be found in working and consuming, which has led to a morbid focus on performance. As a consequence self-exploitation, stress, fear of failure and auto-aggression undermines self-love. Competing individuals, with whom man cannot identify himself, see the other as someone who also has to take care of himself; empathy for the stranger is far to seek. Problematic because in the participatory society people need to care for themselves, and others, which calls for public love. Economic actions of man should be perceived as a social activity that presupposes love. A supplier must show empathy towards its customer before a decent product can be created. A prerequisite for empathy and cooperation is equality. However with scarcity as the engine of hyper-capitalism market thinking inequality between people increases. It seems that men should embrace the ‘difference’ of others. The acceptance of ‘the strange’ could start with a heterogeneous student population during education, and a variety of inhabitants in neighbourhoods. Furthermore a more relaxed working climate with the focus on cooperation instead of competition could contribute to the return of empathy and self-love.


ing. Tessa Klarenbeek MSc
ing. Tessa Klarenbeek MSc is beleidsmedewerker preventieve GGZ.
Artikel

Cybersecurity: waar is de bestuurskunde?

Een schets van aangrijpingspunten voor toekomstig overheidsbeleid

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden cybersecurity, public administration, governance
Auteurs Drs. Michel van Leeuwen en Drs. Nelly Ghaoui
Samenvatting

    In this article the case is made that, unjustly, there is a lack of interest in the topic of cybersecurity of on the part of public administration scholars and professionals in the topic of cybersecurity. ICT has become persistent in society and so has cybercrime, cyber sabotage and cyberespionage. The threats are real and growing. There is market failure and consequently there is a need for government intervention. This poses new challenges to governments as jurisdiction problems and sovereignty-issues arise, together with the dominance of private actors. The authors argue that a multistakeholder approach in such a networked environment is crucial but not sufficient. The concepts of Lessig and Thaler/Sunstein are used to sketch new and broader potential policy strategies.


Drs. Michel van Leeuwen

Drs. Nelly Ghaoui

    In this feature authors discuss recent research findings that are of interest to readers of Beleid en Maatschappij.
    ‘Fact free politics’ and ‘post-truth politics’ are considered to pose a severe threat to democracies as they seem to ruin shared perceptions of reality and render it impossible to distinguish opinion from fact. However, it is questionable whether fueling public and political debates with scientific facts offers a counterweight. First, scientific facts are not free from interpretation and can be regarded as ‘theory-laden’. Second, scientific research may determine facts but it may not claim the monopoly to determine the public meaning attached to these facts. Third, facts not only function to explain or to describe reality, they also affect reality. Given these considerations, the ‘science versus fact free politics’ debate could profit from a more realistic view on the status of facts.


Prof. dr. Huub Dijstelbloem
Prof. dr. Huub Dijstelbloem is werkzaam bij de faculteit der Geesteswetenschappen, capaciteitsgroep Philosophical Tradition in Context, Filosofie van Wetenschap en Politiek.
Artikel

Beleid voor de irrationele mens

Hoe gedragswetenschap de bestuurskunde zou kunnen versterken

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden public administration, psychology, decisions, (ir)rationality
Auteurs Dr. Marijke van Putten, Prof. dr. Wilco van Dijk en Prof. dr. Eric van Dijk
Samenvatting

    Policy is often based on the assumption that people are rational decision makers. Rational decision makers search all relevant information before they make a decision. They list the pros and cons of relevant options and make a well thought choice that best fits their fixed preferences. However, research from amongst others psychology and behavioral economics shows that people decide differently and that they are irrational, emotional decision makers instead. Policy therefore fits people’s decision making strategies worse than expected. It is important for policy makers to gain insight into situational influences on decisions and the influence of the so-called choice architecture on decisions. In this article we discuss research that tested when policy was more efficient, based on behavioral insights and the view of man as an irrational, emotional being.


Dr. Marijke van Putten

Prof. dr. Wilco van Dijk

Prof. dr. Eric van Dijk
Artikel

Nudging: next questions

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden nudging, psychology, behavioral science
Auteurs Prof. dr. Denise de Ridder, Dr. Floor Kroese en Prof. dr. Emely de Vet
Samenvatting

    Nudging is generally considered to be an innovative and promising way to steer human behavior in the desired direction without imposing any choice. The concept of nudging is derived from insights into how humans typically make decisions and is thus potentially more effective than traditional policy measures. In recognition of this promise, many experiments with nudging in several public domains such as, for example, public health are underway. We argue that next steps need to be taken to capitalize on the promise of nudging. First, more attention needs to be paid to how theoretical insights in human decision making can be translated into effective policy measures. Second, the boundary conditions of nudge effectiveness and acceptability in terms of personal goals, motivation, and awareness need to be identified. Third, it is urgent to consider the long-term effect of nudging in terms of their potential to install new routines.


Prof. dr. Denise de Ridder

Dr. Floor Kroese

Prof. dr. Emely de Vet
Artikel

De opkomst van de nudge unit

Organisatorische inbedding van gedragswetenschappen in beleid – ontwikkelingen en dilemma’s in de praktijk

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden nudging, nudge units, government departments, organization
Auteurs Drs. Jorren Scherpenisse
Samenvatting

    The world of public administration is changing: in many countries around the globe specialized behavioral insights units are on the rise in governments. Behavioral insights teams (or nudge units) are often modelled on the famous BIT UK, although there are important national variations. These units specialize in the application of behavioral insights to the design and evaluation of public policies. This article reports on an interview with the the leader of the Behavioral Insights Team of the Ministry of Economical Affairs in the Netherlands. Four main items are discussed: (1) What projects should behavioral insights units undertake? (2) What mix of professional expertise is necessary? (3) What processes should be instituted? And (4) How should these units be positioned within existing government departments?


Drs. Jorren Scherpenisse
Artikel

De homo psychologicus op het schip van staat

Gedragskennis in bestuur en beleid

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden behavioural insights, public policy, public administration, psychology
Auteurs Dr. Thomas Schillemans en Dr. Gerdien de Vries
Samenvatting

    This theme issue analyzes and describes the different ways in which behavioral science is currently becoming integrated in public administration as a practice as well as an academic discipline. Many governments and public organizations are currently experimenting with ways to integrate behavioral insights in public policy and public administration. This theme issue addresses the state of the art and the most salient research issues. It does so by explicitly drawing on insights from scholars from both behavioral sciences as well as from public administration. We survey the major theoretical approaches from both fields, investigate up close and personal how real world policy makers are trying to integrate behavioral knowledge in their structures, routines and policies, and we look at some examples of the most promising behaviorally informed policies. The theme issue confirms and documents the sudden rise of behaviorally informed policy making. By doing so, the theme issue allays some of the concerns voiced in the literature. But the theme issues also draws attention to some new critical questions and debates.


Dr. Thomas Schillemans

Dr. Gerdien de Vries
Artikel

Meer dan een nudge

Gedragsexperts bij de Nederlandse overheid

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden nudging, behavioral insights, behavior experts, practices, choice architecture
Auteurs Joram Feitsma Msc
Samenvatting

    Policymakers are increasingly taking notice of behavioural scientific insights to improve their policies. New occupational practices, such as ‘Behavioral Insights Teams’, are emerging within government. This article explores this emergence, based on an ethnographic study on the practices of pioneering behaviour experts in Dutch central government. It argues that the work of these behavior experts is richer and more complex than standard role models, which tend to portray policymakers as direct and standalone choice architects, assume. Three key practices of behavior experts are identified: (1) choice architecture, in various forms; (2) behaviour analysis; and (3) capacity building.


Joram Feitsma Msc
Artikel

Professioneel vermogen

Proactieve ‘coping’ door publieke professionals

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden Public professionals, Teachers, performance pressures, proactive coping, professional capability
Auteurs Prof. dr. Mirko Noordegraaf, Nina van Loon MSc, Madelon Heerema MSc e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Professional services such as educational services, are increasingly managed and optimized in order to improve performances. Performances of students, teachers and school (boards) are measured and evaluated. Increasingly, rules and systems focus on outputs and control. Consequently, the ‘freedom’ of professionals such as teachers is reduced, or is perceived and felt to be reduced. There have been growing debates on the problematic effects of performance pressures. Often, public professionals are seen as ‘defenseless victims’ of systems and pressures – they are ‘professionals under pressure’. In this paper, we introduce a more positive way of understanding professionals and professional action in changing contexts. We see professionals such as teachers as ‘active agents’ who can develop and regain control over their own situation. Professionals can deliver quality, in spite of bureaucratic burdens and managerial intrusions. We call this ability professional capability: ‘the ability to proactively deal with work-related expectations, tasks and burdens in dynamic stakeholder environments’. This paper combines research on public administration, organizational sociology and occupational psychology, to generate a more productive understanding of proactive coping of professionals in public domains. We define and operationalize professional capacity, we explore sources and effects, and we develop hypotheses for further research.


Prof. dr. Mirko Noordegraaf
Prof. dr. Mirko Noordegraaf is als hoogleraar publiek management verbonden aan het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Nina van Loon MSc
Nina van Loon MSc was als promovenda verbonden aan het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht en is thans werkzaam bij Aarhus University, Denemarken.

Madelon Heerema MSc
Madelon Heerema MSc is als researcher verbonden aan het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Marit Weggemans MSc
Marit Weggemans MSc was als student-assistent verbonden aan het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Een duwtje om over na te denken

De belofte van nudging voor de terugtredende overheid

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden nudge, choice architecture, libertarian paternalism, autonomy, decision-making
Auteurs Jasper Zuure MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Nudging is currently high on the political agenda. The idea behind nudging is that the government can gently push citizens in the ‘good’ direction by anticipating their predictable irrational behaviour. In the Dutch discussion nudging often is seen as an instrument to influence citizens more. Therefore critics fear paternalism, manipulation and technocracy. However, we could also see nudging as a replacement of more coercive instruments. Then nudges might even offer chances for a state that is withdrawing under the condition that citizens have both the opportunity and the capability to make alternative choices in practice than the choices to which nudges aim. Therefore nudges by the government should not avoid reflective and conscious thinking processes, but rather stimulate deliberation and make citizens more aware of their decisions.


Jasper Zuure MSc
J. Zuure, MSc is sociaal psycholoog en adviseur bij de Raad voor Maatschappelijke Ontwikkeling (RMO). Tevens schrijft hij een proefschrift in de politieke filosofie over massapsychologie en politieke theorieën.
Boekbespreking

De overheid is een geluksmachine

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden happiness, government, policy, public policy, well-being
Auteurs Ad Bergsma en Jeroen Boelhouwer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article is a critical review of four books: Bok, 2010 (‘The politics of happiness’); Van Campen, Bergsma, Boelhouwer, Boerefijn, & Bolier, 2012 (‘Sturen op geluk’); Diener, Lucas, Schimmack, & Helliwell, 2009 (‘Well-being for public policy’); Ott, 2012 (‘An eye on happiness’). Based on these works, we conclude that the quality of government is highly correlated with the happiness of citizens. In countries with high levels of freedom (economic, democracy, press), low levels of corruption and good public services, people appear to be the happiest. In this way governments can be seen as ‘happiness machines’. However, precise causal relationships need to be further clarified; which policies do improve happiness and which don’t? In this context, education is an important area in which government plays a role; people should leave school with the right set of competencies to be able to adequately cope with life. Governments cannot solve everybody’s unhappiness, though, but are important for creating the right circumstances.


Ad Bergsma
Ad Bergsma is psycholoog en spreker, en verbonden aan de Erasmus Happiness Economics Research Organisation (EHERO) van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Jeroen Boelhouwer
Jeroen Boelhouwer is onderzoeker bij het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau.

    In een veldexperiment worden gegevens over de kosten en effecten van een bepaalde interventie verzameld bij personen die onderwerp zijn van de interventie. Kenmerkend is dat het onderzoek bestaat uit ten minste twee groepen van deelnemers.


Tom Weijnen
Tom Weijnen is senior onderzoeker bij het Instituut voor Onderzoek van Overheidsuitgaven (IOO).

    Urban government is expected to contribute to the solution of major urban problems. At the same time, urban government is riddled with problems itself, often denoted in terms of governing and democratic deficits. In this article, options for governance reform in the urban realm are being explored along five lines, following up on recent research in the Netherlands and abroad. Both more aggregative arrangements (electronic ‘straw polls’, knowledge polls, prediction markets, ‘dot gov’ competitions for ‘best solutions’) and more collaborative arrangements (electronic co-creation, wiki governance, vital coalitions, urban regimes) are being assessed. The conclusions is that there are good arguments for, at least, more experimentation along these lines - not only from a functionalistic, but also from a democratic and social-psychological point of view.


Frank Hendriks
Prof. dr F. Hendriks is hoogleraar Vergelijkende Bestuurskunde aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.

Hans Blokland
Hans Blokland studeerde politieke wetenschappen en promoveerde in de sociale en politieke filosofie. Hij was fellow van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen en onder meer verbonden aan Yale University, Department of Political Science. Tot zijn recente publicaties behoren Pluralisme, Democratie & Politieke Kennis (Van Gorcum 2005) en Modernization and its Political Consequences (Yale University Press 2006). Zie voor informatie over zijn werk: www.hans-blokland.nl.

Casper Thomas
Casper Thomas is als wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid (WRR) Correspondentiegegevens: Casper Thomas, MA Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid Postbus 20004 2500 EA Den Haag thomas@wrr.nl
Discussie

Een duwtje in de rug of een ongeoorloofde zet?

Repliek op artikel Casper Thomas

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2009
Auteurs Mischa van den Brandhof
Auteursinformatie

Mischa van den Brandhof
Mischa van den Brandhof is als promovendus verbonden aan de London School of Economics Correspondentiegegevens: Mr. drs. Mischa van den Brandhof Department of Philosophy, Logic and Scientific Method London School of Economics Houghton Street Londen WC2A 2AE Groot-Brittannië m.van-den-brandhof@lse.ac.uk
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