Zoekresultaat: 702 artikelen

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Artikel

Interbestuurlijke verhoudingen in de bed-bad-broodcasus

Een lokaal perspectief

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering Online First 2022
Trefwoorden policy freedom, multilevel governance, principal agent theory, stewardship theory, management style
Auteurs Niek Bakker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the relationship between central government and municipalities and to what extent this relationship has an impact on local decision-making. The commonly used characterization of this relationship as a principal-agent relationship offers many leads but has some shortcomings. That is why this is compared with the stewardship theory, assuming a more equal and constructive cooperation. Both theories have been incorporated into a broader model on management styles, which creates a more nuanced description of the cooperation in public administration. The article focuses on the case of Rotterdam in 2015, at a time of political turmoil in the Netherlands about the shelter of people without residence permit. The analysis is carried out using a measuring instrument for policy freedom, as policy freedom is a good determinant for which management style is used. The research is conducted from a local perspective, with emphasis on the position of councilors. The national government sometimes profiles itself as a principal to them, but in practice council members resist and turn the relationship around, hereby holding the government accountable for its role and responsibility.


Niek Bakker
Niek Bakker, MSc, is docent maatschappijleer aan het Calvijn College in Goes.
Vrij artikel

Access_open Bestuurlijke geloofwaardigheid in het primair onderwijs

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden credibility, educational governance, educational law, schoolboards, school leaders, governing capacity
Auteurs Marlies Honingh, Martijn Nolen en Margriet van der Sluis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Both in a legal and in a practical sense, the tasks of executives in school boards are difficult to delineate. Consequently, credibility of boards and their members has become topical. What makes an executive board credible? How do executives become and remain credible? In this article we address these questions and present the results of our qualitative analysis of the way in which executives in primary education give meaning and substance to their efforts. Based on the empirical results, it appears that executives of the board are well aware of the need to be perceived credible. It also appears that they take this into account in their daily behavior and interactions.


Marlies Honingh
Dr. M.E. Honingh is universitair hoofddocent bestuurskunde aan het Institute for Management Research van de Radboud Universiteit.

Martijn Nolen
Mr. dr. M.F. Nolen is hoofd juridische zaken aan Tilburg University.

Margriet van der Sluis
Dr. M.E. van der Sluis is universitair docent aan de TIAS School for Business and Society.
Thema-artikel

Participeren, juridiseren of politiseren?

De effectiviteit en legitimiteit van verschillende routes voor de strijd om de ruimte

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden public participation, legalizing, politicizing, effective and legitimate decision-making, spatial claims
Auteurs Wouter Jan Verheul, Feie Herkes en Stavros Zouridis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The effectiveness and legitimacy of action strategies in the realm of spatial decision making Increasing spatial claims require careful decision-making. The question is where, from an institutional point of view, decision-making can best take place. Traditionally, balancing interests takes place in the political arena. Our legal system also guarantees legally anchored interests. In addition, we have expected for decades that participation processes stimulate participation, creativity and co-creation of citizens and entrepreneurs. Moreover, the arrival of the new Environment Act in the Netherlands gives participation a more compelling character: for private initiators, such as project developers, the organization of participation is even a hard requirement in a number of cases. Under the new Environment Act, policymakers, administrators, citizens and companies must constantly make a choice between participating, legalizing or politicizing in decision-making processes. This article analyses this choice from the perspectives of effectiveness and legitimacy. Is decision-making through participation more effective, or are parties better off in the courtroom, or the local council for effective and legitimate decisions? Theoretically, this question is interesting because the answer teaches us about effective and legitimate governance. For the practice of environmental decision-making, we consider when the participatory, legal or political route can best be followed to create both effective and legitimate decisions.


Wouter Jan Verheul
Dr. W.J. Verheul is senior onderzoeker gebiedsontwikkeling en universitair docent urban development management aan de TU Delft en daarnaast zelfstandig bestuurskundig adviseur.

Feie Herkes
F.J. Herkes MSc is promovendus aan Tilburg University en is tevens verbonden aan het kennisprogramma Bindend Besturen in Brabant.

Stavros Zouridis
Prof. dr. mr. S. Zouridis is hoogleraar bestuurskunde aan Tilburg University en is tevens verbonden aan het kennisprogramma Bindend Besturen in Brabant.
Thema-artikel

Access_open Institutionele ruimte voor wonen: de woning­crisis en achterliggende systeemkwesties op de agenda

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden Housing crisis, Issue attention cycle, Institutional transitions, Spatial planning, Policy instruments
Auteurs Wouter Jan Verheul en Fred Hobma
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The housing crisis is a social, political and policy issue that has not been as topical in recent decades as it is today. Over the past 25 years, the housing crisis has grown from an orphaned dossier to a problem that even has people taking to the streets. Starting from the issue attention cycle, after the alarm phase we are now in the contemplation phase of this cycle. Although the diagnosis of the problem is shared in this phase and agreement begins to emerge about the solutions, we also see the beginning of reflections on the effectiveness of the intended policy instruments and doubts about the feasibility of the objectives. Nowadays, the question is regularly asked whether major institutional changes should not be made to tackle the housing crisis. This article uses the current contemplation phase to address important institutional issues. The conclusion is that without thinking about institutional transitions, no major breakthroughs can be expected in the housing crisis and related spatial issues.


Wouter Jan Verheul
Dr. W.J. Verheul is senior onderzoeker gebiedsontwikkeling en universitair docent urban development management aan de TU Delft en zelfstandig bestuurskundig adviseur.

Fred Hobma
Mr. dr. F.A.M. Hobma is universitair hoofddocent omgevingsrecht en mastercoördinator Management in the Built Environment aan de TU Delft.
Thema-artikel

De woningcrisis in Nederland vanuit een bestuurlijk perspectief: achtergronden en oplossingen

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden the Netherlands, housing policy, governance of the housing market, building production, spatial policy
Auteurs Peter Boelhouwer en Harry van der Heijden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Partly as a result of major problems on the housing market and in particular the large housing shortage, there is now a lot of attention for housing in both the press and politics. After many years of focus on more market forces and decentralization, the national government recently seems prepared to take more responsibility. In this contribution we try to interpret this turnaround by successively considering the main problems in the housing market, the development of government policy and possible solutions to the problems that have arisen. The emphasis is on the role of the national government. We conclude that, in view of the many spatial claims and the major investment tasks, it is important that the national government takes control and makes clear choices, which can then be worked out at regional and local level. By subsequently closely monitoring the developments and intervening if necessary, the central government can make adjustments on the intended housing policies.


Peter Boelhouwer
Prof. dr. P.J. Boelhouwer is hoogleraar huisvestingssystemenaan de Faculteit Bouwkunde van de Technische Universiteit Delft.

Harry van der Heijden
Dr. H.M.H. van der Heijden is universitair hoofddocent aan de Faculteit Bouwkunde van de Technische Universiteit Delft.
Vrij artikel

De drie deconcentraties in het sociaal domein

Verbeter verhoudingen tussen Rijk en gemeenten

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden decentralization, deconcentration, municipalities, public finances, public policy
Auteurs Nils Nijdam
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2015, the three decentralizations in the social domain took place, a transfer of tasks and resources from the national government to municipalities in the Netherlands. Since then, the Dutch municipalities have been responsible for tasks related to work, care and youth. How the municipalities have tackled these tasks? What is the situation in the social domain seven years later? And what is the relationship between municipalities and national government?
    It appears that municipalities are struggling with their new tasks, mainly because of the insufficient financial resources and the limited freedom of choice. With regard to the characterization of the transfer of tasks, it is better to speak of the three deconcentrations, instead of the three decentralizations. Municipalities have received new tasks, but experience little policy freedom to tackle those tasks. In order to achieve the goals associated with the transfer to municipalities, it is necessary to increase the scope for municipalities to make their own choices. In this way, national government and municipalities can work on more equal relations.


Nils Nijdam
Dr. mr. N. Nijdam heeft van 2014 tot 2020 gewerkt in het sociaal domein van de gemeente Den Haag en is in oktober 2020 gepromoveerd op een onderzoek naar gemeentelijke sturing op de drie decentralisaties in het sociaal domein van 2015. Tegenwoordig is hij als onderzoeker en specialist bestuurlijke en financiële verhoudingen en sturingsvraagstukken verbonden aan de Algemene Rekenkamer en doceert hij aan de opleiding Bestuurskunde en Overheidsmanagement van de Haagse Hogeschool.
Thema-artikel

De versnelling van de woningbouwproductie: de rol van grondbeleid

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2022
Trefwoorden Land policy for housebuilding, Delays in the building of new homes, Private developers’ monopoly powers, Interventions
Auteurs Erwin van der Krabben
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What causes the delays in the building of sufficient new homes in the Netherlands? And why do housebuilding projects so often struggle with financial feasibility? The land market typically can be described as an imperfect market, while the performance of the land and housebuilding market are closely connected. This connection seems to cause, at least partially, delays in the building of new homes. To be able to build new houses, ownership of land is crucial. However, land does not always come available in time. Landownership also influences competition in the housebuilding market. Based on a review of scientific literature, policy documents and empirical research results, this paper discusses the performance of the land and housebuilding market and its possible impact on housing production. Additionally, the paper reviews recent proposals that have been suggested in the context of the on-going Dutch housing market debate that may improve the functioning of these markets. What might be the effects of these interventions on housebuilding production? The paper concludes with a couple of dilemmas governments face with regard to the functioning of the land and housebuilding market.


Erwin van der Krabben
Prof. dr. E. van der Krabben is hoogleraar Gebiedsontwikkeling aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Faculteit Managementwetenschappen.
Artikel

Access_open Niet alleen lokaal

Verkenning van verschillen tussen coproductie-initiatieven op de lokale, regionale en nationale bestuurslagen

Tijdschrift Beleidsonderzoek Online, april 2022
Auteurs Hessel Bos en Carola van Eijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Coproductie is niet meer weg te denken uit de Nederlandse bestuurspraktijk. Hierbij ligt de focus vooral op de lokale bestuurslaag, waar coproductie makkelijker te implementeren zou zijn. Toch bestaan er wel degelijk coproductie-initiatieven op regionaal en nationaal niveau. De lokale, regionale en nationale overheid vervullen echter staatsrechtelijk en institutioneel gezien andere functies en voeren andere taken uit. Daarnaast verschilt de (gepercipieerde) afstand tussen burger en overheid tussen de bestuurslagen, evenals het abstractieniveau van de onderwerpen die op de betreffende bestuurslaag worden behandeld. Bestaand onderzoek richt zich echter nauwelijks op de vraag of coproductie hiermee wel op dezelfde wijze wordt vormgegeven op de verschillende bestuurslagen. Dit exploratieve onderzoek verkent deze verschillen door het bestuderen van zes coproductie-initiatieven op het gebied van duurzaamheid en ruimtelijke ordening en pleit voor meer onderzoek naar coproductie op regionaal en nationaal niveau.


Hessel Bos
Hessel Bos heeft in 2020 de master Public Management and Leadership met honours afgerond aan de Universiteit Leiden. Tijdens zijn studie heeft hij een jaar stage gelopen in de Eerste Kamer bij de GroenLinksfractie. Een belangrijk onderwerp waarvoor hij zijn ondersteuning heeft verleend, is het Invoeringsbesluit van de Omgevingswet, waarin ook het participatieproces is vastgelegd. Tijdens zijn studie werkte hij bij het Interstedelijk Studenten Overleg als beleidsmedewerker medezeggenschap. Inspraak en (mede)zeggenschap zijn belangrijke interesses voor hem. Momenteel is hij werkzaam als docent maatschappijleer en maatschappijwetenschappen op het Zwijsen College.

Carola van Eijk
Carola van Eijk is als universitair docent verbonden aan het Instituut Bestuurskunde, Universiteit Leiden. In haar onderzoek richt zij zich op de coproductie van publieke diensten en andere vormen van burgerparticipatie waarbij een directe interactie ontstaat tussen burgers en de overheid. Ze bestudeert onder andere de motivatie van burgers om deel te nemen, de conflicterende belangen waarmee overheidsprofessionals te maken krijgen in coproductieprocessen en de uitdagingen rondom het organiseren van coproductie in kwetsbare buurten.

Rik Reussing
Dr. G.H. Reussing is onderwijscoördinator van de joint degree Public Governance across Borders aan de Universiteit Twente en redactiesecretaris van Bestuurswetenschappen.

    From 1964 (until 1990 globally) political science would become the dominant approach within the (local) administrative sciences in the Netherlands. This position took over from the legal approach. During this period, the concepts of politics, policy and decision-making were central to research and theory formation. In the period since 1990, we have seen a broader perspective emerging on institutions, management and governance in which Public Administration will increasingly profile itself as an independent discipline. This essay harks back to the importance of the legal approach for (local) administrative sciences from the time of the man who is regarded in the Netherlands as the founder of the discipline of Public Administration: Gerrit van Poelje. More specifically, the author addresses the question of the relationship between Public Administration and legal science in the more than one hundred years of (local) administrative science. After Gerrit van Poelje (his dissertation from 1914 is an important milestone in that history), the author discusses eleven other key persons who have made their own contribution to that history at various universities based on their legal expertise (in the broad senseHe concludes the essay with a brief discussion of the relevance of law and legal science for the future of public administration (the field) and Public Administration (the discipline).


Rik Reussing
Dr. G.H. Reussing is onderwijscoördinator van de joint degree Public Governance across Borders aan de Universiteit Twente en redactiesecretaris van Bestuurswetenschappen.
Artikel

Access_open Lokale beleidsvrijheid: geven en nemen?

Over de relatie tussen formele beleidsvrijheid, ambtelijke capaciteit, schaal en politieke verandering

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 1 2022
Auteurs Jolijn De Roover, Jan Wynen, Wouter Van Dooren e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Local policy freedom is often equated with the formal policy freedom of municipalities and thus with the formal boundaries that determine the local playing field. In this article, we question this approach. It is not clear to what extent formal policy freedom is a good measure for the ‘real’ policy freedom of municipalities, and thus for the policy freedom that municipalities use in policy implementation. Does more formal policy freedom necessarily lead to more used policy freedom? Moreover, not every municipality uses formal policy freedom in the same way. To indicate variance in policy discretion used, reference is often made to official capacity, scale and political changes. However, it is unclear to what extent these variables have an impact on local policy freedom. The authors investigate the link between formal and used policy freedom, official capacity, scale and political change on the basis of Flemish policy reform. Based on an analysis of financial data, they conclude that more formal policy freedom can be an incentive for more used policy freedom, but also that the explanatory power of administrative capacity, scale and political change is limited. In both research and policy, we need more attention for the value of social interaction, soft skills and networking.


Jolijn De Roover
Dr. J. De Roover is postdoctoraal onderzoeker aan de Universiteit Antwerpen en freelance docent ‘Good Governance’ aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.

Jan Wynen
Prof. dr. J. Wynen is onderzoekshoogleraar aan de Universiteit Antwerpen. Zijn onderzoek richt zich op de relatie tussen organisaties en veranderende omgevingen.

Wouter Van Dooren
Prof. dr. W. Van Dooren is hoogleraar bestuurskunde aan de Universiteit Antwerpen en daarnaast voorzitter van de Vlaamse Vereniging voor Bestuur en Beleid.

Jan Boon
Dr. J. Boon is postdoctoraal onderzoeker aan de Universiteit Antwerpen bij het departement Politieke wetenschappen.

    The increasing datafication of society brings both opportunities and ethical dilemmas for public organisations. The aim of this research (in Dutch municipalities) is to gain insight into how ethical leadership can support professionals in a public organisation with ethical dilemmas about data use. Based on literature on data and ethical leadership, the authors have developed a conceptual model that indicates how an ethical leader can provide intrinsic and extrinsic support. The model was tested on the basis of 16 vignette interviews with municipal public professionals who work on providing insight into and combating subversion with data. Their findings show that ethical leaders can intrinsically provide support by being trustworthy and independent, leading by example, communicating about ethics and data use, and empowering others. In addition, ethical leaders can provide extrinsic support with ethical tools, such as ethical codes on data use, an ethics committee and training.


Pauline Zwanikken
P.N.M. Zwanikken MSc is werkzaam bij The Green Land adviesbureau open data, open overheid. Zij deed een master Publiek Management aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

Erna Ruijer
Dr. E. Ruijer is werkzaam als universitair docent aan de Universiteit Utrecht bij het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO).
Artikel

Regionalisering in de ouderenzorg

Een beleidssociologisch perspectief op grootschalige verandering

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering Online First 2022
Trefwoorden decentered approach, health policy, Regionalization, regional networks, elderly care
Auteurs Jitse Schuurmans, Oemar van der Woerd, Roland Bal e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Regionalization is foregrounded among policymakers as a solution to the complex problems elderly care is facing, such as a pertinent staff shortage, a greying population and a lack of suitable accommodation. In this article, following a decentered approach, we analyze how field parties like nursing homes and policymakers in interaction give shape to regional collaborations within a market-oriented institutional healthcare context. Our findings show the emerging frictions, due to layered institutional arrangements and the proliferation of policy initiatives and partnerships. We find different responses of institutional actors to these frictions; actors holding off closer regional cooperation, actors creating urgency and commitment to organize care regionally, creating interstices in rules and regulations and building regional networks and care infrastructures. We argue that a focus on the iterative processes through which actors on different layers of the healthcare system give shape to policies adds a valuable perspective to the study of policy changes. We conclude that ‘layered work’ – mobilizing and working with and between different organizational and policy layers simultaneously – is required to develop appropriate (layered) ways to deal with complex problems.


Jitse Schuurmans
Dr. Jitse Schuurmans is Assistant Professor Healthcare Governance, Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Oemar van der Woerd
Oemar van der Woerd, MSc is promovendus Healthcare Governance, Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Roland Bal
Prof. dr. Roland Bal is Professor of Health Care Governance, Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Iris Wallenburg
Dr. Iris Wallenburg is Associate Professor Healthcare Governance, Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

De veranderende rol van provincies bij de ­uitvoering van hun beleid voor maatschappelijke betrokkenheid bij natuur

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering Online First 2022
Trefwoorden nature policy, governance strategies, Province, social engagement, Grants
Auteurs Tineke de Boer, Didi van Doren, Dana Kamphorst e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Promoting societal engagement with nature is an important policy ambition of Dutch nature policy. This article provides an overview of how the provinces together with stakeholders have shaped their policy to increase the societal engagement of citizens with nature in recent years. The goals and governance modes embedded in the policy programs were analyzed, and results and experiences of the various involved parties with the policy were reviewed. Based on a national review and in dept study of three cases, this article describes different regional approaches for increasing societal engagement. In addition it discusses the recent developments within this policy field.
    The analysis shows that provinces pursue different goals with societal engagement. It is both a policy goal in itself – provinces would like to increase the number of citizens involved – as well as a means of achieving a broader range of other goals (welfare, health, quality of life, shared responsibility, funding, support for nature policy). Provinces use different governance modes; they act as responsive and increasingly networking government. They use various policy instruments; financial support for initiatives and intermediaries, network building and communication. Furthermore, the analysis shows that past experiences have shaped provinces’ governance mode and that these are adapted accordingly. A shift is noted from leaving the initiative with communities to more direct facilitation by the government. Also governing based on performance, linked to new public management, is on the rise, as there is increasing demand for accountability of provincial expenditure.


Tineke de Boer
Tineke de Boer is onderzoeker aan het onderzoeksinstituut Wageningen Environmental Research van de Wageningen University & Research.

Didi van Doren
Dr. Didi van Doren is wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving, Sector Natuur en landelijk gebied.

Dana Kamphorst
Dr. ir. Dana Kamphorst is onderzoeker aan het onderzoeksinstituut Wageningen Environmental Research van de Wageningen University & Research.

Irene Bouwma
Dr. ir. Irene Bouwma is onderzoeker aan het onderzoeksinstituut Wageningen Environmental Research van de Wageningen University & Research.

    In this feature authors discuss recent research findings that are of interest to readers of Beleid en Maatschappij.


Tamara Metze
Dr. Tamara Metze is universitair hoofddocent bij de leerstoelgroep Bestuur en Beleid aan de Wageningen Universiteit en voorzitter van de redactie van Beleid en Maatschappij.

    How did Flemish and Dutch mayors experience the first months of the corona crisis? To find out, the Flemish and Dutch authors of this article first zoom in on the local government system of Flanders (Belgium) and the Netherlands in which these mayors operate. That system differs between the Low Countries from a functional, territorial and political perspective. However, a thorough document analysis and a series of interviews teach us that the position and leeway of mayors is quite similar in full corona time and during the corona struggle. Crisis decision-making is centralised in both Flanders and the Netherlands. Mayors therefore quickly made a significant shift in terms of (1) power and authority (respectively to the provincial governor and the federal level and to the regional mayor and the national level); (2) tasks (prioritising crisis management over other tasks); and (3) roles (increased importance for the executive role with impact on the ‘mayor father’ or ‘mayor mother’ role). And, with that, this contribution shows that Flemish and Dutch mayors, and if they are extended, local authorities, are indispensable for these days tackling a crisis, even if it extends far beyond their own borders.


Ellen Wayenberg
Prof. dr. E. Wayenberg is hoofddocent aan de Vakgroep Bestuurskunde en Publiek Management van de Faculteit Economie en Bedrijfskunde van de Universiteit Gent. Zij is covoorzitter van de Permanent Study Group on Regional and Local Government in het kader van de European Group on Public Administration en redactielid van Beleidsonderzoek Online en het Vlaamse Tijdschrift voor Overheids­management.

Marieke van Genugten
Dr. M.L. van Genugten is universitair hoofddocent bestuurskunde in de sectie Bestuurskunde van de Faculteit der Managementwetenschappen van de Radboud Universiteit in Nijmegen. Zij is redactielid van het tijdschrift Bestuurskunde.

Joris Voets
Prof. dr. J. Voets is hoofddocent bestuurskunde aan de Vakgroep Bestuurskunde en Publiek Management van de Faculteit Economie en Bedrijfskunde van de Universiteit Gent. Hij is bestuurslid van de Vlaamse Vereniging voor Bestuur en Beleid en de International Research Society for Public Management en hoofdredacteur van het Vlaamse Tijdschrift voor Overheidsmanagement.

Sandra Resodihardjo
Dr. S.L. Resodihardjo is universitair docent bestuurskunde in de sectie Bestuurskunde van de Faculteit der Managementwetenschappen van de Radboud Universiteit in Nijmegen. Zij is redactielid van Risk, Hazards, & Crisis in Public Policy.

Inke Torfs
I. Torfs MSc is doctoraal onderzoeker aan de Vakgroep Bestuurskunde en Publiek Management van de Faculteit Economie en Bedrijfskunde van de Universiteit Gent.

Bram Van Haelter
B. Van Haelter MSc is doctoraal onderzoeker aan de Vakgroep Bestuurskunde en Publiek Management van de Faculteit Economie en Bedrijfskunde van de Universiteit Gent.
Essay

Met vreemde ogen kijken

Gemeentelijke visitaties met behulp van bestuurskrachtmetingen: opzet, uitkomsten en benutting

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 3 2021
Auteurs Jean Schutgens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study examines the quality of visitation in three government sectors in the Netherlands: academic education (training), urban policy (urban municipalities) and municipal authorities. The focus is mainly on the visitation of municipal authorities in the Dutch province Limburg. The assessment of the visitation quality of university study programmes and of major cities policy must yield hypotheses to determine the quality of the visitation of municipal authorities that have been visited. The object of study is therefore ‘visitation’, in particular ‘visitation quality’. The visitations of university studies were viewed from four quality perspectives, namely on the design quality, the process quality, the assessing and the concluding quality, and usability or utilisation. This is also the case with the visitation of the major cities’ policy and of the Limburg municipal authorities. The question is, of course, what the analysis of the quality of all the assessments in three sectors yields, with special attention to the assessment of municipal authorities. Is it clear after that analysis how this quality inspection should be carried out? The study provides a wealth of insights and shows the state of the administrative strength of the inspected Limburg municipal authorities. A publication of this study has been postponed for more than five years, because the author wanted to investigate whether the administrative strength measurements were used in the longer term.


Jean Schutgens
Dr. J.M.L.R. Schutgens is bestuurskundige en in 2014 bij Arno Korsten gepromoveerd aan de Open Universiteit. Hij was gemeentesecretaris van Landgraaf in de periode 1992-2008.

Rik Reussing
Dr. G.H. Reussing is onderwijscoördinator van de joint degree Public Governance across Borders aan de Universiteit Twente en redactiesecretaris van Bestuurswetenschappen.

    Local political parties are clearly on the rise in the Netherlands in both the municipal council and the municipal board. Their average percentage of council seats increased from 25% in 1998 to 37% in 2018 and the percentage of councillors from 21% to 32%. This coincided with a greatly increased fragmentation. For example, the average number of political parties on the council rose from 6.5 in 1998 to 8.0 in 2018 and the number of parties providing one or more aldermen increased from 2.8 to 3.4 during this period. Fragmentation expressed in the number of effective parties shows a similar trend. If we use the Chapel Hill score, it appears that the average political colour of both the municipal council and the alderman part in the municipal board has shifted to the right. This is mainly because political parties are becoming increasingly right wing according to this index and not so much because there are more local votes for right-wing parties. Significant differences in the representative representation are also noted. The local parties as well as the Socialist Party (SP) are less successful than average in converting their seats on the council into councillor seats, while the three large traditional (and especially the CDA) and smaller Christian parties have succeeded above average in this.


Raymond Gradus
Prof. dr. R.H.J.M. Gradus is hoogleraar bestuur en economie van de publieke en non-profitsector aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, en is tevens verbonden aan de vakgroep Accounting en het Zijlstra Center for Public Control, Leadership and Governance.

Tjerk Budding
Dr. G.T. Budding is universitair hoofddocent Management and Financial Accounting en opleidings­­directeur van de Public Controllers­­opleidingen aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Elbert Dijkgraaf
Prof. dr. E. Dijkgraaf is hoogleraar empirische economie van de publieke sector aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en fellow van het Tinbergen Instituut.

    Because local political parties are by definition only active in one municipality, the assumption is that they are less effective compared to national parties because they have no representation at other levels of government and in other municipalities. It is then expected that aldermen of local parties will have more difficulty advocating the interests of their municipality in the region or province, the national government or the European Union. Interviews with aldermen of local parties and a survey among aldermen show that this picture needs some nuance. Aldermen from local parties say they can compensate for the lack of party political contacts by investing in personal relationships. It is striking that the non-partisan role of these aldermen also benefits them: because they do not have to take party political interests into account, they can more forcefully propagate the interests of their municipality if they are at odds with provincial or national policy. Because of their party-politically neutral role, they also acquire key positions more quickly in the region. The only disadvantage that aldermen of local parties do experience is the lack of support in the form of professionalisation and of knowledge exchange. They see that aldermen of national parties, who usually receive support from their national party bureau, sometimes have an advantage in this regard. This sheds new, and relatively little mentioned, light on the importance of party-political contacts.


Marcel Boogers
Prof. dr. M.J.G.J.A. Boogers is hoogleraar Innovatie en Regionaal Bestuur aan de Universiteit Twente, onderzoeker bij Necker van Naem en hoofdredacteur van Bestuurswetenschappen.

Franziska Eckardt
Dr. F. Eckardt promoveerde op 3 september 2021 bij de vakgroep Bestuurskunde van de Universiteit Twente op een onderzoek naar drie G-1000-initiatieven. Momenteel werkt ze als onderzoeker in Utrecht bij Citisens voor verschillende overheden aan projecten op het snijvlak van democratie, participatie en innovatie.
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