Zoekresultaat: 35 artikelen

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Thema-artikel

Een transparant debat over algoritmen

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden AI, ethics, Big Data, human rights, governance
Auteurs Dr. Oskar J. Gstrein en Prof. dr. Andrej Zwitter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The police use all sorts of information to fulfil their tasks. Whereas collection and interpretation of information traditionally could only be done by humans, the emergence of ‘Big Data’ creates new opportunities and dilemmas. On the one hand, large amounts of data can be used to train algorithms. This allows them to ‘predict’ offenses such as bicycle theft, burglary, or even serious crimes such as murder and terrorist attacks. On the other hand, highly relevant questions on purpose, effectiveness, and legitimacy of the application of machine learning/‘artificial intelligence’ drown all too often in the ocean of Big Data. This is particularly problematic if such systems are used in the public sector in democracies, where the rule of law applies, and where accountability, as well as the possibility for judicial review, are guaranteed. In this article, we explore the role transparency could play in reconciling these opportunities and dilemmas. While some propose making the systems and data they use themselves transparent, we submit that an open and broad discussion on purpose and objectives should be held during the design process. This might be a more effective way of embedding ethical and legal principles in the technology, and of ensuring legitimacy during application.


Dr. Oskar J. Gstrein
Dr. O.J. Gstrein is universitair docent Governance & Innovation aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Campus Fryslân, Data Research Centre.

Prof. dr. Andrej Zwitter
Prof. dr. A.J. Zwitter is hoogleraar Governance & Innovation aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Campus Fryslân, Data Research Centre.

    While authorities sometimes make it appear that the coronavirus outbreak in the first half of 2020 did not allow for policies other than those in place, we saw remarkable variations in policy approaches in Western Europe. Governments almost everywhere pushed for ‘social distancing’, but differences in wording and communication, and implementation and enforcement emerged that could not be entirely explained by differences in the manifestation of the coronavirus. In order to understand and explain such differences, this article points out the institutional filter that exists between the corona threat and policy action. The interaction between two central components of the institutional filter – national culture and state tradition – is elaborated in this article for six Western European countries in particular: the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom, on the one hand, and Belgium, France and Italy, on the one hand. Policy action in these countries is largely consistent with what could be expected given the combinations of national culture and state tradition in these countries. The institutional filter forms a comprehensive framework with which more specific explanations from social trust or manifest public leadership can be placed.


Prof. dr. Frank Hendriks
Prof. dr. F. Hendriks is hoogleraar bestuurskunde aan de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Article

Like Mother, Like Daughter?

Linkage Between Local Branches and Their National Party Headquarters in Belgium

Tijdschrift Politics of the Low Countries, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden local branches, national party headquarters, linkage, integration, multilevel parties
Auteurs Kristof Steyvers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article scrutinises local-national linkage in Belgium to better understand territorial power relations in multilevel parties. Drawing on a survey of local chairs of national parties, it adopts an innovative, informal and bottom-up approach. The descriptive analysis reveals two central axes in the morphology of linkage: scope (downward support and upward influence) and surplus (benefits versus costs). However, (the valuation of) this interdependence appears as a matter of degree. The explanatory analysis therefore probes into the effect of macro- (between environments), meso- (between parties) and micro- (within parties) level factors. It demonstrates that variance is explained by different parameters. For scope, differences between parties trump those within them. For surplus, specific differences between parties as well as within them matter. The answer to our guiding question is therefore variegated: it depends on for what and for whom.


Kristof Steyvers
Kristof Steyvers is Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science of Ghent University (Belgium). His research is conducted in the Centre for Local Politics, where he focuses on topics such as local political leadership, parties and elections at the local level, local government in multilevel governance and local government reforms (often from a comparative perspective).
Artikel

Access_open ‘Garbage in, garbage out’

Over predictive policing en vuile data

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden dirty data, predictive policing, CAS, discrimination, ethnic profiling
Auteurs Mr. Abhijit Das en Mr. dr. Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Predictive tools as instruments for understanding and responding to risky behaviour as early as possible are increasingly becoming a normal feature in local and state agencies. A risk that arises from the implementation of these predictive tools is the problem of dirty data. The input of incorrect or illegally obtained information (‘dirty data’) can influence the quality of the predictions used by local and state agencies, such as the police. The article focuses on the risks of dirty data in predictive policing by the Dutch Police. It describes the possibilities to prevent dirty data from being used in predictive policing tools, such as the Criminality Anticipation System (CAS). It concludes by emphasizing the importance of transparency for any serious solution looking to eliminate the use of dirty data in predictive policing.


Mr. Abhijit Das
Mr. Abhijit Das is docent/onderzoeker straf(proces)recht aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Mr. dr. Marc Schuilenburg
Mr. dr. Marc Schuilenburg is universitair docent criminologie aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Perspectief uit de praktijk

De lokale Facebookpagina als café

Een discussie over het bestaan van publieke plaatsen op het internet en de regulering daarvan

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 2 2020
Auteurs Dr. Willem Bantema
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Mayors struggle with their role in the digital and online domain. One of the aspects they encounter is online positioning. Positioning is an important factor in public order enforcement. Mayor Femke Halsema of Amsterdam recently indicated that she is not only responsible for public order, but also for virtual public space. This contribution elaborates on online positioning and specifically on whether social media pages can be considered as public spaces. The analysis, which includes recent research in this area, shows that the definition of ‘public order and public space’ in the Dutch Municipalities Act certainly offers scope for an expansion to online places. The way in which internet users deal with data in practice does not stand in the way of this possibility. At the same time, it appears that online spaces differ from physical spaces, especially in the sense that positioning is difficult. Case law from Dutch criminal law shows that, in addition to the place, it is primarily the public reach and effect that determine whether or not it concerns a public expression. In addition to complex positioning online, there are other compelling arguments for not using the legal powers of mayors for maintaining public order on public spaces online.


Dr. Willem Bantema
Dr. W. Bantema is senior docent/onderzoeker aan de NHL Stenden Hogeschool te Leeuwarden. Zijn onderzoeksgebied is cybersafety & bestuurlijke handhaving en digitalisering.

Dr. Rik Reussing
Dr. G.H. Reussing is onderwijscoördinator van de joint degree Public Governance across Borders aan de Universiteit Twente en redactiesecretaris van Bestuurswetenschappen.
Thema-artikel ‘Uitgesproken Bestuurskunde’

Europese regelgeving: meer dan de som der delen?

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden European Union, EU legislation, evaluation, implementation, European administrative networks
Auteurs Prof. dr. Ellen Mastenbroek
Samenvatting

    Evaluations of EU legislation can fulfill a key role in the European policy process. They can provide the knowledge base required for political accountability towards the electorate, and form a basis for the improvement of existing legislation. This article introduces a research agenda in the realm of the ex-post evaluation of EU legislation, which comprises two research lines. The first strand comprises research into ex post legislative evaluations conducted by the European Commission. This research is innovative, because EU policy researchers so far have barely touched upon evaluation, as a final and important stage in the EU policy cycle. By assessing evaluation critically, we can ascertain to what extent the EU’s ex-post evaluation system is more than an instrument, aimed at increasing the EU’s legitimacy. The second research strand is own evaluation research, focusing on the role of European administrative networks- intergovernmental structures that have been established to improve the implementation of EU legislation by the member states. By critically evaluating the functioning and effectiveness of these networks, I hope to be able to find out whether and under what conditions these network structures are more, than the sum of their national parts.


Prof. dr. Ellen Mastenbroek
Thema-artikel ‘Uitgesproken Bestuurskunde’

Toezicht en governance in de open samenleving

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden corporate crime, Governance, Enforcement, Regulation, public administration
Auteurs Prof. dr. Judith van Erp
Samenvatting

    Regulation and markets have become central steering mechanisms in modern states, but have received relatively little attention in public administration. This contribution argues that questions around regulation, monitoring and enforcement deserve more attention in public administration scholarship. It sketches the development of ‘Regulatory Governance’ as a scholarly field, and discusses the added value of a criminological perspective on relations between state and market. A research agenda on ‘naming and shaming’ brings these perspectives together.


Prof. dr. Judith van Erp
Thema-artikel ‘Uitgesproken Bestuurskunde’

Samenwerken in de kenniseconomie

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden knowledge economy, sharing knowledge, collaborative community, governance structures
Auteurs Prof. dr. Ferry Koster
Samenvatting

    For a long time, the three governance structures market, hierarchy, and community were regarded as separate entities. The market is based on the price mechanism, the authority mechanism is the basis of the hierarchy, and trust relations characterize the community. As the knowledge economy evolves, there is a shift in thinking about how these governance structures are related. Creating and sharing knowledge are key features of the knowledge economy. However, this knowledge is partly tacit and sharing knowledge is particularly useful among diverse organizations, which are two barriers for sharing of knowledge among organizations.
    A new stream of literature suggests that the ability of organizations to combine the three governance structures contributes to their capacity to share knowledge with other organizations. Based on this literature, this article shows what kinds of organizational forms are possible. Besides that, it offer empirical example of the conditions under which these organizational forms evolve as well as how they contribute to organizational innovation.


Prof. dr. Ferry Koster
Thema-artikel

Bestuur in een low-trust context

De vicieuze cirkels in de hervorming van de Mexicaanse overheid

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden low trust, vicious circles, administrative reforms, authoritarian legacies, Mexico
Auteurs Dr. Rik Peeters
Samenvatting

    Since the late eighties, Mexico has experienced profound economic modernisation and political democratisation. However, the corresponding administrative reforms have lagged: professionalisation of the public sector, improvement of public service delivery and development of modern management principles are plagued by a lack of coherence, implementation, and continuity. This can be traced back to several historically rooted and structural characteristics of Mexican public administration, which reproduce vicious circles of low trust and dysfunction. For example, (1) the extreme spoils system maintains a culture of distrust towards civil servants; (2) Mexico’s weak state capacity is a consequence of a lack of collective action, but also further undermines citizens’ trust in government; (3) strong labour unions are a response to poor labour rights, but also uphold a system of capture and confrontation; and (4) corruption is inevitable if cooperation depends on personal loyalties.


Dr. Rik Peeters
Artikel

Slimme handhaving in de sociale zekerheid

Lessen uit een landelijke enquête onder uitkeringsgerechtigden

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Regulatory enforcement, Social security, Compliance, Motivational postures, Procedural justice
Auteurs Dr. Marc Hertogh en Dr. Willem Bantema
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Using survey data from 1,300 welfare recipients in the Netherlands, this paper explores the effects of different enforcement styles in the field of social security law. Although most policy debates focus on punitive and persuasive enforcement, our findings suggest that both styles only play a limited role in explaining regulatory compliance. Our study also shows that the level of compliance among welfare recipients is related to their ‘motivational postures’ (Braithwaite 2003; 2009; 2011). While some of these ‘postures’ are shaped by elements of procedural justice, others are related to the perceived legitimacy of laws or to instrumental motives. Given these findings, we suggest that compliance with social security laws may not only depend on punitive or persuasive enforcement, but also on the degree in which regulatory enforcement is attuned to the individual characteristics of welfare recipients. Finally, these ideas are translated into several practical suggestions for the ‘smart enforcement’ of social security law.


Dr. Marc Hertogh
Prof. dr. M.L.M. Hertogh is Hoogleraar rechtssociologie aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

Dr. Willem Bantema
Dr. W. Bantema is Senior onderzoeker bij de Onderzoeksgroep Cybersafety aan de NHL Stenden Hogeschool Leeuwarden
Artikel

Access_open HASHTAG POLITIE

Hoe politieagenten omgaan met waardeconflicten die ontstaan door sociale media

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 3 2018
Auteurs Prof. dr. Gjalt de Graaf en Prof. dr. Albert Meijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Social media changes society and causes new dilemmas in local government. Little is known about the nature of these conflicts and the way government organizations deal with them. Therefore the authors of this article have carried out empirical research into the manner in which police officers deal with value conflicts concerning the use of social media. Their research shows that the well-known conflicts in the literature between effectiveness and efficiency and between effectiveness and legality were also dominant in this case, but that many more conflicts than are known from other studies concerned transparency and participation. In addition they discovered that the bias strategy was often used, which suggests that a conservative response is preferable in a situation with a lot of dynamics. In this way the research shows how government officials deal with the tension between a stable organization and a dynamic environment and look for appropriate forms of coping at this specific interface. The authors stress in their recommendations that the further strengthening of the learning ability of organizations deserves attention: not just to find the right way to deal with value conflicts, but to be able to find new ways to deal with the new conflicts that arise.


Prof. dr. Gjalt de Graaf
Prof. dr. G. de Graaf is hoogleraar Integriteit van Academisch Onderwijs aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam en redacteur van Bestuurswetenschappen.

Prof. dr. Albert Meijer
Prof. dr. A.J. Meijer is hoogleraar Publieke Innovatie aan de Universiteit Utrecht en redacteur van Bestuurswetenschappen.
Artikel

De ongekende effecten van deregulering: een experiment in Hollands Kroon

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden deregulation, deviant behavior, policy experiment, social control
Auteurs Dr. Peter Kruyen, Prof. dr. Taco Brandsen en Dr. Berry Tholen
Samenvatting

    What happens in the case of massive deregulation in the local public domain? Despite the widespread call for ‘less regulation’, the effects of large-scale deregulation have received surprisingly little academic attention. In this article, we present the results of a longitudinal study on the effects of deregulation in the Dutch municipality of Hollands Kroon. The municipality abolished a vast number of regulations on public order offences in a radical two-year policy experiment, encouraging citizens to exercise more social control. In contrast, criticasters expected that the experiment would lead to more public offenses and conflict. Based on our data collected over three survey rounds; focus groups with citizens, politicians and civil servants; and several secondary data sources, we conclude that there was little effect: neither an increase in public order offences, nor an increase in social control. Our research shows that, in the short term, deregulation did not significantly affect the behavior of citizens.


Dr. Peter Kruyen

Prof. dr. Taco Brandsen

Dr. Berry Tholen
Artikel

Verkeer als stelsel met stelselverantwoordelijkheid voor veiligheid?

Naar een moderne governance opvatting van ‘co-responsibility’ bij stelsels

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden traffic safety, systems approach, governance, co-responsibility
Auteurs Dr. mr. Dick Ruimschotel
Samenvatting

    Lack of safety leading to death or injury has many aspects: personal violence, traffic, accidents at home or the work place, not to mention other external sources as radiation and fine dust or internal sources like diseases. In this paper we restrict ourselves to the lack of safety in traffic as a system, and address the following questions: (1) Is traffic a system with one dominant responsible actor (Ministry of Traffic)? (2) What explanations are offered for the lack of safety? (3) Who is responsible for safety? (4) What sort of interventions are suitable for enhancing safety? and (5) What type of process/consultancy is most appropriate for answer the preceding questions?
    The paper arrives at its conclusions via an indirect way, namely a short analysis of what a system comprises and what constitutes an explanation, responsibility and effectiveness. It appears that we are all causally involved in the lack of safety, and we are all responsible at all levels of society: micro-individual, meso-organizational and macro-societal. Therefore a promising route to maximize safety is a governance perspective comprising multiple stakeholder co-responsibility. It remains to be seen whether this perspective should replace the predominant command and control governance or complement it.


Dr. mr. Dick Ruimschotel
Artikel

Particuliere uitbesteding van gemeentelijke handhavingstaken

Wat levert het de lokale overheid op?

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Municipal law enforcement, Outsourcing, Local government
Auteurs Ronald van Steden, Leon Stougie en Dylan van Veldhoven
Samenvatting

    Various Dutch municipalities hire municipal law enforcement officers from private security companies. This process of outsourcing sometimes meets political resistance, because safety and security are central tasks of government that should not be carried out by commercial parties. At the same time, little is known about the actual pros and cons of private law enforcement officers in relation to their public colleagues. From the literature we expect differences in cost, flexibility, local knowledge, professional autonomy, job satisfaction and cooperation with the police. Our empirical research shows that these differences are smaller than initially assumed. Private law enforcement officers work longer hours under more or less the same working conditions (salary) as public law enforcement officers. Their turnover rate is also higher compared to public law enforcement officers, because of their lower career expectations. Overhead costs, including the costs of outsourcing processes, remain unknown.


Ronald van Steden

Leon Stougie

Dylan van Veldhoven
Artikel

Doorbraakinnovaties en ‘omgekeerde’ technologiebeoordeling: het geval van deeleconomie

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden sharing, regulation, Airbnb, technology assessment, right to challenge
Auteurs Koen Frenken
Samenvatting

    This article shows how the municipality of Amsterdam (The Netherlands) has coped with the popularity of home sharing platform Airbnb. In collaboration with Airbnb, the municipality of Amsterdam was the first to come up with regulations for home sharing. However, enforcement of these rules proved difficult without access to user data of the Airbnb platform. In addition, a scientific (statistical) assessment of the effects of homesharing is also difficult without open data. As a result, the legitimacy of the platform has weakened in the eyes of some stakeholders. The article ends with some general reflections how government can cope with sharing economy platform. In particular, it is argued that the right-to-challenge principle may prove hard to apply to sharing platforms.


Koen Frenken
Artikel

Big Data: een revolutie in gemeentelijk beleid?

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 3 2015
Auteurs Tom Daalhuijsen MSc, Sebastiaan Steenman MSc en Prof. dr. Albert Meijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Big Data is the new hype in municipal policy and the promise of Big Data is rationalization: better policy that is based on better information. In this article the authors investigate the extent to which the use of Big Data in municipal organizations results in a more rational policy process. Their empirical research was held in two Dutch municipalities: Tilburg, in the south of the Netherlands, and Assen, in the north of the Netherlands. They investigated how Tilburg deploys Big Data for the fight against crime and Assen is trying to improve its traffic management with Big Data. Their analysis shows that policy, more so than in the past, is being steered by specific information because Big Data is being used. The rationalization of policy, however, is limited by the possibilities of Big Data and by political dynamics. Their final conclusion therefore is that the uncertainty, unfamiliarity, complexity and constant change are partly made manageable and controllable by the use of Big Data in municipal organizations. Politics is also partly ‘tamed’ because politicians have to relate to ‘objective data’ from information systems.


Tom Daalhuijsen MSc
T. Daalhuijsen MSc werkt sinds kort als business analist bij Capgemini Nederland. Hij is in 2014 afgestudeerd bij de masteropleiding Bestuur en Beleid van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Sebastiaan Steenman MSc
S.C. Steenman MSc is docent in de bacheloropleiding Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap en de masteropleiding Bestuur en Beleid van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Prof. dr. Albert Meijer
Prof. dr. A.J. Meijer is hoogleraar Publieke Innovatie aan de Universiteit Utrecht en redacteur van Bestuurswetenschappen.
Artikel

De Verblijfsregeling Mensenhandel in de praktijk: over oneigenlijk gebruik en niet-gebruik

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden human trafficking, public policy, crime policy, policy misuse, non-take up
Auteurs Dr. Jeanine Klaver en Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In line with international and national legislation, the Netherlands offers certain services, including a temporary residence permit, to third country nationals who have fallen prey to human traffickers. Over the years, concerns have been often expressed about the perceived misuse of this regulation by foreigners who aim at legalising their stay. Based on interviews and file analysis the present article seeks to provide insight into to what extent it is possible to measure this misuse and the policy implications of the findings. In addition, the authors take into account non-use of the programme. The article confirms existing worries about misuse, provides indicators for misuse, but also concludes that at the level of individual cases practitioners cannot discern misuse from rightful use. At the same time, there are also groups that fall outside the reach of the programme. The article concludes with some policy recommendations on the basis of the findings.


Dr. Jeanine Klaver
Dr. Jeanine Klaver is manager onderzoek bij Regioplan Beleidsonderzoek.

Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Over rijdende treinen en vallende dominostenen: het rookverbod in de Nederlandse horeca

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden smoking ban, regulation, support, effectiveness, explanations
Auteurs Dr. Heleen Weyers en Willem Bantema MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the near future, the Dutch government intends to change the rules relating to smoking bans in the hospitality industry again. After a complete ban, coming into force in July 2008, and introducing an exception for small bars in June 2011, the complete ban will return this year. This article describes the law regarding smoking bans in the Netherlands, and reports along researches of the relevant authority and a commercial research institute the effectiveness of the bans. From these findings it becomes clear that the hospitality industry did a good job in complying with the bans. But there is one exception: small bars. Next we explain, based on the ideas of Kagan and Skolnick and Elias the effectiveness of smoking bans.


Dr. Heleen Weyers
Dr. Heleen Weyers is universitair docent bij de Vakgroep Rechtstheorie, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. E-mail: h.a.m.weyers@rug.nl.

Willem Bantema MSc
Willem Bantema, MSc is promovendus bij de Vakgroep Rechtstheorie, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. E-mail: w.bantema@rug.nl.
Article

Juridische kwetsbaarheid en onderhandelingen in de Wereldhandelsorganisatie

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden WTO, trade, legal vulnerability, Doha Round, judicialization
Auteurs Arlo Poletti en Dirk De Bièvre
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the current multilateral trade regime, members often negotiate under the shadow of WTO law. In this article, we develop an explanation of how the legal vulnerability of members’ domestic policies affects ongoing multilateral negotiations in the trade regime. First, we show that, contrary to conventional wisdom, increased enforcement does not necessarily make actors shy away from further cooperation. Legal vulnerability can ignite a positive dynamic of cooperation because it can increase the set of feasible agreements of WTO members. In a second stage, we set out how the nature of the issue at stake, i.e. whether it can be easily disaggregated into negotiable units, affects whether this positive dynamics of cooperation takes place. We illustrate the plausibility of the argument by way of four in-depth case studies of how potential (or actual) defendants and potential (or actual) complainants in WTO disputes responded to the incentives brought about by legal vulnerability and negotiated in the Doha round.


Arlo Poletti
Arlo Poletti geeft les aan de LUISS School of Government in Rome en is verbonden aan de onderzoeksgroep ACIM van het Departement Politieke Wetenschappen aan de Universiteit Antwerpen. Hij is de auteur van The European Union and Multilateral Trade Governance: The Politics of the Doha Round, London: Routledge.

Dirk De Bièvre
Dirk De Bièvre is professor internationale politiek en internationale politieke economie aan het departement politieke wetenschappen van de Universiteit Antwerpen en lid van de onderzoeksgroep ACIM. Zijn onderzoek concentreert zich op de Wereldhandelsorganisatie, de Europese handelspolitiek, en de invloed van belangengroepen.
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