Zoekresultaat: 33 artikelen

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Dossier

Access_open Meer vrouwen in het openbaar bestuur: lessen uit de publieke sector

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden Gender diversity, Public administration, Ethnic diversity, Inclusion, Emancipation, Leadership
Auteurs Dr. Saniye Çelik
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article reflects on the proposed measures of the Dutch Government to increase the number of women in the Dutch public administration. Based on the lessons learned from the practice of the public sector, this study concludes that there is still much work to be done with regard to female participation in the Netherlands, but when it comes to the ethnic minorities, the situation is alarming. Politicians directly elected by the citizen, such as MPs and councillors, do see a representation of the ethnic diversity of society. Where the citizen has no direct influence, such as the king’s commissioners, mayors, and aldermen, the percentages are zero or slightly higher than zero. It is argued that mechanisms such as selection procedures are hindering gender and ethnic diversity at the top of the public organizations. It is, therefore, suggested that introducing quota could bring more diversity in public administration.


Dr. Saniye Çelik
Dr. Saniye Çelik is lector diversiteit aan de Hogeschool Leiden, decaan inclusief leiderschap bij het NSOB en opleider bij Center for Professional Learning aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Thema-artikel ‘Uitgesproken Bestuurskunde’

Europese regelgeving: meer dan de som der delen?

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden European Union, EU legislation, evaluation, implementation, European administrative networks
Auteurs Prof. dr. Ellen Mastenbroek
Samenvatting

    Evaluations of EU legislation can fulfill a key role in the European policy process. They can provide the knowledge base required for political accountability towards the electorate, and form a basis for the improvement of existing legislation. This article introduces a research agenda in the realm of the ex-post evaluation of EU legislation, which comprises two research lines. The first strand comprises research into ex post legislative evaluations conducted by the European Commission. This research is innovative, because EU policy researchers so far have barely touched upon evaluation, as a final and important stage in the EU policy cycle. By assessing evaluation critically, we can ascertain to what extent the EU’s ex-post evaluation system is more than an instrument, aimed at increasing the EU’s legitimacy. The second research strand is own evaluation research, focusing on the role of European administrative networks- intergovernmental structures that have been established to improve the implementation of EU legislation by the member states. By critically evaluating the functioning and effectiveness of these networks, I hope to be able to find out whether and under what conditions these network structures are more, than the sum of their national parts.


Prof. dr. Ellen Mastenbroek
Dossier

De politieke economie van macro-economische onbalansen in de eurozone

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Macroeconomic imbalances Eurozone, Euro crisis, Excessive imbalance procedure, Reform EMU
Auteurs Dr. Peter Rodenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The introduction of the euro led to large macroeconomic imbalances between Euro countries. Under pressure from the euro crisis, the European Commission adopted EU regulations 1174/2011 and 1176/2011 in 2011 with the aim of reducing these macroeconomic imbalances. These measures include the Macroeconomic Imbalance Procedure to identify macroeconomic imbalances and, if necessary, to prompt Member States to take corrective action. This article provides an overview of this recent EU policy for countering imbalances and provides a political-economic analysis of the macroeconomic imbalances in Europe and its consequences. In particular, it focuses on the conflicting interests of the euro-area countries with current account surpluses and deficits. This article also analyses the possibilities offered by the 2019 European election for European policy makers to strengthen this policy. The article concludes that the surplus countries, despite the apparent advantage of trade balance surpluses, do have an interest in reducing imbalances in the EU but fail to translate this into actual policy. The Commission’s role in reducing imbalances is likely to remain limited, even after the 2019 European elections.


Dr. Peter Rodenburg
Peter Rodenburg is Universitair docent bij de afdeling Europese studies van de Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Dossier

De Europese vakbeweging en de vormgeving van sociaal beleid

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Social Europe, European Union, Social policy, Trade unions, ETUC
Auteurs Drs. Saskia Boumans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The European project currently faces not only an economic crisis, but a moral one as well. The economic growth model of social justice combined with market-oriented policies, also referred to as the European social model has lost much of its meaning after ten years of austerity and financial calamities. In 2012 ECB President Draghi says in the Wall Street Journal that the European social model is “gone”, a thing of the past. While only a couple of years later the European Pillar of Social Rights is put in place. What is happening with ‘Social Europe’? And how do trade unions, as a historical motor of social policy in the member states, relate to the European social model, especially since the financial crisis. This article deals with the position of trade unions vis-à-vis European social policy and the European institutions. The European social model, economic governance and the collective bargaining system are discussed as examples of post-crisis European social policy. It will be argued that although the European Commission gives institutional space to social policy and to a role for trade unions, it has always been subordinate to economic integration. And moreover that the recent economic crisis is used at the European level to obtain almost complete control over social policy in the member states.


Drs. Saskia Boumans
Drs. Saskia Boumans werkt als promovendus bij AIAS-HSI (UvA) aan een onderzoek naar werkgeversorganisaties in collectieve onderhandelingen, en heeft de afgelopen vijftien jaar voor de vakbeweging gewerkt.
Dossier

De aanpak van belastingontwijking door de EU: gerichte maatregelen zonder structurele verandering.

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Tax, EU/European Union, Corporate taxation, Tax avoidance, Tax policy
Auteurs Indra Römgens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    According to the outgoing European Commissioner Pierre Moscovici, the European Union (EU) has made more progress in tackling tax avoidance and evasion in the last five years than in the twenty years before that. This article argues that although several targeted measures have indeed been adopted, such as automatic exchange of tax rulings and limitations on interest deductions, this has not led to a structural change in EU corporate tax policies, nor in underlying power relations. The article discusses the politics of a number of recent policy developments related to tax avoidance and evasion by transnational corporations. It argues that the adoption of targeted measures, and the simultaneous stalling of more comprehensive approaches – in terms of tax transparency or a common consolidated corporate tax base – can be explained by recent tax controversies, international politics, and the dynamics within and between EU institutions. Particular attention is paid to the role of the European Parliament that is formally limited, but still houses progressive forces that have continuously pushed for a clampdown on tax avoidance. Finally, the article pleads for more transparent EU decision-making, specifically concerning discussions with and within the Council, in order to improve the democratic legitimacy of EU corporate tax policies and processes.


Indra Römgens
MSc Indra Römgens is Promovendus aan de Roskilde Universiteit in Denemarken en de Radboud Universiteit in Nijmegen.
Article

Consensus Democracy and Bureaucracy in the Low Countries

Tijdschrift Politics of the Low Countries, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden consensus democracy, bureaucracy, governance system, Lijphart, policymaking
Auteurs Frits van der Meer, Caspar van den Berg, Charlotte van Dijck e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Taking Lijphart’s work on consensus democracies as our point of departure, we signal a major shortcoming in Lijphart’s focus being almost exclusively on the political hardware of the state structure, leaving little attention for the administrative and bureaucratic characteristics of governance systems. We propose to expand the Lijphart’s model which overviews structural aspects of the executive and the state with seven additional features of the bureaucratic system. We argue that these features are critical for understanding the processes of policymaking and service delivery. Next, in order to better understand the functioning of the Netherlands and Belgium as consensus democracies, we provide a short analysis of the historical context and current characteristics of the political-administrative systems in both countries.


Frits van der Meer
Frits van der Meer, Professor Institute Public Administration, Leiden University.

Caspar van den Berg
Caspar van den Berg, Campus Fryslân, University of Groningen.

Charlotte van Dijck
Charlotte van Dijck, PhD Fellow Research Foundation Flanders (FWO), KU Leuven Public Governance Institute.

Gerrit Dijkstra
Gerrit Dijkstra, Senior Lecturer, Leiden University.

Trui Steen
Trui Steen, Professor, KU Leuven Public Governance Institute.
Literature review

Consensualism, Democratic Satisfaction, Political Trust and the Winner-Loser Gap

State of the Art of Two Decades of Research

Tijdschrift Politics of the Low Countries, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden consensualism, majoritarianism, political trust, satisfaction with democracy, Lijphart
Auteurs Tom van der Meer en Anna Kern
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Lijphart (1999) argued that citizens tend to be more satisfied with democracy in consensual democracies than in majoritarian democracies and that the gap in democratic satisfaction between the winners and the losers of elections is smaller under consensualism. Twenty years on since then, this article takes stock of the literature on consensualism and political support. We find considerable ambiguity in the theoretical arguments and empirical evidence provided in this literature. Finally, we speculate on possible reasons for this ambiguity.


Tom van der Meer
Tom van der Meer, University of Amsterdam.

Anna Kern
Anna Kern, Ghent University.
Article

Transformative Welfare Reform in Consensus Democracies

Tijdschrift Politics of the Low Countries, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden consensus democracy, welfare state, social investment, transformative reform, Belgium and the Netherlands
Auteurs Anton Hemerijck en Kees van Kersbergen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article takes up Lijphart’s claim that consensus democracy is a ‘kinder, gentler’ form of democracy than majoritarian democracy. We zoom in on contemporary welfare state change, particularly the shift towards social investment, and argue that the kinder, gentler hypothesis remains relevant. Consensus democracies stand out in regard to the extent to which their political institutions help to overcome the politically delicate intricacies of governing for the long term. We theorize the features that can help to solve the problem of temporal commitment in democracy through processual mechanisms and illustrate these with short case studies of the contrasting welfare state reform experiences in the Netherlands and Belgium.


Anton Hemerijck
Anton Hemerijck is Professor of Political Science and Sociology at the European University Institute (EUI) in Florence, Italy.

Kees van Kersbergen
Kees van Kersbergen is Professor of Comparative Politics at the Department of Political Science of Aarhus University, Denmark.
Dossier

Access_open Reactie op Buy-to-let gewikt en gewogen

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Buy-to-let, House price bubbles, Private rental sector, Housing policy, International trends
Auteurs Dr. ir. Maartje Martens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Socialist Party commissioned this academic study into the scale and impact of the recent rise of buy-to-let transactions in Dutch urban housing markets. The study focusses, however, on the rise of private rental housing. This definition of buy-to-let is challenged in this review, as is the impact of the recent rise of buy-to-let on the Dutch owner occupied housing market.


Dr. ir. Maartje Martens
Dr. ir. M. Martens is onafhankelijk woningmarktexpert Housing Analysis.

Rinus van Schendelen
Rinus van Schendelen is emeritus hoogleraar politicologie op de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, adviseur EU-beïnvloeding bij Bureau Brussels in Brussel en publiceerde onder meer ruim 40 boeken op het brede terrein van beïnvloeding van besluitvorming.
Artikel

Doorbraakinnovaties en ‘omgekeerde’ technologiebeoordeling: het geval van deeleconomie

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden sharing, regulation, Airbnb, technology assessment, right to challenge
Auteurs Koen Frenken
Samenvatting

    This article shows how the municipality of Amsterdam (The Netherlands) has coped with the popularity of home sharing platform Airbnb. In collaboration with Airbnb, the municipality of Amsterdam was the first to come up with regulations for home sharing. However, enforcement of these rules proved difficult without access to user data of the Airbnb platform. In addition, a scientific (statistical) assessment of the effects of homesharing is also difficult without open data. As a result, the legitimacy of the platform has weakened in the eyes of some stakeholders. The article ends with some general reflections how government can cope with sharing economy platform. In particular, it is argued that the right-to-challenge principle may prove hard to apply to sharing platforms.


Koen Frenken
Artikel

De opkomst van de nudge unit

Organisatorische inbedding van gedragswetenschappen in beleid – ontwikkelingen en dilemma’s in de praktijk

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden nudging, nudge units, government departments, organization
Auteurs Drs. Jorren Scherpenisse
Samenvatting

    The world of public administration is changing: in many countries around the globe specialized behavioral insights units are on the rise in governments. Behavioral insights teams (or nudge units) are often modelled on the famous BIT UK, although there are important national variations. These units specialize in the application of behavioral insights to the design and evaluation of public policies. This article reports on an interview with the the leader of the Behavioral Insights Team of the Ministry of Economical Affairs in the Netherlands. Four main items are discussed: (1) What projects should behavioral insights units undertake? (2) What mix of professional expertise is necessary? (3) What processes should be instituted? And (4) How should these units be positioned within existing government departments?


Drs. Jorren Scherpenisse
Artikel

Meer dan een nudge

Gedragsexperts bij de Nederlandse overheid

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden nudging, behavioral insights, behavior experts, practices, choice architecture
Auteurs Joram Feitsma Msc
Samenvatting

    Policymakers are increasingly taking notice of behavioural scientific insights to improve their policies. New occupational practices, such as ‘Behavioral Insights Teams’, are emerging within government. This article explores this emergence, based on an ethnographic study on the practices of pioneering behaviour experts in Dutch central government. It argues that the work of these behavior experts is richer and more complex than standard role models, which tend to portray policymakers as direct and standalone choice architects, assume. Three key practices of behavior experts are identified: (1) choice architecture, in various forms; (2) behaviour analysis; and (3) capacity building.


Joram Feitsma Msc
Artikel

Evaluatievermogen bij beleidsdepartementen

Lessen uit praktijken rond planning, uitvoering en gebruik van beleidsevaluaties

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden evaluation capacity, policy evaluation, evaluation process, evaluation use
Auteurs Dr. Carolien M. Klein Haarhuis en Dr. Andreea Parapuf
Samenvatting

    In this article, we explore how evaluations are managed by Dutch policy departments in terms of six aspects of evaluation capacity: institutions, programming, budgeting, evaluation process and content, and finally, evaluation use. We also sketch how international organisations and a number of larger countries deal with these issues of evaluation capacity. Internationally, a variety of norms, checklists and procedures demonstrate that the commissioning party is considered to play a key role in the realisation of evaluations as well as their use. Here, evaluation and evaluation knowledge are often viewed as part of the policy process rather than as a separate exercise. Our description of evaluation practices in Dutch policy departments reveals that several capacity-enhancing initiatives were developed in the past few years, such as new evaluation institutions or structures and programs to promote the commissioning of effectiveness evaluations. It also suggests, however, that accountability is an important driving force behind evaluation, perhaps more powerful than learning.


Dr. Carolien M. Klein Haarhuis

Dr. Andreea Parapuf
Artikel

De parlementarisatie van Europees economisch beleid

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden European Parliament, politicisation, economic policy, democratic deficit
Auteurs Dr. Adriaan Schout, Jan Marinus Wiersma, Mariana Gomes Neto e.a.
Samenvatting

    Since the euro crisis the EU has seen a deepening of integration with a new framework for economic and budgetary coordination. With the new framework reforms in pension or housing market are coordinated at the European level. This comprehensive set of rules and monitoring mechanisms has revived the debate on Europe’s democratic deficit. This article describes how the European Parliament (EP) tries to fill the democratic void in economic governance. The EP’s formal role is limited, but by using mostly informal mechanisms the EP is setting in motion an incremental process towards further control. This development should be seen in light of a political battle on the interpretation of the new rules, which has accordingly become increasingly politicized. The Dutch have always wanted a European economic policy on the basis of technocracy and rules, but at the same time Europe’s political union draws ever closer.


Dr. Adriaan Schout

Jan Marinus Wiersma

Mariana Gomes Neto

David Bokhorst
Artikel

Het verband tussen publiek belang en ontwerp bij het internet der dingen

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden public economics, big data, Privacy, industrial design, agency theory
Auteurs Prof. dr. Frank Den Butter en Ir. Gijs Den Butter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Internet of Things generates a wealth of data (big data) about personal behaviour, which can be used for marketing purposes. It brings about both benefits and costs in terms of societal welfare. Various forms of government intervention are needed to safeguard the public interests associated with these welfare effects. These public interest relate, on the one hand, to public availability of data and information, to repairing informational asymmetries, and on the other hand to providing personal security and privacy protection. This article discusses, from the perspective of the principal/agent approach to regulation, how the design of applications and systems in the Internet of Things can best be shaped. The example of the smart thermostat Toon® of the Dutch energy provider Eneco shows how an intensive collaboration between designers and software engineers may contribute to both proper data protection and to provide an incentive to save energy.


Prof. dr. Frank Den Butter
Prof. dr. Frank den Butter is hoogleraar algemene economie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Ir. Gijs Den Butter
Ir. Gijs den Butter is MSc ‘Strategic Product Design’ aan de Technische Universiteit Delft en CEO van Adjuvo Motion, een start-up bij YesDelft! die een robotische brace voor revalidatie op de markt brengt.
Artikel

Door het glazen plafond

Naar effectieve maatregelen voor meer vrouwen in de top

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden gender equality, glass ceiling, diversity management, Interventions, organisational behavior
Auteurs Drs. Ans Merens, Drs. Wilma Henderikse en Dr. Babette Pouwels
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Although in many Western European countries women have entered the workforce in large numbers this has not resulted in an equal representation in senior positions. Little is known about how organizational policies could be changed and what initiatives have proven to be effective in raising the number of women in the top of organizations. This article examines the effectiveness of measures taken by organizations to increase the number of women in senior management positions. We have reviewed literature regarding the effects of various types of measures on realizing more women in senior positions. The outcomes of this literature review have been used as a framework for an empirical analysis of the effectiveness of measures taken by companies. Data from the Charter Talent to the Top show that adopting a broad range of measures at the strategic level leads to a higher share of women in senior management positions. HR instruments and communication strategies also affect the proportion of women at the top. More specifically, facilitating flexible work options, external communication about the organization’s diversity goals, and increasing women’s visibility within the organization all have positive effects on the share of women in the top.


Drs. Ans Merens
Drs. Ans Merens is wetenschappelijk medewerker bij het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau.

Drs. Wilma Henderikse
Drs. Wilma Henderikse is directeur en partner bij VanDoorneHuiskes en partners.

Dr. Babette Pouwels
Dr. Babette Pouwels is senior onderzoeker bij VanDoorneHuiskes en partners.
Artikel

Juridische status van een ethische code: waar plaats je zo’n code in de hiërarchie van de continentale normen?

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden Civil servants, Codes of conduct civil servants, Code of conduct civil servants UK, Code of conduct civil servants Belgium, Codes of conduct civil servants France
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. Alexander de Becker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article aims to compare the current legal status of codes of conduct (if any) in five different EU-countries. Its starting point is the recent legal initiative in the Netherlands to abolish the existing status for officials and to replace it with contracts of employment. The parliamentary initiators indicate ethical elements as crucial for the employment relation in the public sector. Does this imply that a code of conduct has to be established?
    The article first focuses on the historical evolution of codes of conduct in different EU-Member States. Within the UK, integrity has always been considered a key stone of the civil service. However, it took until the nineties until a code of conduct was set out. The spread out of the importance of integrity for civil servants has spread out later in continental Europe. The impact of the theory of New Public Management, through the OECD, was therefore crucial. Consequently, Belgium and Germany developed codes of conduct while France and the Netherlands paid more attention to weight of ethical behavior in the public sector.
    Currently, it stays beyond any doubt that the codes of conduct in the UK have got a binding legal value. This value has not yet been achieved by the Belgian and the German codes. The article defends the point of view that a binding code in the Netherlands can be a useful tool.


Prof. dr. mr. Alexander de Becker
Prof. dr. mr. A.H.L. de Becker, universitair hoofddocent UHasselt en bijzonder hoogleraar Ien Dales Leerstoel ‘De overheid als arbeidsorganisatie’ (CAOP en Universiteit van Amsterdam).

    De laatste jaren is de beleidsmatige en wetenschappelijke aandacht voor ex ante onderzoek toegenomen. De vraag is of dit ook is terug te zien in het aantal studies naar concrete plannen, en in het gebruik van de uitkomsten van ex ante studies in de beleidsontwikkeling. Om dit na te gaan verrichtten we een metastudie van ex ante onderzoeken over beleid op rijksniveau, verschenen in de periode 2005 tot en met 2011. In deze bijdrage beschrijven we eerst hoe vaak en met welk doel ex ante onderzoek wordt verricht en om wat voor typen studies het gaat. Daarna nemen we het gebruik in het beleidsontwikkelings- en besluitvormingsproces onder de loep door in te zoomen op vijf ex ante onderzoeken. Een eerste conclusie is dat er inmiddels een aanzienlijk aantal ex ante studies is verschenen; een tweede dat in alle vijf casus het onderzoek belangrijke actoren in het beleidsproces bereikt heeft, maar dat de uitkomsten niet altijd doorklinken in het uiteindelijke beleid.


Carolien Klein Haarhuis
Carolien Klein Haarhuis is onderzoeker bij de afdeling Rechtsbestel, Wetgeving en Internationale en vreemdelingenaangelegenheden (RWI) van het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

Monika Smit
Monika Smit is afdelingshoofd bij de afdeling Rechtsbestel, Wetgeving en Internationale en vreemdelingenaangelegenheden (RWI) van het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

Shelena Keulemans
Shelena Keulemans is als promovenda verbonden aan de vakgroep Bestuurskunde van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Prof. dr. Klaartje Peters
Prof. dr. Klaartje Peters is zelfstandig onderzoeker en publicist en is tevens bijzonder hoogleraar lokaal en regionaal bestuur aan de Universiteit Maastricht. E-mail: info@klaartjepeters.nl.
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