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Artikel

De opkomst van voedselbeleid: voorbij de tekentafel

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Food policy, Food system, Agricultural policy, Policy integration, Policy instruments
Auteurs Dr. Jeroen Candel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    To address a range of interconnected food-related challenges, Dutch policymakers have invested in the development of integrated food policy in recent years. This article discusses this development in two parts. The first part contains a detailed description of the main events and lines of thinking that characterized the food policy process. From this description it becomes clear that food policy has been gradually developing towards a separate institutionalized policy domain. In the second part, this development is analysed from a policy integration perspective. This analysis shows that although considerable steps towards strengthened policy integration have been made, the Dutch ‘Food agenda’ does not yet proceed beyond symbolic levels. This particularly shows in the absence of concrete policy goals and in a policy instrument mix that has not been adjusted to strengthen consistency and effectiveness. In addition, the involvement of relevant ministries gradually decreased after the initial stages. The article concludes that the food policy process has arrived at a critical juncture: the next steps of the new government will prove decisive for whether food policy integration intentions will advance beyond the drawing board. Political and administrative leadership are identified as key conditions for such further steps to occur.


Dr. Jeroen Candel
Dr. Jeroen Candel is universitair docent bij de Bestuurskundegroep van de Wageningen Universiteit.

    Dramatic incidents, such as the 1986 Challenger Disaster, induce the instalment of a Commission to investigate the process that lead to the incident. The Commission attempts to reconstruct the many smaller and larger steps towards the one or several decisions and actions that turned out to be vital – and sometimes fatal. Most Commissions serve a dual purpose; the want to learn lessons and avert similar incidents to occur again, but they are also part of a process to allocate responsibilities and – sometimes – to point the blame. An analysis of Commission-reports reveals two dominant patterns in the narratives Commissions produce. One is relatively simple and identifies the decision or action that caused the incidents; it shows the mistakes that were made, when and by who, The lessons is often to not make the same mistake again. The second pattern is more complicated and produces less ‘crisp’ explanations for the incident. Decisions, actions take place in ambiguous, complex and inherently uncertain contexts. Actors acts amidst such complexity, are subject to all sorts of dynamics and pressures and in the process do things that look awkward or wrong in hindsight. Mistakes happen, not because actors are not smart enough or do the wrong things, but because they are an inherent element of complex decision making. The lesson that follows from that is for organizations that make important decisions under complex conditions to organize checks and balances and look for heterogeneity in their processes. That produces a difficult dilemma, given the ambivalent role of commissions. The second line of reasoning produces much richer lessons for policy, but is very ‘soft’ in casting blame. The first line of reasoning is clearer about responsibility and blame, but oversimplifies the lessons. That draws attention to a crucial – and yet unanswered – question for researchers, practitioners and also the general public; do we see them as platforms for learning or tools for sanctioning?


Hans de Bruijn
Prof. mr. J.A. de Bruijn is hoogleraar aan de Faculteit Techniek, Beleid en Management aan de TU Delft.

Martijn van der Steen
Dr. M. van der Steen is co-decaan en adjunct-directeur van de Nederlandse School voor Openbaar Bestuur (NSOB) in Den Haag.
Artikel

Het commissierapport: inhoud als uitdrukking van een proces

Een nadere beschouwing van het rapport Samen werken met water van de Staatscommissie Duurzame Kustontwikkeling

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden commission, commission report, Veerman Commission, water safety
Auteurs Martin Schulz, Jony Ferket en Martijn van der Steen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this contribution we analyze the content of the Veerman Commission’s report that in 2007/2008 advised the Dutch government on the necessity of measures to protect the coast against future rising waters and other climatological and environmental changes and challenges. We conclude that the content of the report is in itself an expression of the ongoing social and governmental debate and process that tries to create a sense of urgency since there is no real immediate crisis to facilitate changes. Thus the report is not only the result of the work of the commission (though its firm statements on the necessity of measures were clearly heard), but at the same time the reflection of an ongoing debate which also creates a new challenge for stakeholders in the water domain. The organizational recommendations of the commission to place the protection against rising waters as far away from day to day politics as possible have all been put into action, which is a noteworthy result. Still, it is the ongoing process between stakeholders that will determine the actual measures to be taken by the government water related bodies.


Martin Schulz
Dr. M. Schulz is zelfstandig onderzoeker en daarnaast verbonden aan de Nederlandse School voor Openbaar Bestuur (NSOB) in Den Haag en de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur (TSPB) van de Universiteit van Tilburg.

Jony Ferket
J. Ferket MA is onderzoeker en leermanager bij de Nederlandse School voor Openbaar Bestuur (NSOB) in Den Haag.

Martijn van der Steen
Dr. M. van der Steen is codecaan en adjunct-directeur van de Nederlandse School voor Openbaar Bestuur (NSOB) in Den Haag.
Artikel

Werk in een wantrouwende wereld

Omvang en oorzaken van een uitdijende controle-industrie

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2006
Auteurs Frans van Waarden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Fraud seems to be on the rise. That feeds a demand for controls. This paper sketches the diversity of supply in reaction to this demand: public regulators of course, but also commercial information providers and benchmarkers, self-regulating associations, hallmark producers, certification and accreditation bodies, and internal business management control systems, whereby ever more levels of control are piled on top of each other. More than a million Dutchmen earn a living in this booming control-industry, or 14% of the working population. In addition to fraud, other causes of this trend are being discussed, among them, paradoxically, neo-liberalist deregulation policies. All these causes contribute to a sense of risk and uncertainty. Although this trend has a number of negative consequences, it has a major benefit: jobs! Economists may have long thought that transaction costs are there for the transactions. But it looks as if transactions exist to produce transaction costs.


Frans van Waarden
Frans van Waarden is hoogleraar Organisatie en Beleid aan de Universiteit Utrecht en fellow van het University College Utrecht. Hij studeerde sociologie in Toronto en Leiden, was voorheen werkzaam aan de Universiteiten van Leiden en Konstanz en visiting scholar in Wenen, Leipzig, Stanford, Berkeley, het European University Institute in Florence en het NIAS in Wassenaar. Hij publiceerde over arbeidsverhoudingen, techniekgeschiedenis, innovatie, katoenindustrie, belangengroepen en corporatisme, verzorgingsstaat, ondernemersorganisaties, de relatie overheid – bedrijfsleven, openbaar bestuur, stijlen van regelgeving en -handhaving en marktwerking en deregulering. Correspondentiegegevens: Prof. dr. Frans van Waarden, University College, Utrecht University, Postbus 80145, 3508 TC Utrecht Telefoon: +31-30-253-4820 e-mail: F.vanwaarden@fss.uu.nl
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