Zoekresultaat: 13 artikelen

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Artikel

De Algemene wet gelijke behandeling als mijlpaal in de geschiedenis van de Nederlandse homo-emancipatie

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden equal treatment legislation, gay and lesbian history, homosexual teachers, religious schools, sexual orientation discrimination
Auteurs Drs. Joke Swiebel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The General Equal Treatment Law – adopted in 1994 – is a landmark in the history of homosexual emancipation in the Netherlands. It took two decades before the first proposals for a legal ban of discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation would be transformed into law. Background of this controversy is the clash between the equalityprinciple and the freedom of education. The compromise reached – the so-called single fact-construction – however sent a double message: being gay was not a justified reason for unequal treatment, but some forms of behaviour were incorporated as a legal exception. It took another twenty years before this flaw in the law would be changed.
    This article analyses the political debates behind these legal developments. What was the problem that the various drafts for this new legislation were supposed to solve? Which definitions of discrimination on the basis of homosexuality were used and how did they change over time? The adoption of the law and its ‘reparation’ twenty years later are mainly a question of symbolic politics. They reflect the development of the growing acceptance of homosexuality in Dutch society and have stimulated its further growth. Their actual legal effects seem far less important.


Drs. Joke Swiebel
Drs. Joke Swiebel studeerde politicologie. Zij werkte negen jaar aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en 22 jaar als beleidsambtenaar voor de Rijksoverheid. Daarna (1999-2004) was zij lid van het Europees Parlement voor de PvdA. Een uitgebreidere versie van dit artikel is te vinden op https://jokeswiebel.nl/
Article

Access_open What Is Left of the Radical Right?

The Economic Agenda of the Dutch Freedom Party 2006-2017

Tijdschrift Politics of the Low Countries, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden radical right-wing populist parties, economic policies, welfare chauvinism, populism, deserving poor
Auteurs Simon Otjes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article examines the economic agenda of the Dutch Freedom Party. It finds that this party mixes left-wing and right-wing policy positions. This inconsistency can be understood through the group-based account of Ennser-Jedenastik (2016), which proposes that the welfare state agenda of radical right-wing populist parties can be understood in terms of populism, nativism and authoritarianism. Each of these elements is linked to a particular economic policy: economic nativism, which sees the economic interest of natives and foreigners as opposed; economic populism, which seeks to limit economic privileges for the elite; and economic authoritarianism, which sees the interests of deserving and undeserving poor as opposed. By using these different oppositions, radical right-wing populist parties can reconcile left-wing and right-wing positions.


Simon Otjes
Assistant professor of political science at Leiden University and researcher at the Documentation Centre Dutch Political Parties of Groningen University.
Artikel

Access_open HASHTAG POLITIE

Hoe politieagenten omgaan met waardeconflicten die ontstaan door sociale media

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 3 2018
Auteurs Prof. dr. Gjalt de Graaf en Prof. dr. Albert Meijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Social media changes society and causes new dilemmas in local government. Little is known about the nature of these conflicts and the way government organizations deal with them. Therefore the authors of this article have carried out empirical research into the manner in which police officers deal with value conflicts concerning the use of social media. Their research shows that the well-known conflicts in the literature between effectiveness and efficiency and between effectiveness and legality were also dominant in this case, but that many more conflicts than are known from other studies concerned transparency and participation. In addition they discovered that the bias strategy was often used, which suggests that a conservative response is preferable in a situation with a lot of dynamics. In this way the research shows how government officials deal with the tension between a stable organization and a dynamic environment and look for appropriate forms of coping at this specific interface. The authors stress in their recommendations that the further strengthening of the learning ability of organizations deserves attention: not just to find the right way to deal with value conflicts, but to be able to find new ways to deal with the new conflicts that arise.


Prof. dr. Gjalt de Graaf
Prof. dr. G. de Graaf is hoogleraar Integriteit van Academisch Onderwijs aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam en redacteur van Bestuurswetenschappen.

Prof. dr. Albert Meijer
Prof. dr. A.J. Meijer is hoogleraar Publieke Innovatie aan de Universiteit Utrecht en redacteur van Bestuurswetenschappen.
Artikel

Access_open Huisvestingsbeleid en nieuwe scholen

Over de noodzaak van een geografisch perspectief op onderwijs

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden housing policies, education markets, new schools, educational geography, friction costs
Auteurs Prof. dr. Sietske Waslander
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    While international research gives increasing attention to geographical factors in education, this perspective is lacking in Dutch research and policy. That a geographical perspective is badly needed, is demonstrated on the basis of the proposed policy to promote new schools in the Netherlands. Current housing policies for Dutch schools are described, pointing at disputes between municipalities and school boards who hold shared responsibilities. Next, foreign housing policies for new schools are studied, that is for friskolor in Sweden, free schools in England and charter schools in Texas (USA). Experiences abroad not only testify that very different choices can be made, but indicate that housing policies may in the long run have a substantial impact on segregation and educational inequality. It is also shown that new schools are mainly located in urban areas. It is argued that in addition to costs for new schools, friction costs for existing schools need to be considered. In all, a geographical perspective on education is needed, so as to prevent increasing segregation and social inequality as well as wasting public financial resources.


Prof. dr. Sietske Waslander
Prof. dr. Sietske Waslander is als hoogleraar sociologie verbonden aan de TIAS School for Business and Society en actief in het GovernanceLAB van TIAS.

    This contribution describes civil service professionalism from a functionalist perspective: the most important function of civil service professionalism is creating, developing and maintaining the authority of governments. Contrary to common opinion, moral authority in our day appears to be of prime importance. Citizens appreciate moral authority, but this important source of authority is often underused by political-administrative officials (especially by them). By making better use of moral authority, civil servants – policy officials and executive officials – could play a much bigger role. In order to achieve this, their professionalism must be improved by creating a broad civil service charter from which (to a certain extent) they can derive a right for civil service professionalism. In the context of the present political debate in the Netherlands on the normalization of the legal status of civil servants, there is an opportunity now to make real progress in this matter. It would be a good thing if civil servants would make themselves heard in this debate. Looking after the moral dimension of the work of civil servants and the accountability in this respect is not only a matter for the Dutch cabinet and those preparing the civil service charter, but also for the civil servants in different parts of the Dutch civil service themselves.


Prof. dr. Gabriël van den Brink
Prof. dr. G.J.M. van den Brink is emeritus hoogleraar Maatschappelijke bestuurskunde aan de Tilburg University (Universiteit van Tilburg). Op 27 november 2015 hield hij zijn afscheidsrede.

Drs. Thijs Jansen
Drs. M. Jansen is universitair docent en senior onderzoeker aan de Tilburg University (Universiteit van Tilburg) bij de School voor Politiek en Bestuur.
Artikel

Professioneel vermogen

Proactieve ‘coping’ door publieke professionals

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden Public professionals, Teachers, performance pressures, proactive coping, professional capability
Auteurs Prof. dr. Mirko Noordegraaf, Nina van Loon MSc, Madelon Heerema MSc e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Professional services such as educational services, are increasingly managed and optimized in order to improve performances. Performances of students, teachers and school (boards) are measured and evaluated. Increasingly, rules and systems focus on outputs and control. Consequently, the ‘freedom’ of professionals such as teachers is reduced, or is perceived and felt to be reduced. There have been growing debates on the problematic effects of performance pressures. Often, public professionals are seen as ‘defenseless victims’ of systems and pressures – they are ‘professionals under pressure’. In this paper, we introduce a more positive way of understanding professionals and professional action in changing contexts. We see professionals such as teachers as ‘active agents’ who can develop and regain control over their own situation. Professionals can deliver quality, in spite of bureaucratic burdens and managerial intrusions. We call this ability professional capability: ‘the ability to proactively deal with work-related expectations, tasks and burdens in dynamic stakeholder environments’. This paper combines research on public administration, organizational sociology and occupational psychology, to generate a more productive understanding of proactive coping of professionals in public domains. We define and operationalize professional capacity, we explore sources and effects, and we develop hypotheses for further research.


Prof. dr. Mirko Noordegraaf
Prof. dr. Mirko Noordegraaf is als hoogleraar publiek management verbonden aan het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Nina van Loon MSc
Nina van Loon MSc was als promovenda verbonden aan het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht en is thans werkzaam bij Aarhus University, Denemarken.

Madelon Heerema MSc
Madelon Heerema MSc is als researcher verbonden aan het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Marit Weggemans MSc
Marit Weggemans MSc was als student-assistent verbonden aan het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Professionals onder druk of professionele tegendruk? Gebalanceerde motivatie voor de publieke zaak in professionele publieke dienstverlening

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Professionals, public services, motivation, public values
Auteurs Nina Mari van Loon MSc en Prof. dr. Mirko Noordegraaf
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    There are many practical and academic concerns about public professionals and the pressures and burdens they experience. Professional autonomies and skills are reduced, it is argued, as a result of businesslike new public management, in order to control service results. The solution is clear: organizational logics must be weakened, professional autonomies must be enlarged and professional ways of working must be ‘rescued’. In this paper we re-interpret this presumed problem by analyzing: the interaction between organizational and professional logics, by relating these to a broader institutional logic and by tracing the contribution of individual professional motivations. Professionals, it is shown, can be motivated by broader ambitions to serve society. Such public service motivation consists of three types of motives: rational/instrumental, affective and normative. Our results show that employees in different public professional services show different patterns of motives, which we mainly explain by relating their motivations to the nature of the services they render – whether they render people-changing or people-processing services. These institutional dimensions imply that professional work can be managed, not so much by businesslike ‘market logic’ but by strengthening the meaning of the work professionals do. Professional pressures against organizations do not have to be suppressed – they can be productively used.


Nina Mari van Loon MSc
Nina van Loon MSc is als promovenda verbonden aan het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Prof. dr. Mirko Noordegraaf
Prof. dr. Mirko Noordegraaf is als hoogleraar publiek management verbonden aan het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Verandermanagement en beleid: waarom vertonen professionals weerstand tegen nieuw beleid?

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden public policy,, change management, policy implementation, public management, resistance to change
Auteurs Lars Tummers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Professionals often have problems with governmental policies they have to implement. This can lead to diminished legitimacy and lower policy performance. The goal of this article is to identify the main reasons why professionals resist implementing new policies. An interdisciplinary approach is taken. From public administration literature, I use the policy alienation model, which consists of five dimensions: strategic, tactical and operational powerlessness, societal meaninglessness and client meaninglessness. These are possible reasons why professionals resist public policies (‘resistance to change’, a concept drawn from change management literature). I test these assumptions using a survey among 1,317 healthcare professionals. The results show that when professionals experience that a policy is meaningless for society or for their own clients, they show strong resistance. A lack of perceived influence is much less important in explaining resistance, although this is partly dependent on the particular profession someone belong to. The policy alienation model can help policy makers and managers to develop policies which are accepted by professionals. The article ends with practical recommendations for policy makers, managers and professionals.


Lars Tummers
Dr. L.G. Tummers is verbonden aan de opleiding bestuurskunde van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en het Center for the Study of Law & Society van de University of California, Berkeley.
Artikel

Vluchten in bureaucratie

Bureaucratische gehechtheid onder professionals in de jeugdhulpverlening

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden professionalism, youth care, accountability, bureaucracy, marketization
Auteurs Drs. Daniel van Hassel, Prof. dr. Evelien Tonkens en Drs. Marc Hoijtink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent decades, professionals in the public sector have been faced with increasingly detailed demands concerning accountability and performance. It is often argued that this increased accountability and its bureaucratic pressures limit professionals’ discretionary space and autonomy. However, this critique is hardly based on empirical research on the experiences and perceptions of professionals themselves. In this article we present an investigation into these perceptions and experiences with accountability in one particular brand of the public sector, namely youth care.
    Our research indicates that professionals in youth care are hardly interested in greater autonomy or discretion. They rather want clarity, security and options for learning. Moreover, we found ‘bureaucratic attachment’: attachment to bureaucratic procedures particularly as a reaction to increased fears to be sued when something goes wrong with clients. In the recurrent arguments for reduction of bureaucracy, this other face of bureaucracy is often disregarded.
    Regarding working conditions however, the professionals we interviewed do want more discretion. Especially concerning occupation of beds, as the requirement for permanent occupation is viewed to augment risk. We therefore argue for better backing of professionals in youth, for a more precise battle against unnecessary bureaucracy, and for professionalization in order to handle more discretion.


Drs. Daniel van Hassel
Daniel van Hassel is socioloog en als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Nederlands instituut voor onderzoek van de gezondheidszorg (NIVEL), waar hij zich bezighoudt met het thema beroepen in de gezondheidszorg, d.hassel@nivel.nl.

Prof. dr. Evelien Tonkens
Evelien Tonkens is bijzonder hoogleraar actief burgerschap bij de afdeling Sociologie en Antropologie van de Universiteit van Amsterdam en toezichthouder van Meander Medisch Centrum te Amersfoort, e.h.tonkens@uva.nl.

Drs. Marc Hoijtink
Marc Hoijtink is socioloog en onderzoeker aan Kenniscentrum Maatschappij en Recht van de Hogeschool van Amsterdam, waar hij zich bezighoudt met de thema’s sociaal beleid en professionaliseringsvraagstukken, m.a.hoijtink@uva.nl.

    Although long recognized as beneficial, a global language has not come to fruition despite considerable past efforts. A major reason is that many policy makers and citizens fear that such a universal language would undermine the particularistic, constituting primary languages of local and national communities. This dilemma can be greatly diminished by a two tier approach, in which efforts to protect the primary language will be intensified but all the nations involved would agree to use the same second language as the global one. Although theoretically the UN or some other such body could choose such a language, in effect English is increasingly occupying this position. However, policies that are in place slow down the development of a global language, often based on the mistaken assumption that people can readily gain fluency in several languages.


Amitai Etzioni
Amitai Etzioni is universiteitshoogleraar aan de George Washington University in Washington DC en directeur van het Insititute for Communitarian Policy Studies. Hij wordt beschouwd als een van de grondleggers van het communitarisme. Enkele van zijn meest bekende werken zijn The Active Society (1969), The Spirit of Community (1993) en The New Golden Rule (1996).
Artikel

Vervreemd of gewoon verschillend?

De gevolgen van onderwijshervormingen voor loyaliteiten van schoolleiders in het voortgezet onderwijs

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2009
Auteurs Bas de Wit
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since the 1980s, there has been a rise of managers and executives in public domains. Especially in domains like education, this development was accompanied by sharp controversies and 'clashes' between managers and professionals, who would be 'alienated' from each other. The classic nature of professional and managerial loyalties would seem to strengthen this alienation. Professionals would primarily be loyal to their profession, whereas managerial loyalties would mainly focus on organisations. Although research has criticized the one-sidedness of professional loyalty, managerial loyalty has hardly been studied up till now. In this article, managerial loyalties are analyzed theoretically as well as empirically. The article rests upon a qualitative study among school leaders in Dutch secondary education. It shows that management reforms in education did not result in the adoption of a new, primary loyalty to organizations, management or performance by school leaders. Instead, long-standing relations, for example with teachers, remain meaningful, also because most school leaders have a professional background as teacher. Consequently, assumptions about managers who alienate from professionals, and managers who do not value their relationships with professionals must be criticized, at least in (secondary) education.


Bas de Wit
Bas de Wit is als promovendus verbonden aan het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap van de Universiteit Utrecht. Correspondentiegegevens: Drs. B.C. de Wit, MSc Universiteit Utrecht Departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap Bijlhouwerstraat 6 3511 ZC Utrecht b.c.dewit@uu.nl

Willem Trommel
Willem Trommel is universitair hoofddocent bestuurssociologie aan de Universiteit Twente Correspondentieadres: Universiteit Twente, faculteit BBT, Postbus 217, 7500 AE Enschede, e-mail: w.a.trommel@utwente.nl

Marja Gastelaars
mw dr Marja Gastelaars is als organisatiesocioloog verbonden aan de Utrechtse school voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht
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