Zoekresultaat: 28 artikelen

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Reflectie & debat

Access_open Meer dan een zwarte bladzijde

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2019
Auteurs Richard Kofi en Annemarie de Wildt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Reflection and debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Richard Kofi
Richard Kofi is kunstenaar en tentoonstellingsmaker bij het Tropenmuseum.

Annemarie de Wildt
Annemarie de Wildt is historica en conservator bij het Amsterdam Museum.
Thema-artikel ‘Uitgesproken Bestuurskunde’

Gedragen gedragsverandering

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden public administration, public management, psychology, behavioral public administration, behavior change, design science
Auteurs Prof. dr. Lars Tummers
Samenvatting

    Changing behavior is often necessary to tackle societal problems. Governments can change behavior via economic incentives (such as subsidies for electric cars), bans/mandates (such as prison sentences for drug smuggling), communication (for example information campaigns) and nudges (for example, being a donor by default). However, the government should not be a manipulator that applies the latest behavioral tricks without societal support. Public administration research shows that support cannot be taken for granted. If there is no support for behavioral change, well-intended interventions can even be counterproductive. I therefore develop a model for supported behavioral change. I provide five criteria that indicate when there is supported behavioral change: if the behavioral change is both effective (1) and efficient (2), and when there is support for behavioral change among politicians (3), among implementing organizations (4), and among citizens (5).


Prof. dr. Lars Tummers
Dossier

De aanpak van belastingontwijking door de EU: gerichte maatregelen zonder structurele verandering.

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Tax, EU/European Union, Corporate taxation, Tax avoidance, Tax policy
Auteurs Indra Römgens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    According to the outgoing European Commissioner Pierre Moscovici, the European Union (EU) has made more progress in tackling tax avoidance and evasion in the last five years than in the twenty years before that. This article argues that although several targeted measures have indeed been adopted, such as automatic exchange of tax rulings and limitations on interest deductions, this has not led to a structural change in EU corporate tax policies, nor in underlying power relations. The article discusses the politics of a number of recent policy developments related to tax avoidance and evasion by transnational corporations. It argues that the adoption of targeted measures, and the simultaneous stalling of more comprehensive approaches – in terms of tax transparency or a common consolidated corporate tax base – can be explained by recent tax controversies, international politics, and the dynamics within and between EU institutions. Particular attention is paid to the role of the European Parliament that is formally limited, but still houses progressive forces that have continuously pushed for a clampdown on tax avoidance. Finally, the article pleads for more transparent EU decision-making, specifically concerning discussions with and within the Council, in order to improve the democratic legitimacy of EU corporate tax policies and processes.


Indra Römgens
MSc Indra Römgens is Promovendus aan de Roskilde Universiteit in Denemarken en de Radboud Universiteit in Nijmegen.
Dossier

De schuldencrisis in de eurozone: oorzaken, aanpak en implicaties

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden Eurozone crisis, Financialization, Bail-outs, Austerity, Banking union, Quantitative easing
Auteurs Dr. Henk Overbeek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Ten years ago, now, the Eurozone began to shake on its foundations. This article traces the genesis of the crisis and the present state of affairs. As to the causes of the global financial crisis in 2008, I argue that contrary to common understanding, the financial crisis had its deeper causes in a decades old tendency towards crisis in the real economy, produced by the continuous overaccumulation of capital which can only return profits by undertaking speculative short-term investments (a phenomenon known as ‘financialisation’). I then trace how the global financial crisis morphed into a crisis of public deficits and debt in 2010-2011, particularly in the Eurozone. Three factors are shown to be responsible: financialization, design faults in the European monetary union, and the neo-mercantilist strategy of especially Germany and the Netherlands. The paper next looks at the five main traits of the policy responses in the Eurozone: bailing out governments and banks through creating emergency funds; imposition of austerity and budget discipline for member state governments; attempting to create and complete a Eurozone banking union; subsequently the European Central Bank engaged on an unprecedented scale in ‘quantitative easing’; and finally, institutional reform in an attempt to repair the most pressing design faults of the EMU. The paper concludes that the underlying structural factors leading up to the crisis have only been addressed incompletely: the overaccumulation of capital continues, the completion of the banking union is in an impasse, quantitative easing has mostly just intensified financialization by pushing up asset prizes, and institutional reform has taken the form of a fundamentally undemocratic attempt at monetary and political union by stealth. The broader legitimacy of the European project has been substantially undermined, and Europe is not in a better position than eight years ago in case of a new global crisis.


Dr. Henk Overbeek
Henk Overbeek is Emeritus Hoogleraar Internationale betrekkingen aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschap en Politicologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Slimme handhaving in de sociale zekerheid

Lessen uit een landelijke enquête onder uitkeringsgerechtigden

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Regulatory enforcement, Social security, Compliance, Motivational postures, Procedural justice
Auteurs Dr. Marc Hertogh en Dr. Willem Bantema
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Using survey data from 1,300 welfare recipients in the Netherlands, this paper explores the effects of different enforcement styles in the field of social security law. Although most policy debates focus on punitive and persuasive enforcement, our findings suggest that both styles only play a limited role in explaining regulatory compliance. Our study also shows that the level of compliance among welfare recipients is related to their ‘motivational postures’ (Braithwaite 2003; 2009; 2011). While some of these ‘postures’ are shaped by elements of procedural justice, others are related to the perceived legitimacy of laws or to instrumental motives. Given these findings, we suggest that compliance with social security laws may not only depend on punitive or persuasive enforcement, but also on the degree in which regulatory enforcement is attuned to the individual characteristics of welfare recipients. Finally, these ideas are translated into several practical suggestions for the ‘smart enforcement’ of social security law.


Dr. Marc Hertogh
Prof. dr. M.L.M. Hertogh is Hoogleraar rechtssociologie aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

Dr. Willem Bantema
Dr. W. Bantema is Senior onderzoeker bij de Onderzoeksgroep Cybersafety aan de NHL Stenden Hogeschool Leeuwarden
Artikel

De opkomst van voedselbeleid: voorbij de tekentafel

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Food policy, Food system, Agricultural policy, Policy integration, Policy instruments
Auteurs Dr. Jeroen Candel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    To address a range of interconnected food-related challenges, Dutch policymakers have invested in the development of integrated food policy in recent years. This article discusses this development in two parts. The first part contains a detailed description of the main events and lines of thinking that characterized the food policy process. From this description it becomes clear that food policy has been gradually developing towards a separate institutionalized policy domain. In the second part, this development is analysed from a policy integration perspective. This analysis shows that although considerable steps towards strengthened policy integration have been made, the Dutch ‘Food agenda’ does not yet proceed beyond symbolic levels. This particularly shows in the absence of concrete policy goals and in a policy instrument mix that has not been adjusted to strengthen consistency and effectiveness. In addition, the involvement of relevant ministries gradually decreased after the initial stages. The article concludes that the food policy process has arrived at a critical juncture: the next steps of the new government will prove decisive for whether food policy integration intentions will advance beyond the drawing board. Political and administrative leadership are identified as key conditions for such further steps to occur.


Dr. Jeroen Candel
Dr. Jeroen Candel is universitair docent bij de Bestuurskundegroep van de Wageningen Universiteit.

Dr. Rik Reussing
Dr. G.H. Reussing is onderwijscoördinator van de joint degree Public Governance across Borders aan de Universiteit Twente en redactiesecretaris van Bestuurswetenschappen.
Dossier

Access_open Bijsluiter bij: Buy-to-let gewikt en gewogen

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Buy-to-let, Dutch housing market, Private investors, Private rent, Netherlands
Auteurs Dr. Marcel Visser
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over the past three years buy-to-let purchases have become a substantial presence in the Dutch housing market. Private investors buy existing homes in order to rent out. Rental yields have become attractive to a large group of individuals due to low interest rates and high rents. Though buy-to-let helps to increase the stock of rental homes (a broadly recognized need in the Netherlands) there are concerns about negative effects for instance on affordability for regular house seekers. A new group of buyers enters the market and this poses new or potentially aggrevated risks for the Dutch housing market, in particular regarding overall house price stability.


Dr. Marcel Visser
Dr. Marcel Visser is financieel econometrist. www.linkedin.com/in/marcel-visser
Artikel

Lokaal bestuur en burgerkracht: slimme sturing in het sociale domein

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Family Group Conference, participatory governance, professional care worker, care system reform, municipal care teams
Auteurs Dr. Annie de Roo en Dr. Rob Jagtenberg
Samenvatting

    The Dutch social care system was fundamentally reformed in 2015. A key policy aim was to activate citizens and their social networks, turning them from mere consumers into co-producers of care. The expectation was that, by doing so, public spending could be reduced and community engagement could be restored at the same time. Regulation was put in place to incentivize network support.
    Whether this constitutes ‘smart governance’, however, depends on whether the variety of factors determining sustainable network support can be identified in the first place. At present, the new care policy is supposed to apply indiscriminately, and is as such not yet evidence based. In addition, flaws in the present budgetary and regulatory steering mechanisms need to be addressed. Potential users are not very familiar with the regulation in place for incentivizing network support, and the regulation is currently neutralized by law courts, unaware of the participatory relationship between care authorities and citizens as envisaged by the 2015 reform. Moreover, engaging networks is time-consuming and requires investments before returns can start to materialize. From a normative stance, network volunteers moreover ought to participate in decision-making, as they will be investing their private resources (such as time) instead of tax payers money. Effectiveness and legitimacy are thus two prerequisites for governance in the social domain to be genuinely ‘smart’.


Dr. Annie de Roo

Dr. Rob Jagtenberg

Rik Reussing
Dr. G.H. Reussing is onderwijscoördinator van de joint degree Public Governance across Borders aan de Universiteit Twente en redactiesecretaris van Bestuurswetenschappen.
Artikel

Lessen voor de omgang met het onbehagen

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden societal unease, political discontent, angry citizens, emotions
Auteurs Boudewijn Steur, Thomas Zandstra en Yosha van Droffelaar
Samenvatting

    Recently the authors, who all work at the Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations, published a paper in which they analysed contemporary literature and research on social discontent to clarify whether this current feeling of discontent is different to previous periods of discontent and how it might affect the functioning of the Dutch government. In addition, to strengthen their analysis they discussed its implications with local politicians, experts and practitioners. In this article, the authors reflect on the outcome of these discussions. Their dialogues revealed that there is a need to redefine the dialogue between administration and society. They distilled five lessons from these discussions: they argue that government should be more 1) reliable and credible, 2) responsive, 3) effective, 4) empathic and 5) cohesive.


Boudewijn Steur

Thomas Zandstra

Yosha van Droffelaar
Artikel

Onbetaalbare huizen en onderbenutte gebieden

De institutionele leegte van woningbouw en gebiedstransformatie

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden institutional void, urban transformation, urban governance, housing policy, policy instruments
Auteurs Dr. Wouter Jan Verheul
Samenvatting

    In the Netherlands, as in many other countries, housing supply fails to meet the rapidly increasing housing demand in already densely urbanised areas, contributing to rising housing prices and possibly gentrification. The state and local governments aim to satisfy this demand by densifying urban areas and by transforming urban brownfields and vacant office parks into residential areas, thus containing urban sprawl. However, the private actors needed to redevelop these areas operate according to a different institutional logic and discourse: the market. According to this market logic, urban transform is too expensive, even when partly subsidized, and, to some extent, sprawl is unavoidable to satisfy housing demand. The two different logics fail to deliver the housing needed. Building discourse coalitions is suggested as a possible way out of this deadlocked debate, while government actors might also aim to influence the housing market with novel, market oriented policy instruments.


Dr. Wouter Jan Verheul

    Reflection and debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Nicole Maalsté

Michiel Panhuysen
Artikel

Beleid voor de irrationele mens

Hoe gedragswetenschap de bestuurskunde zou kunnen versterken

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden public administration, psychology, decisions, (ir)rationality
Auteurs Dr. Marijke van Putten, Prof. dr. Wilco van Dijk en Prof. dr. Eric van Dijk
Samenvatting

    Policy is often based on the assumption that people are rational decision makers. Rational decision makers search all relevant information before they make a decision. They list the pros and cons of relevant options and make a well thought choice that best fits their fixed preferences. However, research from amongst others psychology and behavioral economics shows that people decide differently and that they are irrational, emotional decision makers instead. Policy therefore fits people’s decision making strategies worse than expected. It is important for policy makers to gain insight into situational influences on decisions and the influence of the so-called choice architecture on decisions. In this article we discuss research that tested when policy was more efficient, based on behavioral insights and the view of man as an irrational, emotional being.


Dr. Marijke van Putten

Prof. dr. Wilco van Dijk

Prof. dr. Eric van Dijk

Dr. Rik Reussing
Dr. G.H. Reussing is onderwijscoördinator van de opleiding European Public Administration aan de Universiteit Twente en redactiesecretaris van Bestuurswetenschappen.

    The central argument according to Eric Corijn in the book of Benjamin Barber is that a legitimate political authority should be created that can add some governance, some regulation to the world system. Within the world system a democratic deficit has emerged that is caused by the process of globalization, in which international political and economic decisions are taken without reference to a global constituency, civil society, citizenship or global public opinion. Eric Corijn sees four strong arguments for an increased political role of mayors through a Global Parliament of Mayors. He also discusses three structural global challenges that can better be dealt with by cities than by dysfunctional nations: a) our relationship with nature, b) the growing social inequality, c) superdiversity resulting from migration and socio-cultural diversification. In dealing with these issues (the political agenda) the Global Parliament of Mayors should act in a pragmatic way.


Prof. dr. Eric Corijn
Prof. dr. E. Corijn is cultuurfilosoof, sociaal wetenschapper en hoogleraar Stadsgeografie aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Hij is oprichter van Cosmopolis, Centre for Urban Research (http://www.cosmopolis.be).
Artikel

Vertrouwen in toezichtbeleid

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Trust, regulatory policy, accountability, control, supervision regime
Auteurs Lydia Paauw-Fikkert MSc, Dr. ir. Frédérique Six en Prof. dr. Paul Robben
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Regulatory supervision and inspection have become key features of public governance, some authors even talk about the ‘audit society’ or the age of ‘regulatory capitalism’. Despite international research showing the importance of trust in supervisory relations, there is still a fierce debate about the role of trust in Dutch supervisory relations. Several inspectorates have incorporated trust as a central theme in their supervisory policy. This article describes the role of trust within the policy of the Dutch Healthcare Inspectorate (IGZ). This research addresses four themes in dealing with the concept of trust in supervisory relations: from transparency to accountability, from output performance to performance and risk management, from trust or control to trust and control, and, finally, a special regime for reliable inspectees. The empirical analysis in this paper contributes to the knowledge about the role of trust in supervision (policy) and to the debate about the role of trust in regulatory supervision policy.


Lydia Paauw-Fikkert MSc
Lydia Paauw-Fikkert MSc is senior adviseur bij de Inspectie voor de Gezondheidszorg.

Dr. ir. Frédérique Six
Dr. ir. Frédérique Six MBA is universitair docent aan de VU Amsterdam.

Prof. dr. Paul Robben
Prof. dr. Paul Robben is adviseur bij de Inspectie voor de Gezondheidszorg en bij iBMG-Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam

    Reflection and Debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Prof. dr. Tannelie Blom
Prof. dr. Tannelie Blom is hoogleraar European Studies aan de Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences van de Universiteit Maastricht
Discussie

Sociale zekerheid in 2025

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden future social security, labour participation, economic growth, cutbacks Rutte 2
Auteurs Flip de Kam
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The reform of the Dutch welfare state is an ongoing process, that jumpstarted in the early 1980s. We chart demographic trends and prospects for economic growth up to year 2025. Our search for options to strenghten the economic base of the welfare state leads on to a discussion of tax-benefit measures to increase labour participation and to incentivise part-timeworkers to accept fulltime jobs. We conclude that, all in all, by 2025 the number of workers in de Dutch economy will not differ significantly from the current size of the labour force, whereas the scope to improve labour productivity seems to be limited. Given these limits to the prospects for future economic growth – even with the standard pension age at 67 years, planned to be in force as from 2021 –, our economy will have to support at least half a million more pensioners and an as yet unknown additional number of elderly unemployed and disabled. It follows, that further reforms of the social security system of the Netherlands can be expected, as public sector outlays claim currently already half of national output.


Flip de Kam
Flip de Kam is honorair hoogleraar Economie van de Publieke Sector, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, c.a.de.kam@rug.nl.
Discussie

Participatiebevordering: werken aan draagvlak voor de sociale zekerheid

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden Older workers, female labour force participation, ageing workforce, cross-national comparison, harmonized policy indicators
Auteurs Prof. dr. Joop J. Schippers, Prof. dr. Pearl A. Dykstra, Dr. Tineke Fokkema e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The key question of this study is whether policies adopted elsewhere in Europe might be useful in helping to increase the labour force participation of women and of older workers in the Netherlands, and thus improve the financial basis for social security arrangements. We examined the effectiveness of national policy measures over and above that of the individual-level determinants that are traditionally examined in economic and sociological studies. The data on labour force participation are from the European Social Survey, and information on public policy arrangements comes from the MULTILINKS database. Regarding the labour force participation of women, findings show the importance of distinguishing financial measures and care services. Women generally work fewer hours per week in countries with generous financial support for families (tax benefits, child support), and more hours in countries with generous parental leaves. Regarding the participation of older workers, findings show the importance of distinguishing the minimum pension level (negative association with the likelihood of having a job) and pension as a proportion of earned wage (no association with having a job). A novelty of the present study is its ability to demonstrate the impact of national arrangements at the level of individual participation behaviour.


Prof. dr. Joop J. Schippers
Joop J. Schippers is hoogleraar Arbeidseconomie aan de faculteit Recht, Economie, Bestuur en Organisatie van de Universiteit Utrecht, j.j.schippers@uu.nl.

Prof. dr. Pearl A. Dykstra
Pearl A. Dykstra is hoogleraar Empirische Sociologie aan de faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, dykstra@fsw.eur.nl.

Dr. Tineke Fokkema
Tineke Fokkema is senior onderzoeker aan de faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en het Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut, fokkema@nidi.nl.

Maria Münderlein MSc
Maria Münderlein is promovenda capaciteitsgroep Sociologie aan de faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, munderlein@fsw.eur.nl.
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