Zoekresultaat: 15 artikelen


Beter beschermd tegen biometrie

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2020
Auteurs Mr. Joost Gerritsen, Dr. mr. Jurriën Hamer, Linda Kool MSc MA e.a.

Mr. Joost Gerritsen
Mr. Joost Gerritsen is advocaat bij Legal Beetle advocatuur.

Dr. mr. Jurriën Hamer
Dr. mr. Jurriën Hamer is onderzoeker bij het Rathenau Instituut.

Linda Kool MSc MA
Linda Kool MSc MA is themacoördinator bij het Rathenau Instituut.

Dr. ir. Petra Verhoef
Dr. ir. Petra Verhoef is themacoördinator bij het Rathenau Instituut.

Consensus Democracy and Bureaucracy in the Low Countries

Tijdschrift Politics of the Low Countries, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden consensus democracy, bureaucracy, governance system, Lijphart, policymaking
Auteurs Frits van der Meer, Caspar van den Berg, Charlotte van Dijck e.a.

    Taking Lijphart’s work on consensus democracies as our point of departure, we signal a major shortcoming in Lijphart’s focus being almost exclusively on the political hardware of the state structure, leaving little attention for the administrative and bureaucratic characteristics of governance systems. We propose to expand the Lijphart’s model which overviews structural aspects of the executive and the state with seven additional features of the bureaucratic system. We argue that these features are critical for understanding the processes of policymaking and service delivery. Next, in order to better understand the functioning of the Netherlands and Belgium as consensus democracies, we provide a short analysis of the historical context and current characteristics of the political-administrative systems in both countries.

Frits van der Meer
Frits van der Meer, Professor Institute Public Administration, Leiden University.

Caspar van den Berg
Caspar van den Berg, Campus Fryslân, University of Groningen.

Charlotte van Dijck
Charlotte van Dijck, PhD Fellow Research Foundation Flanders (FWO), KU Leuven Public Governance Institute.

Gerrit Dijkstra
Gerrit Dijkstra, Senior Lecturer, Leiden University.

Trui Steen
Trui Steen, Professor, KU Leuven Public Governance Institute.

Non-participatie in de doe-democratie

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 2 2017
Auteurs Gideon Broekhuizen MSc LLB en Dr. Ank Michels

    Research into citizens’ initiatives usually focuses on those who already participate. In this article the central question is how those who do not participate yet can be motivated to take part in citizens’ initiatives. To investigate this the authors used vignettes in which four key motives for participation in citizens’ initiatives are linked to three types of citizens’ initiatives. The results of this research show that people are more likely to take part in an initiative if a call is made to altruism. Usually it is also in general easier for small-scale, more applied citizens’ initiatives to motivate people. Non-participants will be more inclined, certainly in the presence of a specific local problem and if they are asked, to respond in a positive manner to an invitation to take part. For more abstract citizens’ initiatives, like a citizens summit in which not one single specific problem is addressed, it is much more difficult to motivate people to take part. Participation in citizens’ initiatives indeed increases the quality of local democracy, but only if the (local) government doesn’t take over these initiatives. Also those who do not yet take part in citizens’ initiatives have a positive and constructive attitude towards them.

Gideon Broekhuizen MSc LLB
G.R. Broekhuizen MSc LLB deed een onderzoeksmaster bestuurskunde en organisatiewetenschap aan de Universiteit Utrecht en een bachelor bestuurskunde en recht aan de Universiteit Leiden. Hij schreef zijn scriptie over non-participatie in de doe-democratie.

Dr. Ank Michels
Dr. A.M.B. Michels is universitair docent aan de Universiteit Utrecht bij het Departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO).

Deliberatieve democratie: ervaringen met diversiteit in burgertop Amsterdam

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Democracy, Summit, Dialogue, Diversity, Homogeneity
Auteurs Dr. Peer Smets en Marloes Vlind MSc

    This paper will show how citizens’ summits in the Netherlands cope with diversity of participants and the impact of this on those initiatives. This provides insight in why diversity is hard to reach and what can be done to improve it. Presently, dissatisfaction about the Dutch democratic system is widespread. Solutions are being sought to strengthen Dutch participatory democracy. For this objective, citizens’ summits develop different kind of initiatives. However, citizens participating in these summits are a homogeneous group, namely mainly white, middle aged and highly educated. Mechanisms of exclusion, selection of candidates, homogeneous composition of the organization, and a dominating intellectual/rational way of debating are playing a role here. Citizens with different backgrounds need to be included in these initiatives to obtain a better representation of society’s voices. This notion has been strengthened by theory, which shows that diversity enables more creativity and innovation.

Dr. Peer Smets
Dr. Peer Smets is universitair docent aan de Vrije Universiteit.

Marloes Vlind MSc
Marloes Vlind MSc is docent en onderzoeker aan de Vrije Universiteit.

Hoe divers, invloedrijk en deliberatief is een G1000?

Het ontwerp van een burgertop en de verwezenlijking van democratische waarden

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 1 2016
Auteurs Dr. Ank Michels en Dr. Harmen Binnema

    In imitation of the G1000 in Belgium in the Netherlands G1000-meetings were held in Amersfoort, Kruiskamp, Uden and Groningen and a citizens summit in Amsterdam with a similar design. In this article the authors investigate the design of these citizens summits and their contribution to a number of important democratic values. What is the diversity of the participants, the influence on policies and the quality of the discussions during the citizen summit? Their research shows that the diversity of the group of participants is rather limited. The selection method that is chosen, whether a lottery selection or an open invitation, doesn’t make much difference for the diversity of the group of participants. In addition the influence of citizens summits on policies and politics is nearly absent. The subjects that come forward at citizens summits hardly ever come back in the local policies, not even at the citizens summit in Uden, where the municipal council has taken the initiative to organize a G1000. Finally, in general the participants qualify the discussions at the table during citizens summits as constructive and inspiring. The specific form of the dialogue has only little influence on the extent to which the participants feel themselves heard and feel free to say whatever they want.

Dr. Ank Michels
Dr. A.M.B. Michels is universitair docent aan de Universiteit Utrecht bij het Departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO).

Dr. Harmen Binnema
Dr. H. Binnema is universitair docent aan de Universiteit Utrecht bij het Departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO). Hij is ook programmacoördinator van de masteropleiding Bestuur en Beleid voor professionals.

    The first contribution to this special issue on local democracy in the Netherlands is the inaugural speech of Job Cohen (the former mayor of Amsterdam) held on January 9th 2015 at the University of Leiden as extraordinary professor at the prestigious Thorbecke-chair. His field is the theory of the municipality as an administrative, political and legal system. The title of his inaugural speech was ‘The fourth D’, in which the first three D’s stand for three different decentralizations of tasks to the Dutch municipalities and the fourth D for democracy. In his speech Cohen advocates a deliberative form of democracy, because it doesn’t emphasize differences and the exaggeration of differences, but emphasizes what the members of a community have in common. Deliberative democracy wants to create space for this common interest through the establishment of an arena for dialogue. Job Cohen is particularly taken by the ideas of the Belgian writer David Van Reybrouck about lottery selection and citizen participation and corresponding initiatives like G1000: a civic-summit, a form of deliberative democracy that generates new ideas, opens new perspectives and increases trust in the democratic process. The element of lottery selection (that was previously put on the agenda by the American professor James Fishkin) is essential for these results, because it creates a maximum of diversity and real involvement of all layers of the population: full citizen participation.

Prof. mr. dr. Job Cohen
Prof. mr. dr. M.J. Cohen is bijzonder hoogleraar decentrale overheden (Thorbecke-leerstoel) aan de Universiteit Leiden en redacteur van Bestuurswetenschappen.

Ontbrekende alternatieven en gevestigde belangen

Een studie naar de posities van overheden in hervormingsdebatten tijdens de financiële crisis

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2012
Auteurs Daniel Mügge PhD en Bart Stellinga MA MSc

    The credit crisis that began in the summer of 2007 has fundamentally challenged much financial regulation and the political institutions that produced it. Measured against the criticisms that have been brought forth against previous financial governance, the extent of governments’ overall reform ambitions has been disappointing. Starting from this observation, this article asks: what explains governments’ reform choices, and thus also their limited ambitions? To explore this question, this article focuses on the positions that four governments central to global financial regulation (the USA, the UK, Germany and France) have taken in advance of the G20 meetings in 2009 across four key issue areas: accounting standards, derivatives trading, credit ratings agencies and banking rules. It evaluates both the overlap between positions across domains and governments as well as the differences between them. Such variation, we argue, provides key clues to the overall drivers behind reforms – as well as their limits. The overall picture that emerges can be summarized as follows: governments have been staunch defenders of their national firms’ competitive interests in regulatory reforms. That has not necessarily meant that they followed industry preferences across the board. It has been the relative impact, compared to foreign competitors, that counted in reform positions, not the absolute impact. These differences of opinion have played out within the context and the limits of the overall debates about thinkable policy alternatives. In spite of fundamental criticisms of pre-crisis regulatory orthodoxy, convincing and coherent alternatives have been forthcoming slowly at best. This has made reform proposals less radical than criticisms, seen on their own, might suggest.

Daniel Mügge PhD
Daniel Mügge is universitair docent politicologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Correspondentiegegevens: D. Mügge, PhD, afdeling Politicologie, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 237, 1012 DL Amsterdam, d.k.muegge@uva.nl.

Bart Stellinga MA MSc
Bart Stellinga is medior wetenschappelijk medewerker bij de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid. Correspondentiegegevens: B. Stellinga, MA MSc, Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid, Lange Vijverberg 4-5, 2500 EA Den Haag, stellinga@wrr.nl.

Heeft het klimaat nood aan consensus?

Pleidooi voor een politiek van het denkbare

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden UN climate policy, constructivism, politics of the imaginable, politics of science, post-politics, matter of concern
Auteurs Gert Goeminne

    In this essay, I argue that the alleged failure of the Copenhagen climate summit in December 2009, rather than labelling it as the collapse of climate politics, should be embraced as an essential political fact. Admittedly, Copenhagen was a failure, albeit of a populist consensual policy practice that invokes an apocalyptic doomsday scenario to make everybody toe the neo-liberal line. In my view, consensus-driven UN policy is running into its own limits as was clearly illustrated at the climate summit in Cancun (December 2010) where the blame was pinned on Bolivia for its fierce resistance against a weak agreement. The time has come to revive the climate and, by extension, the environment as a matter of genuine political concern, open to struggle and contestation, in this way constituting an essential component of social change.

Gert Goeminne
Gert Goeminne is als postdoctoraal onderzoeker van het FWO-Vlaanderen verbonden aan het Centrum Leo Apostel (VUB) en het Centrum voor Duurzame Ontwikkeling (UGent). In zijn onderzoek focust hij op de relatie tussen wetenschap en democratie.

Inleiding: Klimaatbestendigheid als ruimtelijke en maatschappelijke opgave

Bouwstenen voor legitieme adaptatiestrategieën

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2010
Auteurs Arwin van Buuren, Peter Driessen en Geert Teisman

    The problem of climate change is high on the various political-administrative agendas, both national and international. At the same time the problem is full of uncertainties and controversies. Adaptation to climate change asks for adjustments in our spatial planning, but can also necessitate changes in the distribution of public and private responsibilities. A crucial question is how the legitimacy of adaptation measures can be organized in a context surrounded with uncertainties, controversies and conflicting interests. In this paper we introduce the central theme of this special issue and the various contributions.

Arwin van Buuren
Dr. M.W. van Buuren is universitair docent bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. M.W. van Buuren Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam Vakgroep Bestuurskunde Postbus 1738, Kamer M8-31 3000 DR Rotterdam vanbuuren@fsw.eur.nl

Peter Driessen
Prof. dr. P.P.J. Driessen is hoogleraar milieuwetenschappen aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

Geert Teisman
Prof. dr. ing. G.R. Teisman is hoogleraar bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam

De overheid en duurzaam beleggen

Een vergelijkende analyse tussen Nederland en België

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2008
Auteurs Tim Benijts en Marleen Brans

    This article examines the differences and similarities in public policy of the Dutch and Belgian government in the policy field of socially responsible investing (SRI). In particular the authors discuss both the content and the consequences of the Dutch arrangement 'Groen beleggen' and the Belgian 'Kringloopfonds'. Our empirical evidence states that, although both public policies are very similar (a tax incentive for investors investing financial means in socially responsible funds), they had a different influence on the socially responsible investment market. The Dutch arrangement 'Groen beleggen' lead to more assets under management, more green private funds, more financed projects and a bigger influence on the market of socially responsible investment products. This is mainly caused by the nature of the funding: the choice for private funds in the Netherlands, instead of a public fund like in Belgium.

Tim Benijts
Tim Benijts is als doctor-assistent verbonden aan het Departement Handelswetenschappen van de Lessius Hogeschool Antwerpen en als geaffilieerd onderzoeker aan het Instituut voor de Overheid van de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Correspondentiegegevens: T. Benijts Lessius Hogeschool Antwerpen Departement Handelswetenschappen Korte Nieuwstraat 33 2000 Antwerpen tim.benijts@lessius.eu

Marleen Brans
Marleen Brans is als hoofddocent verbonden aan het Instituut voor de Overheid van de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Correspondentiegegevens: M. Brans Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen Instituut voor de Overheid Parkstraat 45 3000 Leuven marleen.brans@soc.kuleuven.be

ICT en ontwikkeling. Opinies over de digitale noord-zuidkloof

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 3 2009
Auteurs Veva Leye, Leo Van Audenhove, Dorien Baelden e.a.

Veva Leye
Veva Leye (1981) behaalde in 2008 als Aspirant van het Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (FWO-Vlaanderen) haar doctorstitel aan de Vakgroep Communicatiewetenschappen, Universiteit Gent. Ze houdt zich bezig met kwesties aangaande internationale communicatie, ontwikkeling en internationaal beleid. Ze publiceerde in tijdschriften als Media, Culture & Society, Javnost – The Public en Global Governance.

Leo Van Audenhove
Leo Van Audenhove (1970) is docent aan de Vakgroep Communicatiewetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel en het Vesalius College. Hij doceert er Internationale Communicatie, Beleidsanalyse, Globalisering en de Informatiesamenleving en Communication Theories. Leo is senior onderzoeker aan het centrum voor Studies over Media, Informatie en Telecommunicatie (SMIT) dat deel uitmaakt van het Interdisciplinair instituut voor BreedBand Technologie (IBBT). Hij doceert – samen met Luciano Morganti en Tomas Lipinski – de Jean Monnet cursus European Information Society in a Global Context aan de University of Wisconsin Milwaukee. Zijn onderzoek focust zich onder andere op de politieke economie van internet, de rol van ICT in internationale communicatie en in een ontwikkelingscontext.

Dorien Baelden
Dorien Baelden (1981) is sinds 2005 verbonden als onderzoeker aan het centrum voor Studies over Media, Informatie en Telecommunicatie (SMIT), dat deel uitmaakt van het Interdisciplinair instituut voor BreedBand Technologie (IBBT). In de voorbije jaren was ze betrokken bij verschillende interdisciplinaire onderzoeksprojecten en was ze actief bij Close the Gap, een internationale vzw gericht op het dichten van de digitale kloof. Momenteel werkt ze aan haar doctoraal onderzoek over het gebruik van nieuwe media in internationale gezondheidscommunicatie en meer in het bijzonder over het gebruik van sociale netwerksites voor HIV- en AIDS-communicatie in Zuid-Afrika.

Ilse Mariën
Ilse Mariën (1975) is onderwijsassistente aan de Vakgroep Communicatiewetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel, waar zij onder meer instaat voor de begeleiding van studenten binnen het profiel Informatiesamenleving en Globalisering. Daarnaast is zij als junior researcher verbonden aan het centrum voor Studies over Media, Informatie en Telecommunicatie (SMIT), waar zij meewerkt aan onderzoek omtrent beleidsaspecten en sociale implicaties van nieuwe media. Sinds oktober 2008 werkt zij aan een doctoraat dat handelt over de digitale kloof.

Caroline Figuères
Caroline Figuères (1960) is Managing Director van IICD en is in die hoedanigheid eindverantwoordelijk. Zij heeft jarenlang gewerkt in diverse ontwikkelingslanden in zowel Afrika als Azië, de laatste jaren vooral in de rol van consultant voor Franse en Nederlandse adviesbureaus op het gebied van water en milieu. Voor het UNESCO-IHE Water Education Institute was zij met name actief op het vlak van training, educatie en capaciteitsopbouw.

Hilde Eugelink
Hilde Eugelink (1972) is verantwoordelijk voor Corporate Communications van IICD. De afgelopen jaren heeft zij ruimschoots ervaring opgedaan met het inzetten van communicatie zowel binnen de ontwikkelingssector als binnen het onderwijs. Al eerder heeft zij geschreven over de toepassing van ICT voor de ontwikkeling van diverse sectoren in ontwikkelingslanden voor bladen als ICT Update en Development Outreach.

Riet Nigten
Riet Nigten (1965) is manager Human Resources van IICD en Team Leader PF&CS. Ze heeft een jarenlange ervaring als organisatieadviseur en trainster op zowel korte als lange trajecten in verschillende landen in Oost- Europa, Afrika en Azië. Daarbij heeft ze veel samengewerkt met lokale ngo’s en in sommige gevallen ook met overheden. In alle gevallen stond en staat het verbeteren van de capaciteit van mensen en organisaties om hun werk goed te doen voorop.

Tussen schok en overgang: de Europese Unie in 2001

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 2-3 2002
Auteurs Bart Kerremans en Edith Drieskens

    Without doubt, the year 2001 will remain identified with the terrorist attacks of september 11. To some extent, this goes for the European Union as well. The events of september 11 left an important mark on the European integration process, of which the development of the European arrest warrant is an important illustration. Nevertheless, as for the European Union, the year 2001 was more than a year of anti-terrorism measures. In the second semester of2001, the Belgian government assumed the presidency ofthe European Union. 2001 was also the year in which, only weeks after street violence disruputed the European Council ofGöteborg, a protester was killed in the margin ofthe G7-G8 Summit in Genova. In 2001, the gap between the European Union and the United States got larger for a number of policy fields, including National Missile Defence and the Kyoto Protocol. Yet, in the autumn of2001, both power blocks reconciliated at the WTO Ministerial Conference in Doha, Qatar. In Doha, a new global round of trade negotiations was launched. As in previous years, in 2001, the enlargement process was high on the European agenda. As for the latter, for the first time, ten candidate countries were mentioned by name, making their accession in 2004 a more realistic scenario. The eastern enlargement will radically change the face of the European Union. The Belgian presidency anticipated this impeding metamorphosis and stimulated the adoption of the Laeken Declaration in december 2001. The Declaration laid the foundation for the Convention on the Future of Europe which started on February 28, 2002. The Declaration of Laeken was one of the European highlights of 2001. The low point was the Irish referendum of June 7, 2001, in which a majority of the Irish population rejected the Treaty of Nice. Both events reflect the situation the European Union is faced with today, as they demonstrate the growing tension between the desires of «widening» and «deepening» the European construction. The future willreveal how the European Union went with this growing area of tension.

Bart Kerremans

Edith Drieskens

    1996 was a y ear of both gridlock and reform for the European Union. The EU experienced one of its major institutional crises with the Mad Cow Disease. It was equally confronted with only minor progress in the ongoing Intergovernmental Conference for institutional reform as no major breakthroughs could be expected before the UK elections of May 1997. However, some major achievements occured as well. The adoption of the Stability Pact at the Dublin Summit in December increased the credibility of the EMU-project seriously. At the same time, the EU intensified its efforts to improve its trade relations with different parts of the world, especially South and South-East-Asia. At the same time however, the Commission bas been confronted with increasing disputes on the way in which it uses its prerogatives in competition policy and the enforcement of implementation.

Bart Kerremans


a brief political-historical portrait

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 1 1979
Auteurs Lawrence Gray

    This study begins by briefl,y examining the methodological premises underlying many post-war studies of communist parties by Western scholars. The analysis proceeds to consider the phenomenon of Eurocommunism and how many traditional studies of European communism have not allowed for the rich national and political traditions in Italy, Spain and France. The brief history of Eurocommunism - culminating in the events leading up to the 1977 Madrid «summit» - is seen as the accumulated need of the Italian (PCI), Spanish (PCE), and French (PCF) Communist Parties to assert their national identitiesand adapt to the changing demands of their individual national political contexts. The analysis continues with a resumé of the current strategies of the PCI, PCE, and PCF in the late 1970s, comparing and contrasting similarities and differences on domestic levels. Lastly, the relations between the Eurocommunist parties and the Soviet Union are examined.

Lawrence Gray

    Could Soviet federalism provide a pattern for a European Union? The similarity between the national diversity of the Soviet Union (this multinational state) and that of Europe could lead us to think so.A careful examination of Soviet federalism reveals certain particularities which could be adapted to a federal Europe, but the most powerful element of centralisation and unity in the USSR is the Communist Party, besidesa tough political police and a common language - Russian - another cement of the Union.Bearing in mind the present institutions of the European Community, it is difficult to imagine an evolution towards such a federal state.Nevertheless, if some principles were applied, such as the safeguard of the common interest as well as that of the member-states, it may be hoped to go further than a timid confederation. In such a prospect, some institutions of the Soviet Union could be taken as examples and an institutionalisation of the present «summit» conferences could be imagined to act as a European collective head of state, in the same way as the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.Furthermore, Europe would need a common language and this should be a neutral one (latin or esperanto), so as to achieve among member-nations strict equality, for this is an element of success as are two other basicprinciples of federalism: autonomy and participation. Since the Communist Party just would not fit within a free and democratic Europe, it is in the above principles that the Community should seek the ferments of itsunion.

R. Ferrier
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