Zoekresultaat: 639 artikelen

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Artikel

Hoe SyRI het belang van transparantie ­onderstreept

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering Online First 2021
Trefwoorden SyRI, digitisation, transparency, trust, ICT
Auteurs Mr. Tosja Selbach en Dr. Barbara Brink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch digital fraud detection system SyRI was announced to set up to detect social security fraud quickly and effectively and by doing so, maintain support for the social security system. It was the formal position that for the sake of effectiveness, no information about the algorithm and very limited information about the application of the system should be shared. The authors argue on the basis of a policy analysis, a legal exploration and a literature study that the lack of transparency about the chosen method and the application of the digital fraud detection system in social security can have far-reaching consequences for both the individual and society . The information sharing and the use of algorithms can lead to suspicion of and declining confidence in the government, and a reduced motivation to comply with the prevailing rules. This could undermine the original purpose.


Mr. Tosja Selbach
Mr. Tosja Selbach is voormalig LLM-student governance and law in digital society, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

Dr. Barbara Brink
Dr. Barbara Brink is postdoc-onderzoeker socialezekerheidsbeleid, vakgroep Staatsrecht, Bestuursrecht en Bestuurskunde aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Dossier

Access_open De regionale corona-aanpak internationaal vergeleken

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2021
Auteurs Sofie Dreef MSc, Prof. dr. Caspar van den Berg en Annelien Zaal MA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this feature authors discuss recent research findings that are of interest to readers of Beleid en Maatschappij.


Sofie Dreef MSc
Sofie Dreef MSc LLM schrijft haar proefschrift over bestuurlijk regionale ecosystemen aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen/Campus Fryslân en werkt als adviseur openbaar bestuur bij Berenschot.

Prof. dr. Caspar van den Berg
Prof. dr. Caspar van den Berg is hoogleraar global and local governance aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen/Campus Fryslân.

Annelien Zaal MA
Annelien Zaal MA is afgestudeerd in internationale betrekkingen aan de Universiteit Utrecht. Zij volgt momenteel een master international law aan de Vrije Universiteit.
Dossier

Access_open Verschuivingen in informatievoorziening tijdens Covid-19

Gevolgen voor vertrouwen en democratische processen

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden Covid-19, Democracy, Trust, information environment
Auteurs Prof. dr. Rens Vliegenthart, Dr. Bert N. Bakker en Prof. dr. Claes de Vreese
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Combatting the coronavirus politicians and policy makers have to continuously make a trade-off between public health and democratic rights. How do citizens’ attitudes towards democracy develop in a pandemic? In this study we test whether changes in the information environment affect citizens’ trust in the local and national government. Moreover, we study whether changes in the information environment are associated with the perceptions about the extent to which democratic processes are under pressure. We address these questions using a five wave panel study in the Netherlands conducted between April and September 2020. We find that during this period media use and political trust decreased. Moreover, Dutch citizens are worried about the effects of the corona crisis on local and national democracy. When it comes to the effects of media use on political trust and attitudes towards democracy, we find that media use has a limited effect on attitudes towards democracy. If anything, consuming news via the public broadcaster has a positive effect on political trust. To conclude, our study provides descriptive evidence about the development of attitudes towards democracy in the Netherlands during a major public health crisis. Dutch citizens are worried about democracy but media play a limited role in amplifying or reducing these worries.


Prof. dr. Rens Vliegenthart
Prof. dr. Rens Vliegenthart is hoogleraar media en samenleving en wetenschappelijk directeur van de Amsterdam School of Communication Research.

Dr. Bert N. Bakker
Dr. Bert N. Bakker is assistant professor aan de Amsterdam School of Communication Research.

Prof. dr. Claes de Vreese
Prof. dr. Cleas de Vreese is professor political communication aan de Amsterdam School of Communication Research.
Artikel

Gemeentelijke bestuurskracht in de energietransitie

Het operationaliseren en kwantificeren van een ongrijpbaar begrip

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden governing capacity, local energy policy, sustainability, climate governance
Auteurs Rick de Vries MSc, Dr. Kees Vringer en Dr. ir. Hans Visser
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Municipalities play an important role in the Dutch energy transition. Therefore, they are expected to deal both sufficiently and timely with their tasks. The question is whether they have the capacity to do so (governing capacity). This study aims to assess whether improving governing capacity can be used to improve the policy performance. We operationalized governing capacity and built a model to assess the relation between several conditions for governing capacity and policy performance for three domains of the energy transition: built environment, mobility and renewables. We found no direct relationship between perceived governing capacity and energy transition policy output. However, we found relationships between conditions for governing capacity, and the policy output. About 25 percent of the total variance in policy performance could be attributed to population size. This percentage levels up to 55 to 60 percent if the motivation of the local administration, cooperation between municipalities and other governmental organisations and the participation of citizens and businesses are also taken into account. This contradicts the idea that enlarging municipalities is the most important way to achieve a higher policy performance.


Rick de Vries MSc
Rick de Vries MSc is onderzoeksmedewerker bij het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving.

Dr. Kees Vringer
Dr. Kees Vringer is senior onderzoeker bij het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving.

Dr. ir. Hans Visser
Dr. ir. Hans Visser is senior onderzoeker statistische analyses bij het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving.
Artikel

De invloed van contractuele en relationele aspecten op stakeholdermanagement

Een casusstudie van de A9 en A16 DBFM-infrastructuurprojecten

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden infrastructure projects, public-private partnerships, contractual governance, relational governance, stakeholder management
Auteurs Sander Philips MSc, Ir. Bert de Groot en Dr. Stefan Verweij
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the past decade, large infrastructure projects in the Netherlands have often been implemented through Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs), specifically using Design-Build-Finance-Maintain (DBFM) contracts. While the decision to implement projects through PPPs is based on expected advantages for internal parties – the public and private partners in the PPP –, there is a call for more focus on the advantages and disadvantages of PPPs for external stakeholders. External stakeholder management in DBFM projects is based on a contractual division of risks and responsibilities between the partners. However, it is clear from the literature that the contract does not guarantee successful stakeholder management. Relational aspects are important. Little research has been done, however, into the interplay of contractual and relational aspects in achieving successful stakeholder management. This article addresses this research need. A comparative case study was conducted into the PPP projects A9 Gaasperdammerweg and A16 Rotterdam. The study first shows that sanctions, when combined with a relational approach, have a positive effect on the relationships with stakeholders. Second, external stakeholder management cannot be simply outsourced to the private partner and continuous involvement of the public partner is important for success.


Sander Philips MSc
Sander Philips MSc volgde op het moment van schrijven de double degree master Environmental and Infrastructure Planning (Rijksuniversiteit Groningen) en Water and Coastal Management (Universität Oldenburg). Inmiddels is hij afgestudeerd.

Ir. Bert de Groot
Ir. Bert de Groot is senior adviseur projectbeheersing bij Rijkswaterstaat, ministerie van Infrastructuur en Waterstaat, en external PhD bij de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, faculteit Ruimtelijke Wetenschappen, basiseenheid Planologie.

Dr. Stefan Verweij
Dr. Stefan Verweij is universitair docent infrastructuurplanning, governance en methodologie aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, faculteit Ruimtelijke Wetenschappen, basiseenheid Planologie.
Thema-artikel

In de schaduw van prestige

De noodzakelijke behoefte aan een volwassen vastgoedorganisatie

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden public real estate agency, prestigious projects, project fiascoes, fraud, business maturity model
Auteurs Dr. Wouter Jan Verheul en Ir. Wicher Schönau
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Some prestigious urban projects demonstrate many forms of misfit, misfortune, or mismanagement. Without big plans and high ambitions large projects don’t get off the ground, however, with a lack of attention for a diligent implementation and organization, fiascoes will follow. In the city of Rotterdam, the realization of a pop music hall, failed completely. In this case, the municipal public real estate agency played a central role in the failure of this urban project, and even a huge fraud that wasted millions of euros came out in the open. The main question in this article is: what can we learn from projects that fail during the implementation phase, and how can we professionalize public real estate agencies to avoid mistakes, fraud and other fiascoes? Such questions are relevant for public agencies that have to deal with both high and ever changing political and managerial ambitions, as well as with several commercial actors. This article offers insights behind the scenes of a public real estate agency, based on an in-depth case study. The authors demonstrate mechanisms of organizational vulnerability during the implementation of urban projects, as well as critical success factors of a professional, mature public real estate agency.


Dr. Wouter Jan Verheul
Dr. W.J. Verheul is universitair docent en onderzoeker aan de Technische Universiteit Delft en bestuurskundig adviseur te Rotterdam.

Ir. Wicher Schönau
Ir. W. Schönau is vastgoedkundig adviseur en partner bij TwynstraGudde.
Thema-artikel

De depressieve nasleep van bestuurlijke manie en verval bij corporatiebestuurders

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden managerial mania and decline, corporation directors, internal and external supervisors, weak signals, countervailing power
Auteurs Dr. Meike Bokhorst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Incidents in the semi-public sector regularly reveal the underlying problems of managerial mania and decline. Since the Parliamentary Committee of Inquiry into Housing Associations and the new Housing Act, there have been fewer incidents involving managerial hubris and risky projects. However, in the event of incidents, the share of administrative decline of often long-serving directors of small corporations in particular is still considerable. The question in this article is what forms of managerial mania and decline occur among corporation directors and what internal and external supervisors can do to identify and mitigate this in a timely manner. To answer that question, this article examines the theory and practice of managerial mania and decline. Case analysis shows which manifestations of managerial mania and decline there were in the housing association sector. Internal and external supervisors can counter managerial mania and decline by exchanging knowledge with each other about the weak signals of decline and effective forms of countervailing power.


Dr. Meike Bokhorst
Dr. A.M. Bokhorst is senior onderzoeker bij de Universiteit Utrecht en senior wetenschappelijk medewerker bij de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid.
Vrij artikel

Inspectietoezicht op de Belastingdienst in internationaal perspectief

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden inspection supervision, Tax and Customs Administration, international comparative, Charter of the rights of taxpayers, quality of public service
Auteurs Drs. Pieter Welp en Dr. Meike Bokhorst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The cabinet has decided to set up a national inspectorate with the task of supervising the quality and the rule of law of the public services provided by the tax authorities. The reason for this is the persistent problems surrounding the Tax and Customs Administration for years (organization, management, IT, personnel) and more recently the crisis surrounding the supplementary child benefit. The Netherlands is not the first and will soon not be the only country with a special regulator for the tax authorities and which focuses on legal protection of taxpayers and the quality of the service. In this article, we ask ourselves how the institution of the new Dutch inspectorate relates to the situation in various foreign countries and we examine which dilemmas and policy questions these raise. We note that with this new inspection the Netherlands is in tune with the situation in various foreign countries. Regarding the relationship and cooperative relationship with the National Ombudsman, the guarantee of the independent and impartial exercise of inspection supervision and the increasing importance of a Charter of the rights of taxpayers, a few important policy questions remain in a comparative sense.


Drs. Pieter Welp
Drs. P. Welp is senior wetenschappelijk onderzoeker en strategisch adviseur Wetenschapsagenda Toezicht bij Bureau Inspectieraad.

Dr. Meike Bokhorst
Dr. A.M. Bokhorst is senior onderzoeker bij de Universiteit Utrecht en senior wetenschappelijk medewerker bij de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid.
Thema-artikel

Op zoek naar een verbeeldend utilisme

Besluitvormingsinstrumenten voor bestuurders en burgers bij beeldbepalende projecten

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden Iconic projects, Utilitarianism, Imagination, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Participatory Value Evaluation
Auteurs Dr. mr. Niek Mouter en Dr. Peter Pelzer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Sometimes dreams become reality, but there are also many examples in which manic ideas for image-defining projects turn into fiascos. How do you find the right balance in the planning and decision-making of image-defining projects between taming manic mechanisms that cause these projects to fail and unleashing manic mechanisms that are necessary to make these projects happen? This article attempts to answer this question by exploring how the taming of mania (through welfare-economic analysis) and the unleashing of vision and ambition (through imagination) can be combined in a better way. We call this a search for an ‘imaginative utilitarianism’ and draw up three preconditions under which this approach can work: (1) more attention to incremental and less grotesque projects, (2) a different appreciation and historiography that places individuals less centrally and also appreciates what has not been built, and (3) a stronger interweaving between the design process and a welfare-economic approach.


Dr. mr. Niek Mouter
Dr. mr. N. Mouter is verbonden aan Faculteit Technische Bestuurskunde en Management van de Technische Universiteit Delft.

Dr. Peter Pelzer
Dr. P. Pelzer is verbonden aan de Urban Futures Studio en de afdeling Human Geography and Spatial Planning van de Faculteit Geowetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Vrij artikel

Weerbarstige lokale inpassing van geo-energieprojecten

‘Localism’ en ‘soft power’ als handelingsperspectief voor gemeenten?

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden subsoil interventions, network management, Localism, Participation
Auteurs Dr. ir. Geert Roovers en Dr. Mike Duijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Subsoil interventions in the Netherlands are crucial elements in the transition to a sustainable energy future. These subsoil interventions concern reduction of fossil energy mining, extraction of thermal energy, energy storage and CSS storage. These geo projects cause tensions. Planning under the mining law leads to local resistance, debate and often delay or cancelling of initiatives. The central characteristics of this planning are an important cause. As the transition to sustainable energy asks for more interventions in the subsoil, these tensions get problematic, and hinder the transition. In this article we investigate this problematic nature of planning under the mining law. In examples we show the problems, and accordingly we analyse them. We explore a more prominent role of local actors, using localism and soft power. With this article we want contribute to national and international discussions about the planning and governance of subsoil initiatives and strengthening of local involvement in these.


Dr. ir. Geert Roovers
Dr. ir. G. Roovers is lector Bodem en ondergrond aan de Saxion hogeschool en senior adviseur bij Antea Group.

Dr. Mike Duijn
Dr. M. Duijn is senior onderzoeker en managing director GovernEUR, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Ontwikkeling en institutionalisering van een anti-establishmentpartij

De casus Leefbaar Rotterdam

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering Online First 2021
Trefwoorden party institutionalization, political parties, local government, Governance, anti-establishment party
Auteurs Gideon Broekhuizen MSc LLB en dr. Julien van Ostaaijen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    There is much research available about the development and government participation of new political parties (e.g. Pedersen, 1982; Deschouwer, 2008). Scholars show that survival for new political parties is often difficult, as they in general had little time for party building (Bollyer & Bytzek, 2017). Moreover, the expectation for specific types of new parties, mainly anti-establishment parties, is that they pay a high(er) electoral price when participating in government (Van Spanje, 2011). The Dutch case of the local political party of ‘Leefbaar Rotterdam’ (Livable Rotterdam, LR) is a noteworthy exception to this rule. It won the Rotterdam local election in 2002 with almost 35 percent of the votes, only months after its establishment. Until this day, LR remains an electorally large and relevant political party, participating in Rotterdam government twice (2002-2006 and 2014-2018). The article shows that in comparison to some national new political parties, LR succeeded in building a solid party organization and that from a party institutionalization perspective, it can be considered an institutionalized party. Regarding theory, it provides some additions to party building literature, such as the importance of personal relations and the balance between organizational unity and member autonomy.


Gideon Broekhuizen MSc LLB
Gideon Broekhuizen MSc LLB is werkzaam als beleidsadviseur bij het ministerie van Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport.

dr. Julien van Ostaaijen
Dr. Julien van Ostaaijen is werkzaam als universitair docent bestuurskunde aan Tilburg University en lector recht en veiligheid bij Avans Hogeschool.

    From 1964 (until around 1990), political science became the dominant approach within (local) administrative sciences in the Netherlands. This position was taken over from the legal approach. In this period, the concepts of politics, policy and decision-making were central to research and theory. In the period up to 1990, we still see a predominantly administration-centric or government-centric perspective among these political scientists, although we already see incentives from different authors for a broader perspective (the politics, policy and decision-making concepts remain relevant however) that will continue in the period thereafter. This broader perspective (on institutions, management and governance) took shape in the period after 1990, in which Public Administration would increasingly profile itself as an independent (inter)discipline. This essay tells the story of the (local) administrative sciences in this period as envisaged by twelve high-profile professors. The story starts in 1990 in Leiden with the (gradual) transition from classical to institutional Public administration, as is revealed in the inaugural lecture by Theo Toonen. This is followed by eleven other administrative scientists, who are divided into four ‘generations’ of three professors for convenience. In conclusion, the author of this essay argues that there is mainly a need for what he calls a (self-)critical Public Administration.


Rik Reussing
Dr. G.H. Reussing is onderwijscoördinator van de joint degree Public Governance across Borders aan de Universiteit Twente en redactiesecretaris van Bestuurswetenschappen.

Rik Reussing
Dr. G.H. Reussing is onderwijscoördinator van de joint degree Public Governance across Borders aan de Universiteit Twente en redactiesecretaris van Bestuurswetenschappen.
Artikel

Access_open Uitvoeringsorganisaties tussen staat en straat

De relevantie van maatschappelijke verantwoording voor directeuren van ZBO’s en agentschappen

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 1 2021
Auteurs Lars Brummel, Sjors Overman en Thomas Schillemans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution analyzes the degree of relevance that administrators of independent administrative bodies (ZBOs) and agencies assign to their accountability relationships with social stakeholders. Although there is a lot of attention for social forms of accountability in the scientific literature, no large-scale quantitative research has been conducted into how administrators of implementing organizations experience this accountability. This study fills this gap on the basis of survey research by: (1) mapping the importance of forms and practices of social accountability for implementing organizations; and (2) weighing potential explanations for differences in the importance of social accountability in implementing organizations. The authors show that administrators of ZBOs and agencies in the Netherlands attach great importance to accountability towards their broad public environment, also compared to other countries with similar types of implementing organizations. This observation is in line with the Dutch reputation of consensual and interactive governance. Differences in the importance of social accountability between implementing organizations cannot be explained by the vertical accountability relationship with the parent department or other institutional organizational characteristics. The analysis shows that social orientation is greater among ZBOs and agencies where the media has more influence over administrators. Social accountability is associated with greater perceived media pressure.


Lars Brummel
L. Brummel MSc is promovendus aan de Utrecht School of Governance (USG) van de Universiteit Utrecht. In 2018 rondde hij zijn researchmaster bestuurskunde en organisatiewetenschap af in Utrecht.

Sjors Overman
Dr. S.P. Overman MSc is universitair docent aan de Utrecht School of Governance (USG) van de Universiteit Utrecht. Hij is in 2016 gepromoveerd aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Thomas Schillemans
Prof. dr. T. Schillemans is hoogleraar Verantwoording, gedrag en instituties aan de Utrecht School of Governance (USG) van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Article

The Impact of VAAs on Vote Switching at the 2019 Belgian Legislative Elections: More Switchers, but Making Their Own Choices

Tijdschrift Politics of the Low Countries, Aflevering Online FIrst 2021
Trefwoorden voting advice applications, vote switching, vote choice, elections and electoral behaviour, voters/citizens in Belgium, VAA
Auteurs David Talukder, Laura Uyttendaele, Isaïa Jennart e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During electoral campaigns, the use of voting advice applications (VAAs) has become increasingly widespread. Consequently, scholars have examined both the patterns of usage and their effects on voting behaviour. However, existing studies lead to conflicting findings. In this article, we take a closer look at the effect of De Stemtest/Test électoral (a VAA developed by academics from the University of Louvain and the University of Antwerp, in partnership with Belgian media partners) on vote switching. More specifically, we divide this latter question into two sub-questions: (1) What is the impact of a (dis)confirming advice from the VAA on vote switching? (2) Do VAA users follow the voting advice provided by the VAA? Our study shows that receiving a disconfirming advice from the VAA increases the probability of users to switch their vote choice.


David Talukder
David Talukder is a PhD candidate at the Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB, Belgium). He works within the research project “Reforming Representative Democracy”. His main research interests are democratic innovations, political representation, and democratic reforms.

Laura Uyttendaele
Laura Uyttendaele is a PhD candidate at the University of Louvain (UC Louvain, Belgium). Her main research interests are Voting Advice Applications, Youth & politics, political attitudes and behaviours, and experimental methods.

Isaïa Jennart
Isaïa Jennart is a PhD candidate (Universiteit Antwerpen & VUB, Belgium) interested in public opinion, electoral campaigns, voting behaviour, Voting Advice Applications and political knowledge. He mainly studies citizens’ knowledge of parties’ issue positions.

Benoît Rihoux
Benoît Rihoux is full professor in political science at the University of Louvain (UC Louvain, Belgium). His research covers comparative methods (especially QCA) as well as diverse topics in comparative politics, political organizations and political behaviour.
Dissertatie

The governance of self-organization

Analyzing the governance relationship between municipalities and community-based collectives

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2020
Auteurs José Nederhand

José Nederhand
Thema-artikel

Inzicht in transparantie

Een essay over trade-offs achter algoritmische besluitvorming

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden transparency, value conflict, algorithms, trade-offs, public values, ethics
Auteurs Joanna Strycharz Msc, Dr. ir. Bauke Steenhuisen en Dr. Haiko van der Voort
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Algorithms applied in public administration are often criticized for lack of transparency. Lawmakers and citizens alike expect that automated decisions based on algorithmic recommendations to be explainable. The focus of this article is the organizational context behind the idea of transparent algorithms. Transparency is portrayed as one of numerous values that are at play when algorithms are applied in public administration. The article shows that applying algorithms may lead to conflicts between these values. Such conflicts often result in trade-off decisions. Looking from the organizational perspective, we describe how such trade-offs can be made both explicitly and implicitly. The article thus shows the complexity of algorithmic trade-offs. As a result of this complexity, we not only call for more transparency about algorithms, but also more transparency about trade-offs that take place in public administration. Finally, we present a research agenda focused on studying the organization of trade-offs.


Joanna Strycharz Msc
J. Strycharz, Msc is universitair docent Persuasive Communication aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam, Faculteit Maatschappij- en Gedragswetenschappen.

Dr. ir. Bauke Steenhuisen
Dr. ir. B.S. Steenhuisen is universitair docent Organisatie & Governance aan de TU Delft, Faculteit Techniek, Bestuur en Management.

Dr. Haiko van der Voort
Dr. H.G. van der Voort is universitair docent Organisatie & Governance aan de TU Delft, Faculteit Techniek, Bestuur en Management.
Titel

Transparantie en Explainable Artificial Intelligence: beperkingen en strategieën

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden transparency, Explainable artificial intelligence, Algorithms
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. Hans de Bruijn, Prof. dr. ir. Marijn Janssen en Dr. Martijn Warnier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article contains a critical reflection on eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI): the idea that AI based decision-making using AI should be transparent to people faced with these decisions. We discuss the main objections to XAI. XAI focuses on a variety of explainees, with different expectations and values; XAI is not a neutral activity, but very value-sensitive; AI is dynamic and so XAI quickly becomes obsolete; many problems are ‘wicked’, which further complicates XAI. In addition, the context of XAI matters – a high level of politicization and a high perceived impact of AI-based decisions, will often result in much criticism of AI and will limit the opportunities of XAI. We also discuss a number of alternative or additional strategies – more attention to negotiated algorithms; to competing algorithms; or to value-sensitive algorithms, which may contribute to more trust in AI-based decision-making.


Prof. mr. dr. Hans de Bruijn
Prof. mr. dr. J.A. de Bruijn is hoogleraar Organisatie & Governance aan de TU Delft, Faculteit Techniek, Bestuur en Management.

Prof. dr. ir. Marijn Janssen
Prof. dr. ir. M.F.W.H.A. Janssen is hoogleraar ICT & Governance aan de TU Delft, Faculteit Techniek, Bestuur en Management.

Dr. Martijn Warnier
Dr. M.E. Warnier is universitair hoofddocent Systeemkunde aan de TU Delft, Faculteit Techniek, Bestuur en Management.
Thema-artikel

Access_open Transparantie van algoritmen: naar een empirische onderzoeksagenda

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2020
Auteurs Dr. Haiko van der Voort en Joanna Strycharz Msc
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Haiko van der Voort
Dr. H.G. van der Voort is universitair docent Organisatie & Governance aan de TU Delft, Faculteit Techniek, Bestuur en Management.

Joanna Strycharz Msc
J. Strycharz, Msc is universitair docent Persuasive Communication aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam, Faculteit Maatschappij- en Gedragswetenschappen.
Thema-artikel

Een transparant debat over algoritmen

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden AI, ethics, Big Data, human rights, governance
Auteurs Dr. Oskar J. Gstrein en Prof. dr. Andrej Zwitter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The police use all sorts of information to fulfil their tasks. Whereas collection and interpretation of information traditionally could only be done by humans, the emergence of ‘Big Data’ creates new opportunities and dilemmas. On the one hand, large amounts of data can be used to train algorithms. This allows them to ‘predict’ offenses such as bicycle theft, burglary, or even serious crimes such as murder and terrorist attacks. On the other hand, highly relevant questions on purpose, effectiveness, and legitimacy of the application of machine learning/‘artificial intelligence’ drown all too often in the ocean of Big Data. This is particularly problematic if such systems are used in the public sector in democracies, where the rule of law applies, and where accountability, as well as the possibility for judicial review, are guaranteed. In this article, we explore the role transparency could play in reconciling these opportunities and dilemmas. While some propose making the systems and data they use themselves transparent, we submit that an open and broad discussion on purpose and objectives should be held during the design process. This might be a more effective way of embedding ethical and legal principles in the technology, and of ensuring legitimacy during application.


Dr. Oskar J. Gstrein
Dr. O.J. Gstrein is universitair docent Governance & Innovation aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Campus Fryslân, Data Research Centre.

Prof. dr. Andrej Zwitter
Prof. dr. A.J. Zwitter is hoogleraar Governance & Innovation aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Campus Fryslân, Data Research Centre.
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