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Autonomie ontrafeld. De casus van de Nederlandse Kinderombudsman

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden autonomy, ombudsperson, children’s ombudsman, national ombudsman, Paris Principles
Auteurs Marjolein Bouterse MSc en Dr. Valérie Pattyn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A key factor to a well-functioning ombudsman’s office is autonomy, which can also be derived from the public turmoil surrounding the appointment of Dutch Children’s ombudsman in 2016. Organization-wise, the Dutch Children’s ombudsman is embedded within an existing autonomous institution: the National ombudsman. This triggers the question to what extent such nested constructions can guarantee sufficient autonomy. Viewing the statutory and de facto autonomy of the Children’s ombudsman, we find that the autonomy of the Children’s ombudsman depends to a large extent on the position of the National ombudsman and on the relationship between the National ombudsman and the Children’s ombudsman. Our findings point out that it is necessary to determine and codify the degree of autonomy at the start of an ombudsman’s office.


Marjolein Bouterse MSc
M. Bouterse, MSc werkte na haar studie Bestuurskunde bij de Universiteit Leiden mee aan de Wetsevaluatie Kinderombudsman. Momenteel werkt zij als beleidsonderzoeker bij Regioplan Beleidsonderzoek, waar zij zich focust op arbeidsre-integratie en schuldhulpverlening.

Dr. Valérie Pattyn
Dr. V.E. Pattyn is universitair docent aan het Instituut Bestuurskunde van Universiteit Leiden, en is deeltijds verbonden aan KU Leuven Instituut voor de Overheid. Ze specialiseert zich in thema’s als het gebruik van kennis door overheden, beleidsevaluatie, beleidswerk, beleidsadvisering en beleidscapaciteit.
Thema-artikel

Open (de) deuren

Bestuurskundig onderzoek naar de succesfactoren van de werkrelatie burgemeester-gemeentesecretaris

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden political, administrative, collaborative, relationship, success factors
Auteurs Drs. Frans-Willem van Gils MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The collaborative relationship between the appointed mayor and the non-political highest administrative official is a crucial one in Dutch local government. It aligns two different domains or spheres: the political, decision making domain on one hand, and the administrative, executive domain on the other. Since research points out that 25% of these collaborative relations fail, the need for insight in the factors that shape the relations and the success of it emerges. Non-successful collaboration between public top-officials usually results in financial, societal or personal costs or damage. In this research, 17 factors were indicated that influence the (perceived) collaborative success, divided in three levels: external factors, functional factors and personal factors. Within the success factors, several ‘critical’ factors were determined, without which a successful collaborative relationship never is possible. On the functional level the critical factors are trust, role convergence and shared understanding, and on the personal level consistency and integrity. Best guaranty for a successful collaborative relationship is when both actors adapt their roles to each other’s liking, reciprocally building trust and shared understanding by using open communication, while being consistent and maintaining their integrity.
    Finally, officials are being called upon to open their doors, and share valuable experiences.


Drs. Frans-Willem van Gils MSc
Drs. F.W. van Gils behaalde in 2019 de graad van Master of Science in Public Administration aan de Erasmus University Rotterdam met een onderzoek naar de succesfactoren van de werkrelatie tussen burgemeester en gemeentesecretaris. Hij is oud-burgemeester en thans directeur van Archon Consultancy. Hij adviseert en coacht topwerkrelaties in het openbaar bestuur, doet onderzoek naar politiek-ambtelijke samenwerkingsrelaties, en draagt met trainingen, lezingen en onderwijs bij aan deskundigheidsbevordering.
Thema-artikel

Access_open Op zoek naar succesvol gezag in het lokaal bestuur

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden municipal secretary, aldermen, authority, local governance, sources of legitimacy
Auteurs Drs. Thijs Jansen en Corné van der Meulen MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    When we look at the number of people leaving local governance, we see a discouraging trend. According to an investigation of the magazine Binnenlands Bestuur, 126 of 1144 aldermen in the Netherlands were forced to step down in 2019. Making 2019 the year with the highest number since 2004. The same trend can be seen with municipal secretaries. A municipal secretary used to be a lifetime appointment, yet now they often stay at their position for no more than 5 years.
    This is why it is of the utmost importance to understand the different functions within local governance and how they can be best understood. This number of Bestuurskunde contains articles that offer more in depth analysis towards successful factors of aldermen and municipal secretaries.


Drs. Thijs Jansen
Drs. T. Jansen is directeur van Stichting Beroepseer en senior wetenschappelijk projectmedewerker bij Centrum Èthos (Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam).

Corné van der Meulen MSc
C. van der Meulen MSc is projectleider/onderzoeker (www.beroepseer.nl) bij Stichting Beroepseer en doet onder andere onderzoek naar gezag in het lokaal bestuur.
Thema-artikel

Gezag volgens een doorgewinterde tussenpaus

Interview met gemeentesecretaris Boudewijn Marinussen

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden authority, municipal secretary, local governance, sources of authority, loss of
Auteurs Drs. Gerard van Nunen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Boudewijn Marinussen feels right at home working in local governance. He has a deep understanding of the balancing act required by the municipal secretary due to his rich experience in local governance. Marinussen’s work as an entrusted person at the Association of Municipal Secretaries entails being a voice for his colleagues’ opinions. In this interview he will ponder the following questions: which sources of authority are essential? What causes a loss in authority, and can this loss be recommended? On the basis of Marinussen’s direct personal experience in local governance and his experience as an entrusted person, he concludes that in cases where authority is coming under pressure, too little is done to ensuring a fast recovery of authority. His advice would be to start earlier with conversations that quicken the healing process.


Drs. Gerard van Nunen
Drs. G.P.M. van Nunen is bestuurskundige en werkt als projectleider en onderzoeker bij onderzoeks- en kennisinstituut Stichting Beroepseer. Hij werkt aan publicaties, onderzoeken en bijeenkomsten over professionaliteit en gezag in de (semi)publieke sector.

    Large government investments are regularly preceded by an ex-ante evaluation. This article examines the quality of two ex-ante studies and considers the use made by administrators and representatives of the people of these ex-ante studies. In both cases it concerned qualitatively sound ex-ante studies. In both cases, these studies also demonstrably affected the debate about these investment plans in the people’s representations. But there was no question of power-free decision making. In both cases, the representatives of the people were put under great pressure. Not only was there time pressure. The public debate came late. The use of sound ex-ante studies is not only an investment in rationality, but is also accompanied by political-strategic manoeuvring. The relevance of this article to practitioners is that it (a) contains four reasonable requirements that the representative may make of each ex-ante study offered by the executive board; (b) also shows that an ex-ante analysis on which important decisions are based should not be characterised by secret parts or by undefined assumptions and an ex-ante analysis must be transparent; and (c) demonstrates it is important as a representative to be tenacious, to keep a firm hand and not to decide before all questions have been answered and a full list of safeguards is on the table.


Prof. dr. Michiel Herweijer
Prof. dr. M. Herweijer is bijzonder hoogleraar Bestuurskunde aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en redacteur van Bestuurswetenschappen. Hij was tot 1 januari 2019 directeur van de Noordelijke Rekenkamer. Sinds 1 november 2018 is hij docent publiek management aan de Universitaire Campus Fryslân te Leeuwarden (een nevenvestiging van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen).
Perspectief uit de praktijk

De lokale Facebookpagina als café

Een discussie over het bestaan van publieke plaatsen op het internet en de regulering daarvan

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 2 2020
Auteurs Dr. Willem Bantema
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Mayors struggle with their role in the digital and online domain. One of the aspects they encounter is online positioning. Positioning is an important factor in public order enforcement. Mayor Femke Halsema of Amsterdam recently indicated that she is not only responsible for public order, but also for virtual public space. This contribution elaborates on online positioning and specifically on whether social media pages can be considered as public spaces. The analysis, which includes recent research in this area, shows that the definition of ‘public order and public space’ in the Dutch Municipalities Act certainly offers scope for an expansion to online places. The way in which internet users deal with data in practice does not stand in the way of this possibility. At the same time, it appears that online spaces differ from physical spaces, especially in the sense that positioning is difficult. Case law from Dutch criminal law shows that, in addition to the place, it is primarily the public reach and effect that determine whether or not it concerns a public expression. In addition to complex positioning online, there are other compelling arguments for not using the legal powers of mayors for maintaining public order on public spaces online.


Dr. Willem Bantema
Dr. W. Bantema is senior docent/onderzoeker aan de NHL Stenden Hogeschool te Leeuwarden. Zijn onderzoeksgebied is cybersafety & bestuurlijke handhaving en digitalisering.

    Given the increasing importance of local administration and its range of tasks, it is important to know whether municipal councils are succeeding in properly controlling the administration. That is one of the main tasks that has been entrusted to the municipal council when dualism was introduced in the Netherlands in 2002. Council members are aware of the importance of the monitoring task, but little is known about the way in which they perform this task. Research in ten Dutch municipalities into the use of the available set of tools for framing and monitoring shows that municipal councils make little or no use of some of the instruments, in particular with regard to information gathering and the support of the council. Good information provision to the council sometimes appears to be subordinated to the political importance of the coalition. And everywhere councillors are struggling with the set of programmes for programme budgeting and accounting introduced during the dualisation process: it offers insufficient possibilities for framing and checking. In the absence of a clear assessment framework, it is not possible to determine whether this detracts from the effectiveness of control and framework. What good or effective control is and what its purpose is are also apparently not a topic for discussion in the local arena. This article shows (a) that council members can make more and better use of available framework and control instruments and the possibilities for supporting the council; b) the instrument of the programme budget (and the program account) does not seem to live up to the expectations of the dualisation process; c) mayors, as chairmen of the council, do not always feel responsible for the proper provision of information for the council and, in a broader sense, for better positioning of the council as a framework-setting and controlling body. More leadership is required here.


Prof. dr. Klaartje Peters
Prof. dr. C.E. Peters is zelfstandig onderzoeker en publicist, bijzonder hoogleraar Lokaal en regionaal bestuur aan de Universiteit Maastricht en redactielid van Bestuurswetenschappen.

Dr. Peter Castenmiller
Dr. P. Castenmiller is verbonden aan adviesbureau PBLQ en is tevens voorzitter van de rekenkamer van de gemeente Delft.
Artikel

Het spel en de knikkers: ervaren rechtvaardigheid in vier lokale participatieprocessen

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 2 2020
Auteurs Drs. Christine Bleijenberg, Dr. Reint Jan Renes, Prof. dr. Noëlle Aarts e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Designing and implementing participation processes that are perceived as meaningful by both municipalities and citizens requires insight into the assessment by participants. In this study the theory of experienced procedural justice is applied in the context of citizen participation. To gain insight into the importance of the outcome and the course of the process in the assessment by participants, the authors have used survey research to collect data from four different participation processes in a Dutch municipality (Delft). The results of this explorative study show that the respondents rate the participation processes in which they have participated as reasonably fair. There is a fair process effect when respondents experienced the process as fair and their confidence in the municipality increases, even if the outcome is unfavourable for them. For practitioners, this study shows that the dimensions of procedural justice, namely respect, having a voice and explanation, are guiding principles for the design and implementation of participation processes. There is still much to be achieved, especially when it comes to being given an explanation, so information about the decision-making process and accountability for the substantive choices that have been made. Finally, regular evaluation research is needed to set up participation processes that tie in with what participants think is important.


Drs. Christine Bleijenberg
Drs. C. Bleijenberg is als onderzoeker en docent verbonden aan het lectoraat Crossmediale Communicatie in het Publieke Domein van de Hogeschool Utrecht en als promovendus aan de Radboud Universiteit in Nijmegen.

Dr. Reint Jan Renes
Dr. R.J. Renes is lector Psychologie voor een Duurzame Stad aan het Amsterdams Kenniscentrum voor Maatschappelijke Innovatie van de Hogeschool van Amsterdam.

Prof. dr. Noëlle Aarts
Prof. dr. M.N.C. Aarts is hoogleraar Socio-Ecologische Interacties aan het Instituut for Science in Society (ISiS) van de Radboud Universiteit in Nijmegen.

Jonas Moons MSc
J. Moons MSc is als onderzoeker en docent verbonden aan het lectoraat Crossmediale Communicatie in het Publieke Domein van de Hogeschool Utrecht.

    In this feature authors review recently published books on subjects of interest to readers of Beleid en Maatschappij.


Prof. Thomas Schillemans
Prof. Thomas Schillemans is hoogleraar verantwoording, gedrag en instituties aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

Dr. Duco Bannink
Dr. Duco Bannink is universitair hoofddocent aan de Vrije Universiteit en redactielid van Beleid en Maatschappij. Nanke Verloo, die de inleiding van deze recensie schreef, is boekenredacteur van Beleid en Maatschappij.
Artikel

Diversiteit en inclusie in verschillende typen kindercentra

Ervaringen van managers en medewerkers

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Diversity, Inclusion, Privatization, Organizational climate, Childcare centers
Auteurs Drs. Willeke van der Werf, Dr. Pauline Slot, Prof. dr. Patrick Kenis e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Childcare centers are organizations that differ in structural and cultural characteristics. The present comparative case study examined how Dutch childcare centers match different organization types and related the identified organization types to the implementation of diversity and inclusion policy. Diversity and inclusion in organizations concerns climate-dimensions, such as providing equal opportunities, allowing influence on decision-making and stimulating professional development for all staff. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 managers and 24 pedagogical practitioners in 13 childcare centers. Content-analysis of the interviews showed that employees in all centers experience equal opportunities, however the content and form of these opportunities differed according to the type of organization. Employees in childcare centers with a comparatively strong orientation on professional performance reported positive experiences with group-collaboration, team-professionalization and collective decision-making. Employees in childcare centers with a comparatively strong market orientation reported positive experiences with possibilities for individual development and autonomy in their daily work. The experiences of the employees match the differences in organizational climate as reported by the location managers, emphasizing either collaboration in teams or employees’ individual responsibility, depending on the type of organization.


Drs. Willeke van der Werf
Drs. Willeke van der Werf, promovendus, is werkzaam bij het departement Educatie en Pedagogiek van de Universiteit Utrecht. www.uu.nl/medewerkers/WMvanderWerf

Dr. Pauline Slot
Dr. Pauline Slot is universitair docent en onderzoeksprojectleider bij het departement Educatie en Pedagogiek van de Universiteit Utrecht. www.uu.nl/medewerkers/PLSlot

Prof. dr. Patrick Kenis
Prof. dr. Patrick Kenis is hoogleraar public governance aan Tilburg University, Tilburg School of Economics and Management. www.tilburguniversity.edu/nl/medewerkers/p-n-kenis

Prof. dr. Paul Leseman
Prof. dr. Paul Leseman is hoogleraar orthopedagogiek bij het departement Educatie en Pedagogiek van de Universiteit Utrecht. www.uu.nl/staff/PPMLeseman
Dossier

Eis de regio op: regionale democratie in de energietransitie

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden regional democracy, Participation, energy transition
Auteurs Annajorien Prins MSc en Ruben van de Belt MSc MA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The roadmap to the energy transition of the Netherlands in the next decade is formulated by and large at the regional level. 30 regions are currently developing a Regional Energy Strategy (RES), which lays out where renewable energy projects can be realized in the future. But how democratic are these regional energy strategies? In this article we share our observations and reflections, based on our professional experiences with the regional energy strategies.


Annajorien Prins MSc
Annajorien Prins MSc werkt als strategisch adviseur bij de provincie Overijssel en Studio Vers Bestuur.

Ruben van de Belt MSc MA
Ruben van de Belt LLM MSc MA is raadslid in Zwolle en voorzitter van de Regionale Werkgroep Raden, Staten en Algemeen Bestuur binnen de RES West-Overijssel. Daarnaast werkt hij als adviseur energietransitie in de jong-talentpool van Twynstra Gudde.
Dissertatie

Rules for Watt?

Designing appropriate governance arrangements for the introduction of smart grids

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2020
Auteurs Imke Lammers

Imke Lammers

Erik Schrijvers
Dr. E.K. Schrijvers is senior wetenschappelijk medewerker bij de WRR.
Artikel

Een voorstel voor een basisinkomen voor ouderen

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden Basic income, Labour-market position of older workers, Retirement age, Labour supply, Government budget
Auteurs Prof. Dr. Harrie Verbon
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper lays out a proposal for a basic income system for the elderly. The proposed basic income allows elderly people to retire from the work place, or to keep on working (full time or part time). In the latter case employers are allowed to take part of the basic income into account in calculating the wages for their older workers. This characteristic makes employing older workers financially more attractive to employers. On the other hand, the basic income enables workers in physically and/or mentally challenging jobs, which are mostly low-paid jobs, to quit their job early. The effects on the government budget are calculated, based on different assumptions on the labour-participation effects of such a basic-income system. If the starting age of the basic income is 60 years and if the system incites older workers to increase their labour participation, introducing a basic income can have minor effects on the government budget. On the other hand, if the basic income has the same the labour-supply effects as the previous, but far more generous early-retirement schemes, the budgetary effects can be strongly negative. With a starting age of 65, however, positive budgetary effects can be obtained relatively easy.


Prof. Dr. Harrie Verbon
Prof. Dr. Harrie Verbon is Emeritus hoogleraar openbare financiën aan de Universiteit van Tilburg en lid van de Rekenkamer Tilburg en Rekenkamercommissie Goirle, Dongen en Loon op Zand.
Reflectie & debat

Overheid en individu in een lege polder

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2020
Auteurs Albert Jan Kruiter

Albert Jan Kruiter

Dr. Nanke Verloo
Dr. Nanke Verloo is onderzoeker en docent aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en lid van de redactie van Beleid en Maatschappij.

Dr. Tamara Metze
Dr. Tamara Metze is voorzitter van de redactie van Beleid en Maatschappij.

    Beleidsonderzoek is een vak dat in de afgelopen vijftig jaar geleidelijk is ontwikkeld tot een echte professie. In dit essay wordt de eerste helft van deze periode beschreven en op diverse punten vergeleken met de huidige situatie. De terugblik bestaat uit drie onderdelen: professionalisering; relatie met opdrachtgevers; ambachtelijke aspecten.


Peter van Hoesel
Peter van Hoesel is emeritus hoogleraar toegepast beleidsonderzoek bij de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Hij was gedurende zijn gehele loopbaan actief als beleidsonderzoeker bij meerdere onderzoeksbureaus. Hij geeft regelmatig adviezen ten behoeve van beleidsevaluaties bij enkele ministeries. Hij is auteur en redacteur van diverse boeken over beleidsonderzoek.

    The vast majority of Dutch municipalities organize part of their activities on a smaller scale than those of the municipality as such: it is called intra-municipal organization. In this article an inventory is made of the existing knowledge about the effects of various forms of intra-municipal organization in the Netherlands. On the basis of recent research, this knowledge is supplemented and it is also made clear which forms of intra-municipal organization are currently used. An analysis is also made of what legal leeway Dutch municipalities have in this regard. A new and richer typology of intra-municipal organization is also being developed. Finally, the authors place the results of the research reported here in a broader perspective. In particular, they reflect on two presuppositions under many forms of intra-municipal organization, namely that activities are location specific and democracy must necessarily be of the ‘representative’ type. Its relevance for practitioners is that the article provides insight into the legal leeway for intra-municipal organization and into the design of intra-municipal organization. It also contains a reflection on the design of the intra-municipal organization.


Dr. Linze Schaap
Dr. L. Schaap was tot 1 augustus 2019 universitair hoofddocent aan de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur van de Universiteit van Tilburg en is sindsdien directeur van de Noordelijke Rekenkamer.

Dr. Gert-Jan Leenknegt
Dr. G. Leenknegt is universitair hoofddocent constitutioneel recht aan de Tilburg Law School van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Hulp bij het vormen van lokale coalities en colleges

De lokale externe (in)formateur in Nederland

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 1 2020
Auteurs Dirk Winkelmolen MSc en Dr. Julien van Ostaaijen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In many Dutch municipalities, a ‘local external (in)formateur’ is deployed after the municipal elections. Local (in)formateurs guide the process of coalition formation. They investigate which political parties and political groups want to work together and try to bring them closer together. They can also play a role in the board formation, such as selecting alderman candidates and allocating portfolios. External (in)formateurs come ‘from outside’. They do not have an official political or official position in the municipality where they do their work at the time of their deployment as informateur. In 2014, forty percent of the municipalities made use of such an external (information) officer. However, we still know relatively little about the work of these local external informateurs, their background and results. The authors try to fill that gap on the basis of a literature study, interviews with stakeholders and a survey among 115 local external informateurs. They also consider the added value of local external (in)formateurs for local democracy. The work of local external (in)formal formateurs can contribute to a stable and well-functioning municipal executive. Nonetheless, they tend to have a rather one-sided socio-demographic profile and the desired party political experience and involvement with the municipality can be at odds with the desired independence and objectivity.


Dirk Winkelmolen MSc
D. Winkelmolen MSc deed de master Bestuurskunde aan de Universiteit van Tilburg en is momenteel beleidsmedewerker Maatschappelijke Ontwikkeling in de gemeente Roerdalen (Limburg).

Dr. Julien van Ostaaijen
Dr. J.J.C. van Ostaaijen is universitair docent aan de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur van de Universiteit van Tilburg en voorzitter van de Rekenkamercommissie in de gemeente Zundert.
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