Zoekresultaat: 59 artikelen

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Artikel

De Algemene wet gelijke behandeling als mijlpaal in de geschiedenis van de Nederlandse homo-emancipatie

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden equal treatment legislation, gay and lesbian history, homosexual teachers, religious schools, sexual orientation discrimination
Auteurs Drs. Joke Swiebel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The General Equal Treatment Law – adopted in 1994 – is a landmark in the history of homosexual emancipation in the Netherlands. It took two decades before the first proposals for a legal ban of discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation would be transformed into law. Background of this controversy is the clash between the equalityprinciple and the freedom of education. The compromise reached – the so-called single fact-construction – however sent a double message: being gay was not a justified reason for unequal treatment, but some forms of behaviour were incorporated as a legal exception. It took another twenty years before this flaw in the law would be changed.
    This article analyses the political debates behind these legal developments. What was the problem that the various drafts for this new legislation were supposed to solve? Which definitions of discrimination on the basis of homosexuality were used and how did they change over time? The adoption of the law and its ‘reparation’ twenty years later are mainly a question of symbolic politics. They reflect the development of the growing acceptance of homosexuality in Dutch society and have stimulated its further growth. Their actual legal effects seem far less important.


Drs. Joke Swiebel
Drs. Joke Swiebel studeerde politicologie. Zij werkte negen jaar aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en 22 jaar als beleidsambtenaar voor de Rijksoverheid. Daarna (1999-2004) was zij lid van het Europees Parlement voor de PvdA. Een uitgebreidere versie van dit artikel is te vinden op https://jokeswiebel.nl/
Thema-artikel

Succesvol wethouderschap onder de loep

Bronnen van legitimiteit in de ogen van inwoners, raadsleden en wethouders

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Aldermen, Local government, Success, Politics, Legitimacy
Auteurs Drs. Peter Verheij
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Research into successful alderman is scarce. Scientifically less is known about the perspective of residents and council members on (successful) aldermen. A recent study investigated the sources of legitimacy that successful aldermen draw on. In addition, the contribution of characteristics of local political leadership to successful alderman has been examined. Based on a survey of residents, councilors and aldermen, differences in opinions about aldermen, aspects and indicators of legitimacy and personal characteristics were uncovered. There are clear differences in judgment, indicators and personal characteristics that are considered important and another source on which the judgment is based. This provides interesting and new research material for public administration literature as well as for administrative practice. The view of residents learns us that the distance to aldermen must be reduced, more connection must be made, a more outside view must be taken and an addition to the management style of councilors with responsive qualities is required.


Drs. Peter Verheij
Drs. P.J. Verheij RA is wethouder in de gemeente Alblasserdam en lid van de Raad voor het Openbaar Bestuur. Hij rondde recent een executive Master Bestuur en Beleid af aan de Universiteit Utrecht (USBO) met een onderzoek over succesvol wethouderschap. Dit artikel is een samenvatting van het betreffende onderzoek.
Thema-artikel

Access_open Op zoek naar succesvol gezag in het lokaal bestuur

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden municipal secretary, aldermen, authority, local governance, sources of legitimacy
Auteurs Drs. Thijs Jansen en Corné van der Meulen MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    When we look at the number of people leaving local governance, we see a discouraging trend. According to an investigation of the magazine Binnenlands Bestuur, 126 of 1144 aldermen in the Netherlands were forced to step down in 2019. Making 2019 the year with the highest number since 2004. The same trend can be seen with municipal secretaries. A municipal secretary used to be a lifetime appointment, yet now they often stay at their position for no more than 5 years.
    This is why it is of the utmost importance to understand the different functions within local governance and how they can be best understood. This number of Bestuurskunde contains articles that offer more in depth analysis towards successful factors of aldermen and municipal secretaries.


Drs. Thijs Jansen
Drs. T. Jansen is directeur van Stichting Beroepseer en senior wetenschappelijk projectmedewerker bij Centrum Èthos (Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam).

Corné van der Meulen MSc
C. van der Meulen MSc is projectleider/onderzoeker (www.beroepseer.nl) bij Stichting Beroepseer en doet onder andere onderzoek naar gezag in het lokaal bestuur.
Thema-artikel

Het gezag van gemeentesecretarissen beschouwd

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden authority, municipal secretary, local governance, sources of authority, leadership
Auteurs Corné van der Meulen MSc, Drs. Thijs Jansen en Drs. Niels Karsten
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The authority of a municipal secretary has to be continuously earned. This is a complex task that demands highly developed personal qualities and attributes. According to an opinion poll, filled out by 120 active municipal secretaries, they believe that they meet these necessary standards. In this poll they were asked what they recognize as their most important sources of authority. The top three answers were, respectively; personal leadership, trust, embodied ethics. Other important factors were their roles as chief executive officer of local governance and/or first advisor. These roles are however no longer enough to establish authority within local governance. Authority and influence must be earned on a daily basis in vastly different spheres and among different social groups.


Corné van der Meulen MSc
C. van der Meulen MSc is projectleider/onderzoeker (www.beroepseer.nl) bij Stichting Beroepseer en doet onder andere onderzoek naar gezag in het lokaal bestuur.

Drs. Thijs Jansen
Drs. T. Jansen is directeur van Stichting Beroepseer en senior wetenschappelijk projectmedewerker bij Centrum Èthos (Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam).

Drs. Niels Karsten
Dr. N. Karsten MA is universitair docent aan Tilburg University en adviseur bij Necker van Naem.
Thema-artikel

Van procedure naar praktijk

Inzet op effectieve onafhankelijkheidsborging bij het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden policy research organizations, research independence, political pressure, coping strategies, independence safeguards
Auteurs Dr. Femke Verwest, Dr. Eva Kunseler, Dr. Paul Diederen e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    If the stakes are high, policy researchers can find themselves under strong pressures from politicians or policy makers to compromise on issues like scope of a research project, research methodology, reporting, framing and interpretation of results, and timing of publication. Research organizations experiment with various formal and informal arrangements to cope with such pressures and guard their independence.
    This article describes six coping strategies that are being explored by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL). These are: i) taking control in determining the project scope and the research questions; ii) making responsibilities explicit and guarding respective roles; iii) installing a broad based societal project advisory group; iv) having some researchers in a project that interact with stakeholders, while keeping others at a distance; v) having a differentiated communications strategy; vi) being fully transparent as to hypotheses and uncertainties regarding data and models.
    Safeguarding independence in research through formal rules and provisions is generally insufficient to protect research from undue stakeholder influence. Also changes in labor routines, relationship management and organizational cultures are needed, not only on the researcher side, but on the stakeholder side as well. This calls for dialogue and joint learning processes.


Dr. Femke Verwest
Dr. F. Verwest is plaatsvervangend sectorhoofd bij het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving.

Dr. Eva Kunseler
Dr. E.M. Kunseler is wetenschappelijk medewerker bij het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving.

Dr. Paul Diederen
Dr. P.J.M. Diederen is coördinator bij het Rathenau Instituut.

Dr. Patricia Faasse
Dr. P.E. Faasse is senior onderzoeker bij het Rathenau Instituut.

    This essay is written on the occasion of the appearance of the Dutch translation of Richard Sennett’s new book Building and dwelling. Ethics for the city. For more than half a century Sennett has been occupied with the position of man in the changing society in general and with the life of people in the city in particular. Apparently he doesn’t stop thinking and writing about it. His central thesis is that in the past decades, we have worked from the vision of the ‘closed city’, a city that was conceived and designed by professionals in advance, while for the future there is a need for an ‘open city’, a city where not everything is carefully planned in advance, but where there is room for unpredictability and coincidences. That sounds and is very abstract indeed, but it is a signal that is being delivered in the direction of a city nowadays controlled by state and capital, that should make room for a city that is more inspired by civil initiatives and civil involvement. A statement that is, moreover, largely at odds with the current practice of urban design and spatial planning in the present era. Does this mean that Richard Sennett’s central message has actually been said in advance against ‘deaf ears’? Is the chance that ‘his mission’ ends up in the right place already gone in advance? When we talk about the city Sennett distinguishes between two (and inseparable) dimensions: the city as a physical space (‘ville’) and the city as a whole of people of flesh and blood (‘cité’). It is a fascinating quest for the phenomenon of city: an ‘academic pilgrimage’ to an uncertain urban site, an ‘open city’, undergoing the purification of talking with the great figures in the history of (urban) sociology and urban planning.


Prof. dr. Nico Nelissen
Prof. dr. N.J.M. Nelissen is emeritus hoogleraar aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, redactielid en oud-hoofdredacteur van Bestuurswetenschappen.
Thema-artikel ‘Uitgesproken Bestuurskunde’

Bestuurswetenschap in de kennissamenleving

Een pleidooi voor een transdisciplinaire en veelvormige wetenschapsbenadering

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden research program, knowledge society, transdisciplinarity, plural approach, technology
Auteurs Prof. dr. Albert Meijer
Samenvatting

    This article presents the research program into governance in a knowledge society of professor Albert Meijer and colleagues at Utrecht University. The knowledge society is a society in which (1) citizens are higher educated that ever before and their level of education largely determines their societal position, (2) knowledge plays a key role in administrative and policy processes and is increasingly contested and (3) technology plays a key role in every facet of societal life. Research into governance of and in the knowledge society requires a transdisciplinary and plural approach to scientific work. Transdisciplinarity entails combining insights from science with various forms of contextual and practical knowledge. A plural approach to scientific works means that we should not only do explanatory empirical work but also theoretical, normative and prescriptive research. The overall ambition of this research program is to contribute to a democratic debate about the governance of the future.


Prof. dr. Albert Meijer
Artikel

De opkomst van voedselbeleid: voorbij de tekentafel

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Food policy, Food system, Agricultural policy, Policy integration, Policy instruments
Auteurs Dr. Jeroen Candel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    To address a range of interconnected food-related challenges, Dutch policymakers have invested in the development of integrated food policy in recent years. This article discusses this development in two parts. The first part contains a detailed description of the main events and lines of thinking that characterized the food policy process. From this description it becomes clear that food policy has been gradually developing towards a separate institutionalized policy domain. In the second part, this development is analysed from a policy integration perspective. This analysis shows that although considerable steps towards strengthened policy integration have been made, the Dutch ‘Food agenda’ does not yet proceed beyond symbolic levels. This particularly shows in the absence of concrete policy goals and in a policy instrument mix that has not been adjusted to strengthen consistency and effectiveness. In addition, the involvement of relevant ministries gradually decreased after the initial stages. The article concludes that the food policy process has arrived at a critical juncture: the next steps of the new government will prove decisive for whether food policy integration intentions will advance beyond the drawing board. Political and administrative leadership are identified as key conditions for such further steps to occur.


Dr. Jeroen Candel
Dr. Jeroen Candel is universitair docent bij de Bestuurskundegroep van de Wageningen Universiteit.
Artikel

Hoe wethouders hun eigen gezag waarnemen

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Authority, Aldermen, Mayors, Self-report, Local government
Auteurs Corné van der Meulen MSc, Drs. Thijs Jansen en Dr. Niels Karsten MA
Samenvatting

    Over the last four years, one in five Dutch aldermen was forced to step down involuntarily. Drawing on a survey among the 2018 population of these local political-executives, the article evaluates office holders’ self-perceived authority in four authorizing environments, that is the municipal council, the municipal board, among civil servants, and among citizens. The results show that, contrary to the authority-crisis thesis, Dutch aldermen perceive quite a high level of authority overall. Current office holders name trustworthiness as their main source of authority, followed by their personal style in executing their tasks and their moral leadership. This finding illustrates the individualization of contemporary authority at the expense of institutional and positional sources of authority.


Corné van der Meulen MSc

Drs. Thijs Jansen

Dr. Niels Karsten MA

Claartje Brons

Drs. Thijs Jansen
Artikel

Cybersecurity: waar is de bestuurskunde?

Een schets van aangrijpingspunten voor toekomstig overheidsbeleid

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden cybersecurity, public administration, governance
Auteurs Drs. Michel van Leeuwen en Drs. Nelly Ghaoui
Samenvatting

    In this article the case is made that, unjustly, there is a lack of interest in the topic of cybersecurity of on the part of public administration scholars and professionals in the topic of cybersecurity. ICT has become persistent in society and so has cybercrime, cyber sabotage and cyberespionage. The threats are real and growing. There is market failure and consequently there is a need for government intervention. This poses new challenges to governments as jurisdiction problems and sovereignty-issues arise, together with the dominance of private actors. The authors argue that a multistakeholder approach in such a networked environment is crucial but not sufficient. The concepts of Lessig and Thaler/Sunstein are used to sketch new and broader potential policy strategies.


Drs. Michel van Leeuwen

Drs. Nelly Ghaoui

    In this feature authors review recently published books on subjects of interest to readers of Beleid en Maatschappij.


Ewald Engelen
Ewald Engelen is voorzitter van de redactie van Beleid en Maatschappij.
Redactioneel

Van De Redactie

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2016
Auteurs Prof. dr. Ewald Engelen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This editorial offers an introduction to the current issue.


Prof. dr. Ewald Engelen
Prof. dr. Ewald Engelen is voorzitter van de redactie van Beleid en Maatschappij.
Artikel

Nieuw systeem, nieuwe kansen?

Ouders in Amsterdam-West over (de)segregatie in het basisonderwijs.

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Segregation, Educational reform, Parents, Attitudes, Amsterdam
Auteurs Dr. Bowen Paulle, Drs. Jonathan Mijs en Drs. Anja Vink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2015 Amsterdam introduced a new primary school admissions system. This system is rooted in various desegregation pilots, including two based on the ‘controlled choice’ approach. In conjunction with one of these pilots located in West Amsterdam, we researched the criteria parents used while thinking about (de-)segregation in primary schools and parents’ attitudes regarding the controlled choice approach. Due to political developments between 2008 and 2011, we considered our data useless for policy discussions. The introduction of a new admissions system, however, gives our data a newfound relevance. This article therefore describes how parents in socio-economically diverse neighbourhoods think about segregation and school choice. The 249 parents we interviewed or surveyed supported schools with a ‘good mix’, but they had diverging opinions about the meaning of such terms. The parents were optimistic with regard to controlled choice, even if this could in some ways limit their own options. We conclude that the political resistance to desegregation at the primary school level cannot be justified by empirically unfounded claims about the perceptions and preferences of parents. We hope that our findings may lead to empirically grounded policy evaluation and policy making.


Dr. Bowen Paulle
Dr. Bowen Paulle is universitair docent sociologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Drs. Jonathan Mijs
Drs. Jonathan Mijs is promovendus in de sociologie aan Harvard University.

Drs. Anja Vink
Anja Vink is journalist voor onder andere Vrij Nederland, NRC Handelsblad en De Correspondent, en auteur van Witte zwanen, zwarte zwanen de mythe van de zwarte school. Ze heeft gedoceerd aan onder andere de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

    Reflection and debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Leonard Ornstein
Leonard Ornstein is politiek redacteur van Buitenhof. Hij werkt aan een dissertatie over het leven van W.S.P. Fortuyn (1948-2002).
Symposium

De afstand tussen wetenschap en beleid

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 3 2016
Auteurs Bea Cantillon, Marleen Brans, Evelien Tonkens e.a.
Auteursinformatie

Bea Cantillon
Bea Cantillon is gewoon hoogleraar en directeur van het Centrum voor Sociaal Beleid (CSB) – Herman Deleeck aan de Universiteit Antwerpen.

Marleen Brans
Marleen Brans is hoogleraar aan het Instituut voor de Overheid van de KU Leuven.

Evelien Tonkens
Evelien Tonkens is hoogleraar Burgerschap en humanisering van de publieke sector aan de Universiteit voor Humanistiek.

Corné van der Meulen
Corné van der Meulen is medewerker goed werk bij de Stichting Beroepseer. Voor de stichting doet hij onderzoek in voornamelijk de zorgsector en is hij verantwoordelijk voor de uitgeverij waarbij het boek Goed werk voor academici verschijnt.
Artikel

Professioneel vermogen

Proactieve ‘coping’ door publieke professionals

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden Public professionals, Teachers, performance pressures, proactive coping, professional capability
Auteurs Prof. dr. Mirko Noordegraaf, Nina van Loon MSc, Madelon Heerema MSc e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Professional services such as educational services, are increasingly managed and optimized in order to improve performances. Performances of students, teachers and school (boards) are measured and evaluated. Increasingly, rules and systems focus on outputs and control. Consequently, the ‘freedom’ of professionals such as teachers is reduced, or is perceived and felt to be reduced. There have been growing debates on the problematic effects of performance pressures. Often, public professionals are seen as ‘defenseless victims’ of systems and pressures – they are ‘professionals under pressure’. In this paper, we introduce a more positive way of understanding professionals and professional action in changing contexts. We see professionals such as teachers as ‘active agents’ who can develop and regain control over their own situation. Professionals can deliver quality, in spite of bureaucratic burdens and managerial intrusions. We call this ability professional capability: ‘the ability to proactively deal with work-related expectations, tasks and burdens in dynamic stakeholder environments’. This paper combines research on public administration, organizational sociology and occupational psychology, to generate a more productive understanding of proactive coping of professionals in public domains. We define and operationalize professional capacity, we explore sources and effects, and we develop hypotheses for further research.


Prof. dr. Mirko Noordegraaf
Prof. dr. Mirko Noordegraaf is als hoogleraar publiek management verbonden aan het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Nina van Loon MSc
Nina van Loon MSc was als promovenda verbonden aan het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht en is thans werkzaam bij Aarhus University, Denemarken.

Madelon Heerema MSc
Madelon Heerema MSc is als researcher verbonden aan het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Marit Weggemans MSc
Marit Weggemans MSc was als student-assistent verbonden aan het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Verdien ik niet te veel?

Loonfatsoen voor bestuurskundigen

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden income differences, maximum wage in the public sector
Auteurs Prof. dr. Margo Trappenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During the first decades after World War II income policy was an important topic of public debate in the Netherlands. This changed in the eighties and nineties when gross wages were ‘demoralized’ and taken off the political agenda. Income policy was deemed pointless, inefficient, or superfluous. Moreover wages were determined according to technocratic schemes designed by consultancy firms. These schemes encourage employees to compare themselves with people with a comparable education in other organizations rather than with coworkers in their own organization thus fostering a caste mentality.
    However, following the financial crisis a cry for remoralization was launched which ended in a new law which determined that civil servants and top administrators in public organizations should never earn more than a government minister (178.000 euros per annum). In this article it is argued that such a partial remoralization of the highest wages in the public sector is unsatisfactory. It is argued that wages at large should be a moral topic for organizations that should explain their reward policy for their highest and lowest employees, thus encouraging workers to see themselves as members of their organization rather than their educational caste. Public administration scholars should play a role in this debate.


Prof. dr. Margo Trappenburg
Prof. dr. M.J. Trappenburg is universitair hoofddocent Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschappen aan de Universiteit Utrecht en bijzonder hoogleraar aan de Universiteit voor Humanistiek. Zij publiceert over gezondheidszorgbeleid, de verzorgingsstaat en over ethische vraagstukken. In 2014 verscheen van haar hand Loonfatsoen. Eerlijk verdienen of graaicultuur?, samen met Wout Scholten en Thijs Jansen. Trappenburg heeft een eigen website: www.margotrappenburg.nl.
Artikel

Snijden in eigen vlees

De waarden van topambtenaren en het implementeren van bezuinigingen

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden cutback management, top civil servants, public values, public management
Auteurs Eduard Schmidt MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Governments throughout the whole world feel the need to cut spending due to the current financial crisis. The Netherlands are no exception in this matter. Top civil servants are up to the task to implement these cutbacks within their own organizations. However, not much is known about what influences their choice for certain implementation strategies. One factor of interest are the values of top civil servants, which are supposed to be influenced by their work experience. This is a relevant factor, since the introduction of New Public Management made it more common for managers from the private sector to reach the higher echelons of government. Top civil servants with different backgrounds and from different Dutch ministries were interviewed for this study. It seems that using across-the-board cuts are present within Dutch ministries, sometimes combined with targeted cuts. Surprisingly, no differences in values and implementation strategies were found between managers with and without experience in the private sector, contrary to expectation. The implementation strategies used seem mainly influenced by values such as soberness and thrift, values which are not present in current public values literature.


Eduard Schmidt MSc
J.E.T. Schmidt, MSc is promovendus op het NWO-project Explaining cutback management strategies in public sector organisations: change leadership in times of crisis bij het Instituut Bestuurskunde, Campus Den Haag, Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Bestuurskunde voorbij het maakbaarheidsdenken?

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden social engineering, greedy governance, modest public governance, practical rationality
Auteurs Robert van Putten MSc MA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Public Administration has been confronted with an emerging body of literature on the subject of social engineering and the limitedness of governing society. At the same time, governance is considered to be more greedy. The aim of this article is to consider the implications of the boundaries of social engineering for Public Administration. This article reflects on these implications as follows. Firstly, this article gives an analysis of the relation between governance, policy and feasibility. Secondly, different definitions of feasibility are developed and related to Public Administration. These elements lead to the conclusion that Public Administration is part of the culture of perfecting. Thirdly, after rejecting fatalism, a new perspective for Public Administration can be found in thinking based on practical rationality.


Robert van Putten MSc MA
R.J. van Putten MSc MA is filosoof en bestuurskundige. Hij is werkzaam als promovendus en docent aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschap & Politicologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
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