Zoekresultaat: 31 artikelen

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Thema-artikel

Leren van de WODC-casus

Formele en professionele waarborgen voor onafhankelijk onderzoek vergen onderhoud

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden professional safeguards, policy influence, independence, scientific research
Auteurs Dr. Meike Bokhorst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the relationship between the Ministry of Justice and Security and the Scientific Research and Documentation Center, safeguards to prevent improper influence of research were lacking. In the opinion of the WODC II investigation committee, civil servants were too close to the substantive execution of the investigation, as a result of which the WODC was given too little room for critical investigation. For other ministries and knowledge institutions the question is relevant as to what safeguards are needed for conducting independent research. Rules and procedures are not sufficient for creating and maintaining responsible research practices. It is also important that employees learn to recognize difficult situations, can discuss these with their colleagues, and know how to deal with dilemmas. Other organizations can learn from the WODC issue that they must maintain and recalibrate the formal and professional safeguards for the independence of scientific research. Trust in science stands or falls with independence and soundness in word and deed.


Dr. Meike Bokhorst
Dr. A.M. Bokhorst is senior wetenschappelijk medewerker bij de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid en onderzoeker bij de Universiteit Utrecht. Zij was als onderzoeksleider en auteur betrokken bij het rapport van de onderzoekscommissie over de relatie WODC en beleid.
Thema-artikel

Access_open Onafhankelijk onderzoek in positie, oordeelsvorming en beeldvorming

Institutionele en professionele dimensies van ‘speaking truth to power’

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden Independent Research, Policy Evaluation, Organisational Culture, Public Policy, Quality Management
Auteurs Dr. Peter van der Knaap, Dr. Meike Bokhorst en Dr. Yvonne Kleistra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Regularly, doubts about the independence of research leads to heated discussion. This is especially true if things have gone wrong. This issue explores the question how research organizations and researchers can defend themselves against improper influence: the conscious and active pursuit of too positive research results by commissioners or government officials. This article outlines a number of dimensions of how establishing good, independent research can be structured in a systematic and sensible manner. Independent inquiry manifests itself in position, judgment, and appearance or image. Institutional safeguards form the basis for professional roles and responsibilities that can fulfill the requirements of independent research in the political arena.


Dr. Peter van der Knaap
Dr. P. van der Knaap is directeur-bestuurder van SWOV, voorzitter van Vide en redactielid van Bestuurskunde.

Dr. Meike Bokhorst
Dr. A.M. Bokhorst is onderzoeker bij de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid en bij de Universiteit Utrecht.

Dr. Yvonne Kleistra
Dr. Y. Kleistra is universitair docent aan de Universiteit Leiden en redactielid van Bestuurskunde.
Thema-artikel

Van procedure naar praktijk

Inzet op effectieve onafhankelijkheidsborging bij het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden policy research organizations, research independence, political pressure, coping strategies, independence safeguards
Auteurs Dr. Femke Verwest, Dr. Eva Kunseler, Dr. Paul Diederen e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    If the stakes are high, policy researchers can find themselves under strong pressures from politicians or policy makers to compromise on issues like scope of a research project, research methodology, reporting, framing and interpretation of results, and timing of publication. Research organizations experiment with various formal and informal arrangements to cope with such pressures and guard their independence.
    This article describes six coping strategies that are being explored by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL). These are: i) taking control in determining the project scope and the research questions; ii) making responsibilities explicit and guarding respective roles; iii) installing a broad based societal project advisory group; iv) having some researchers in a project that interact with stakeholders, while keeping others at a distance; v) having a differentiated communications strategy; vi) being fully transparent as to hypotheses and uncertainties regarding data and models.
    Safeguarding independence in research through formal rules and provisions is generally insufficient to protect research from undue stakeholder influence. Also changes in labor routines, relationship management and organizational cultures are needed, not only on the researcher side, but on the stakeholder side as well. This calls for dialogue and joint learning processes.


Dr. Femke Verwest
Dr. F. Verwest is plaatsvervangend sectorhoofd bij het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving.

Dr. Eva Kunseler
Dr. E.M. Kunseler is wetenschappelijk medewerker bij het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving.

Dr. Paul Diederen
Dr. P.J.M. Diederen is coördinator bij het Rathenau Instituut.

Dr. Patricia Faasse
Dr. P.E. Faasse is senior onderzoeker bij het Rathenau Instituut.
Artikel

Access_open Hogere waardering voor gemengde wijk

Bewoners in Rotterdam Zuidwijk over de instroom en ingreep in hun veranderende wijk

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Perception of neighbourhood change, Diversity, Belonging, Social mix, Social housing
Auteurs Dr. ir. André Ouwehand
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper investigates the effects of neighbourhood change caused by the inflow of new residents in the still existing social rental stock in a post-World War II district next to the effects of the changing population as the result of urban restructuring. All residents, native Dutch and residents that belong to an ethnic minority, are critical about the occurring concentration of the latter in the existing rental housing stock. Loss of respectability and of shared norms and values of how to live in the neighbourhood play an important role in the critical stance of mostly older Dutch native residents. Residents with a migrant background criticize the concentration as a negative influence for their integration in Dutch society. Most residents support the idea of a mixed neighbourhood based on income and ethnicity. Restructuring by demolition of old social rental dwellings and new housing development for owner-occupiers is supported by most residents, based on the positive impact on the liveability. Urban restructuring has however not decreased the share of non-Dutch-native residents but it did bring more middle-class households. In the view of the residents these are ‘decent people’ as they have to work in daytime and do not linger at night in the streets.


Dr. ir. André Ouwehand
Dr. ir. André Ouwehand is gastonderzoeker OTB – Onderzoek voor de gebouwde omgeving aan de faculteit Bouwkunde van de Technische Universiteit Delft.
Thema-artikel

Access_open De blik naar buiten: bestuurlijke verbouwingen in het buitenland

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2019
Trefwoorden bestuurlijke hervormingen, bestuurlijke ontwikkeling, internationale vergelijking, New Public Management, New Public Governance
Auteurs Prof. dr. Joop Koppenjan en Dr. Willemijn Dicke
Samenvatting

    In this special issue, recent public sector reforms in South Africa, Denmark, Belgium, Mexico, Singapore and Denmark are analysed. Reforms in the public sector are by and large explained as a chronological development from traditional bureaucracy, via New Public Management to New Public Governance. This is also the way the many administrative reforms in the Dutch public sector are often explained.
    The articles give insight in the administrative developments in these countries and their background. They also offer the opportunity to make comparisons with administrative developments in the Netherlands, and to draw lessons. The analyses show that the dominant explanation of reforms in the public sector (from traditional bureaucracy, to New Public Management to New Public Governance) is helpful in making sense of administrative developments, but they put this explanation into perspective too.
    For the Dutch situation yet another insight came to light. We often complain that the Dutch processes are cumbersome, take long and involve many -if not all- stakeholders. A close reading of the contributions from abroad must inevitably change this pejorative view on our national sport: the cumbersome process provides valuable checks and balances, that will help to fight the drawbacks and risks that we have seen in the international cases.


Prof. dr. Joop Koppenjan

Dr. Willemijn Dicke
Artikel

Voorlopige contouren van bestuursgericht toezicht

Empirische inzichten in jonge praktijken van bestuursgericht toezicht

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Governance, Regulation, Oversight
Auteurs Prof. dr. Thomas Schillemans, Dr. Meike Bokhorst, Dr. Marieke van Genugten e.a.
Samenvatting

    The regulatory agencies in various public service sectors are said to be changing (some) of their regulatory attention issues of internal governance of organizations in education, health care en social housing. This paper aims to assess how (if, at all) responsible actors within those organizations experience this shift in regulatory focus. We report on the findings from a survey with modest N, distributed at an early stage of this new policy. The paper shows that respondents have fairly divergent views on whether or not this regulatory shift has indeed occurred, something which is not uncommon for a new policy. We distinguish three mechanisms through which governance-based oversight may have an impact on public service providers. This new regulatory regime could 1) have an agenda-setting effect within organizations, could 2) stimulate organizational decision-makers to take well-considered decisions and could 3) induce a sense of relational felt accountability towards the regulator.


Prof. dr. Thomas Schillemans

Dr. Meike Bokhorst

Dr. Marieke van Genugten

Dr. Mirjan Oude Vrielink
Artikel

Naar bestuursgericht toezicht in de zorg: een zoektocht naar passendheid

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden healthcare governance, management-oriented regulation, experimenting, recoupling, reflective regulation
Auteurs Dr. Annemiek Stoopendaal en Dr. Hester van de Bovenkamp
Samenvatting

    In this article, we discuss how regulation of governance in healthcare has been shaped over the past decade. We describe the presuppositions under this movement. Searching and balancing was needed to meet the complexity of care management. This has to do with the fact that the external pressure on the regulator after incidents is high. Due to this pressure, it is necessary to constantly ensure that management-oriented regulation does not narrow to the supervision on the actor with final responsibility. The regulation of good governance requires reflectivity of the inspectors and is aimed at stimulating recoupling between management and shop floors. This requires space for experimentation for both managers and inspectors. To provide this space, we do not only need a political and social debate about the quality of care and its management, but also attention and appreciation for the difficult considerations of organizing care.


Dr. Annemiek Stoopendaal

Dr. Hester van de Bovenkamp
Artikel

Access_open Van toezicht op kwaliteit naar toezicht op bestuur

Ontwikkeling van bestuursgericht toezicht in semipublieke sectoren

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2018
Trefwoorden Inspection, Governance, Semipublic sector, Quality improvement, Opportunities and risks
Auteurs Dr. Meike Bokhorst, Dr. Marieke van Genugten, Dr. Mirjan Oude Vrielink e.a.
Samenvatting

    In Dutch semi-public sectors of education, healthcare, and housing there is a tendency towards governance based inspection. The attention of inspectorates shifts from inspection on minimum quality standards to inspection on governance based quality improvement. The aim of this special issue is to learn more about the opportunities and risks of governance based inspection. The survey and sector articles show that governance based inspection (1) puts the responsibility of governors to stimulate quality on the agenda, (2) makes governors more aware of the quality targets they want to achieve within their organisations, and (3) has a deregulating effect. However, the risks are (1) reregulation via sector norms, (2) a lack of reality checks, and (3) a narrow focus on governors instead of the quality of public services. Consequently, inspectors have to learn new skills and competences. All in all, governance based inspection can complement but not replace other ways of inspection.


Dr. Meike Bokhorst

Dr. Marieke van Genugten

Dr. Mirjan Oude Vrielink

Prof. dr. Thomas Schillemans
Artikel

Hoe wethouders hun eigen gezag waarnemen

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden Authority, Aldermen, Mayors, Self-report, Local government
Auteurs Corné van der Meulen MSc, Drs. Thijs Jansen en Dr. Niels Karsten MA
Samenvatting

    Over the last four years, one in five Dutch aldermen was forced to step down involuntarily. Drawing on a survey among the 2018 population of these local political-executives, the article evaluates office holders’ self-perceived authority in four authorizing environments, that is the municipal council, the municipal board, among civil servants, and among citizens. The results show that, contrary to the authority-crisis thesis, Dutch aldermen perceive quite a high level of authority overall. Current office holders name trustworthiness as their main source of authority, followed by their personal style in executing their tasks and their moral leadership. This finding illustrates the individualization of contemporary authority at the expense of institutional and positional sources of authority.


Corné van der Meulen MSc

Drs. Thijs Jansen

Dr. Niels Karsten MA
Artikel

De ongekende effecten van deregulering: een experiment in Hollands Kroon

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden deregulation, deviant behavior, policy experiment, social control
Auteurs Dr. Peter Kruyen, Prof. dr. Taco Brandsen en Dr. Berry Tholen
Samenvatting

    What happens in the case of massive deregulation in the local public domain? Despite the widespread call for ‘less regulation’, the effects of large-scale deregulation have received surprisingly little academic attention. In this article, we present the results of a longitudinal study on the effects of deregulation in the Dutch municipality of Hollands Kroon. The municipality abolished a vast number of regulations on public order offences in a radical two-year policy experiment, encouraging citizens to exercise more social control. In contrast, criticasters expected that the experiment would lead to more public offenses and conflict. Based on our data collected over three survey rounds; focus groups with citizens, politicians and civil servants; and several secondary data sources, we conclude that there was little effect: neither an increase in public order offences, nor an increase in social control. Our research shows that, in the short term, deregulation did not significantly affect the behavior of citizens.


Dr. Peter Kruyen

Prof. dr. Taco Brandsen

Dr. Berry Tholen
Artikel

Access_open Wat maakt slimme sturing slim?

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden smart governance, hybrid governance, self-organization, adaptive capacity
Auteurs Prof. dr. Joop Koppenjan, Prof. dr. ir. Katrien Termeer en Dr. Philip Marcel Karré
Samenvatting

    Wicked problems ask for new, smart forms of governance beyond a singular focus on hierarchy, market or community. Based on the case studies presented in the individual articles of this special issue, this concluding article describes what smart governance could entail and discusses its strengths and weaknesses, both as a concept and a practical tool.


Prof. dr. Joop Koppenjan

Prof. dr. ir. Katrien Termeer

Dr. Philip Marcel Karré

    In this feature authors discuss recent research findings that are of interest to readers of Beleid en Maatschappij.


Prof. dr. Monique Kremer
Prof. dr. Monique Kremer is werkzaam bij de WRR en als bijzonder hoogleraar Actief Burgerschap bij de afdeling Sociologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

    In this feature authors discuss recent research findings that are of interest to readers of Beleid en Maatschappij.


Dr. Marleen van der Haar
Dr. Marleen van der Haar werkt als adviseur-onderzoeker bij het PON, een onderzoeksinstituut voor maatschappelijke vraagstukken in Tilburg. Daarnaast is zij als onderzoeker geaffilieerd aan de afdeling Politicologie/Institute for Management Research van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, waar zij tussen 2011 en 2016 als postdoc-onderzoeker en docent werkte. Haar onderzoeksexpertise ligt vooral op het gebied van integratiebeleid, sociaal werk en in- en uitsluitingsvraagstukken.
Article

Het zou zomaar een zootje kunnen worden

Een Q-methodologisch onderzoek naar de ideeën van non-participanten over de relatie tussen representatieve en participatieve democratie op lokaal niveau

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 1 2017
Auteurs Jante Schmidt en Margo Trappenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    New forms of participatory and deliberative democracy gain popularity alongside traditional representative democracy at the local level in the Netherlands. In this article we look at passive citizens defined as citizens who do not participate in any of the new practices. How do they perceive the shift from traditional to new forms of democracy (defined as stakeholder democracy, deliberative polling and associative or ‘do’ democracy)? We performed a Q-methodological study to find patterns of opinion among passive citizens. We found three patterns. Critical citizens are critical about both traditional representative democracy and new forms of democracy. Loyal citizens support traditional local democracy and do not think the shift to other forms is a change for the better. Distant citizens find that politicians should first and foremost uphold the law and act as referees when citizens disagree. This task has been neglected over the years but this deficiency cannot be remedied by new forms of democracy. All three patterns of opinion are cause for concern for the advocates of more participatory and deliberative democracy. While these new forms may restore faith in politics among active citizens they may simultaneously alienate passive citizens.


Jante Schmidt
Jante Schmidt is socioloog en promovenda aan de Universiteit voor Humanistiek. Haar onderzoek gaat over menselijke waardigheid in de ‘participatiesamenleving’: de effecten van de hervorming van de verzorgingsstaat op morele emoties in de context van zorg en ondersteuning.

Margo Trappenburg
Margo Trappenburg is universitair hoofddocent bestuurs- en organisatiewetenschappen aan de Universiteit Utrecht en bijzonder hoogleraar aan de Universiteit voor Humanistiek. Haar onderzoek gaat over veranderingen in de verzorgingsstaat en de gevolgen daarvan voor kwetsbare groepen, andere burgers en professionals.

    Do energy cooperatives work together with municipalities in the area of energy and, if this is so, how can this cooperative relationship be interpreted from a public administration perspective? That is the central question of this article. The experiences with cooperation of four frontrunners amongst the energy cooperatives show that in many areas a fruitful cooperative relationship has been developed. In other areas cooperation is lacking because the municipality stands aloof as soon as the energy cooperative provides services to citizens and/or companies or because the purchase of green energy by the municipality from their own energy cooperative cannot simply be carried out. In the development of renewable energy projects it also suits municipalities to be reluctant because they not only promote local renewable energy but are also responsible for the spatial quality. From the perspective of public administration it is striking that the variety of municipal roles increases the complexity of cooperative relationship with energy cooperatives. For energy cooperatives it is difficult to understand that the municipality sometimes behaves like an ally, but can also be reluctant. The variety of the bond between both parties is first of all apparent from the need of an own identity and autonomy in the energy cooperatives. Secondly, two of the four energy cooperatives that were analysed needed support in a financial emergency.


Dr. Hans Hufen
Dr. J.A.M. Hufen is senior onderzoeker en adviseur bij Questions, Answers and More (QA+).

    Local authorities know for some time from experience with partnerships with local communities in the area of sustainable development that the urgency of climate change increases and that citizens develop into an equal partner. The convergence of these two motivations asks for an innovative way of acting, in which the performance of local authorities is a crucial factor for the ultimate success of local sustainable energy projects in which citizens are actively involved or will be involved. This article exposes the ways in which local authorities innovate with policy for the support of active citizenship in the production of locally generated sustainable energy. The article also explores the barriers that arise. The authors analyse two cases on different levels of government; ‘The Energy-workplace’ (in the Dutch province Fryslân) and ‘The Armhoede sustainable energy landscape’ (in the Dutch municipality Lochem). The cases show that policy innovations crystallize as well at ‘arm’s length’ distance as in the direct sphere of influence of the (local) authority. However, innovation takes place by the grace of the space in the existing institutional framework and the political (and administrative) system. Formal guidelines (like policy or regulation), persons, and informal practices of the traditional policy implementation may hinder a productive interaction between (active) citizens and government.


Beau Warbroek MSc
W.D.B. Warbroek MSc is promovendus aan het Department of Governance and Technology for Sustainability (CSTM) van de Universiteit Twente en de stichting University Campus Fryslân (UCF).

Dr. Thomas Hoppe
Dr. T. Hoppe is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de Multi-Actor Systems-vakgroep (MAS-POLG) van de Technische Universiteit Delft.
Diversen: Rubrieken

Bronnen van legitimiteit

Over de zoektocht van de wetgever naar zeggenschap en gezag

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2016
Artikel

Systematisch leren van evalueren

Waarden, effectiviteit, onafhankelijkheid en kwaliteit als pijlers voor de brug tussen wetenschap en politiek

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Policy, Evaluation, Accountability, Learning, Values
Auteurs Prof. Dr. André Knottnerus, Dr. Peter de Goede en Dr. Peter van der Knaap
Samenvatting

    Policy evaluation has two main functions: it should lead to policy oriented learning and facilitate accountability. Rendering account is considered an important democratic duty but is not very popular with politicians and, hence, public officials. Learning is popular, but in practice it is often difficult to organize or, indeed, witness.
    This contribution addresses the question how, in both functions, policy evaluation could be better utilized. As a starting point we the tension between scientific and political rationality and the barriers associated with these different worlds to the development of knowledge.
    As indispensable for sound and productive knowledge management in government the article outlines the importance of societal values, policy effectiveness as a research angle, and the independence of researchers at major evaluations. In addition, relevant research questions, high methodological quality, responsiveness, good timing, and clear and accessible reporting are indispensable. It is argued that these are by no means abstract notions but can be brought into real day-to-day practice.
    The conclusion is that a knowledge agenda for policy evaluation that is based on the search for effective policy interventions and societal values can help to bridge politics and science.


Prof. Dr. André Knottnerus

Dr. Peter de Goede

Dr. Peter van der Knaap
Artikel

De parlementarisatie van Europees economisch beleid

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden European Parliament, politicisation, economic policy, democratic deficit
Auteurs Dr. Adriaan Schout, Jan Marinus Wiersma, Mariana Gomes Neto e.a.
Samenvatting

    Since the euro crisis the EU has seen a deepening of integration with a new framework for economic and budgetary coordination. With the new framework reforms in pension or housing market are coordinated at the European level. This comprehensive set of rules and monitoring mechanisms has revived the debate on Europe’s democratic deficit. This article describes how the European Parliament (EP) tries to fill the democratic void in economic governance. The EP’s formal role is limited, but by using mostly informal mechanisms the EP is setting in motion an incremental process towards further control. This development should be seen in light of a political battle on the interpretation of the new rules, which has accordingly become increasingly politicized. The Dutch have always wanted a European economic policy on the basis of technocracy and rules, but at the same time Europe’s political union draws ever closer.


Dr. Adriaan Schout

Jan Marinus Wiersma

Mariana Gomes Neto

David Bokhorst

    Een lerende overheid heeft behoefte aan beleidsevaluaties die niet alleen van betekenis zijn voor het onderwerp waarop deze primair gericht zijn, maar ook bijdragen aan bredere, systematische opbouw van kennis en ervaring. Het interdepartementaal verbinden van expertise verruimt daarbij het zicht op factoren die het leren bevorderen of belemmeren.
    Een centrale vraag is of de door het beleid beoogde publieke belangen inderdaad bevorderd worden. Beleidsevaluatie moet dan niet alleen gericht zijn op effectiviteit en doelmatigheid ten aanzien van relatief gemakkelijk meetbare indicatoren, maar ook op lastig te kwantificeren essentiële waarden zoals subjectief welzijn, rechtvaardigheid en maatschappelijke aanvaardbaarheid. Het verdient aanbeveling kostbare evaluatie-energie te concentreren op belangrijke kwesties waarover vooraf discussie of onzekerheid bestaat.
    Uit een oogpunt van doelmatige beleidsvoorbereiding, en omdat de uitwerking van wetgeving en beleid ex post niet altijd eenvoudig is vast te stellen, is veel aandacht nodig voor ex ante evaluatie. Van onderzoek naar werkingsmechanismen van beleidsmaatregelen wordt in dit verband terecht veel verwacht.
    Er is sprake van een paradoxaal spanningsveld tussen verwetenschappelijking en politisering van beleid. Daarom is stevig verankerde, onafhankelijke en onpartijdige beleidsevaluatie onmisbaar. Hoge methodologische kwaliteit biedt extra houvast om deze functie geloofwaardig te kunnen vervullen.
    In het streven naar systematische opbouw van kennis en ervaring naast dossier-specifieke doelbereiking kan het helpen als evaluaties zowel een specifiek als een breder geldend algemeen deel bevatten. Belangrijk is ook te sturen op een evenwichtige evaluatieportfolio per beleidsterrein, met aandacht voor ex ante en ex post methoden, uiteenlopende waarden, en verschillende informatiebronnen. Naast best practices moet daarbij ook minder geslaagd beleid in beeld worden gebracht. Voor de bruikbaarheid van evaluaties voor de praktijk is goede vertegenwoordiging van het bottom-up perspectief noodzakelijk.
    Evaluatie van beleid vereist gedegen inbedding binnen de nationale kennisinfrastructuur, effectieve samenwerking met kennisinstellingen en het up-to-date houden van het evalueren zelf. Dat is cruciaal voor het evaluatievermogen van de lerende overheid.


André Knottnerus
André Knottnerus is voorzitter van de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid en hoogleraar Huisartsgeneeskunde aan de Universiteit Maastricht.
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