Zoekresultaat: 465 artikelen

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Dr. Els van der Pool
Dr. E. van der Pool is lector Human Communication Development bij de Hogeschool Arnhem en Nijmegen.

Dr. Guido Rijnja
Dr. G. Rijnja is coördinator algemeen communicatiebeleid bij de Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst.

    This special issue contains five articles based on empirical research into energy transition at the local level. The focus is on the role of local authorities in the energy transition and on partnerships between local authorities (municipalities, provinces, regions) and local communities in the area of sustainable development. The three guest editors have also written an introduction and conclusion for this special issue.


Thomas Hoppe
Dr. T. Hoppe is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de Multi-Actor Systems-vakgroep (MAS-POLG) van de Technische Universiteit Delft.

Ellen van Bueren
Prof. dr. E.M. van Bueren is als hoogleraar Urban Development Management verbonden aan de Technische Universiteit Delft.

Maurits Sanders
Dr. M.P.T. Sanders is associate lector governance bij Saxion Hogescholen, kerndocent Publiek-Private Samenwerking bij de Nyenrode Business Universiteit en partner bij ResetManagement.

    Energy planning and the realization of a new energetic infrastructure has become an issue for many actors. The local setting has become polycentric. Against this background the authors have tried to answer the question of the possible consequences of a polycentric local decision-making arena for the realization of sustainable energy transition, especially the implementation of smart grids. Polycentrism is characterised by configurations of units that are multi-level, multi-purpose, multi-sectoral and multi-functional. The impact of these configurations can be assessed using four criteria: control, efficiency, political representation and local self-determination. The authors used these criteria to analyse two cases. Both cases show that the consequences of polycentrism are variable and differ on the four criteria. The analysis shows tensions in polycentric configurations between control and efficiency on the one hand and local self-determination and political representation on the other. This outcome was a reason for the authors to argue for a better institutional design for the local polycentric arena with the help of the seven ‘rules-in-use’ of Elinor Ostrom. Her design is universal but requires specific local application. In this way more justice can be done to the local circumstances in order to be able to achieve effective results.


Imke Lammers MSc
I. Lammers MSc is als promovenda verbonden aan het Department of Governance and Technology for Sustainability (CSTM) van de Universiteit Twente.

Dr. Maarten Arentsen
Dr. M.J. Arentsen is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan het Department of Governance and Technology for Sustainability (CSTM) van de Universiteit Twente.

Dr. Rik Reussing
Dr. G.H. Reussing is onderwijscoördinator van de opleiding European Public Administration aan de Universiteit Twente en redactiesecretaris van Bestuurswetenschappen.
Artikel

Access_open De groeiende populariteit van de business case

Een verkennend onderzoek naar de kwaliteiten van een nieuw besluitvormingsinstrument in publieke besluitvormingsprocessen

Tijdschrift Beleidsonderzoek Online, juli 2016
Auteurs Maarten Hoekstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Bij bijvoorbeeld de bouw van een gemeentelijk multifunctioneel centrum of de aanschaf van een nieuw computersysteem wordt bijna standaard om een business case gevraagd, om daarmee een zakelijke rechtvaardiging van de te nemen beslissing te verschaffen: nut en noodzaak moeten goed uit de doeken worden gedaan. Dit artikel presenteert de eerste resultaten van een zoektocht naar de (vermeende) kwaliteiten van dit besluitvormingsinstrument. Als ijkpunt voor het praktische gebruik van de business case wordt een nieuw ideaaltype van de business case geconstrueerd. De bestaande definities bieden daarvoor afzonderlijk onvoldoende houvast. Aan de hand van het ideaalmodel wordt vervolgens onderzocht hoe de business case in het publieke debat wordt gebruikt. Het datamateriaal bestaat uit 244 nieuwsberichten uit binnen- en buitenland over uiteenlopende business cases. Het artikel laat zien dat de business case sterk in opkomst is en zijn weg vindt in een divers palet van maatschappelijke thema’s en sectoren. Kwalitatieve argumenten voeren sterk de boventoon ten opzichte van cijfermatige inzichten. De belangrijkste kracht van de business case in het publieke domein ligt in het gegeven dat zowel de belangen van initiatiefnemers en bestuurders als van andere stakeholders worden benoemd.


Maarten Hoekstra
Maarten Hoekstra (m.j.hoekstra@nhl.nl) is verbonden aan het lectoraat i-Thorbecke van de NHL Hogeschool. De auteur verricht het onderzoek ‘De toegevoegde waarde van de business case’ als buitenpromovendus aan de faculteit Behavioural, Management & Social Sciences van de Universiteit Twente.
Artikel

Systematisch leren van evalueren

Waarden, effectiviteit, onafhankelijkheid en kwaliteit als pijlers voor de brug tussen wetenschap en politiek

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Policy, Evaluation, Accountability, Learning, Values
Auteurs Prof. Dr. André Knottnerus, Dr. Peter de Goede en Dr. Peter van der Knaap
Samenvatting

    Policy evaluation has two main functions: it should lead to policy oriented learning and facilitate accountability. Rendering account is considered an important democratic duty but is not very popular with politicians and, hence, public officials. Learning is popular, but in practice it is often difficult to organize or, indeed, witness.
    This contribution addresses the question how, in both functions, policy evaluation could be better utilized. As a starting point we the tension between scientific and political rationality and the barriers associated with these different worlds to the development of knowledge.
    As indispensable for sound and productive knowledge management in government the article outlines the importance of societal values, policy effectiveness as a research angle, and the independence of researchers at major evaluations. In addition, relevant research questions, high methodological quality, responsiveness, good timing, and clear and accessible reporting are indispensable. It is argued that these are by no means abstract notions but can be brought into real day-to-day practice.
    The conclusion is that a knowledge agenda for policy evaluation that is based on the search for effective policy interventions and societal values can help to bridge politics and science.


Prof. Dr. André Knottnerus

Dr. Peter de Goede

Dr. Peter van der Knaap
Artikel

Evaluatievermogen bij beleidsdepartementen

Lessen uit praktijken rond planning, uitvoering en gebruik van beleidsevaluaties

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden evaluation capacity, policy evaluation, evaluation process, evaluation use
Auteurs Dr. Carolien M. Klein Haarhuis en Dr. Andreea Parapuf
Samenvatting

    In this article, we explore how evaluations are managed by Dutch policy departments in terms of six aspects of evaluation capacity: institutions, programming, budgeting, evaluation process and content, and finally, evaluation use. We also sketch how international organisations and a number of larger countries deal with these issues of evaluation capacity. Internationally, a variety of norms, checklists and procedures demonstrate that the commissioning party is considered to play a key role in the realisation of evaluations as well as their use. Here, evaluation and evaluation knowledge are often viewed as part of the policy process rather than as a separate exercise. Our description of evaluation practices in Dutch policy departments reveals that several capacity-enhancing initiatives were developed in the past few years, such as new evaluation institutions or structures and programs to promote the commissioning of effectiveness evaluations. It also suggests, however, that accountability is an important driving force behind evaluation, perhaps more powerful than learning.


Dr. Carolien M. Klein Haarhuis

Dr. Andreea Parapuf
Artikel

Parliamentary oversight via evaluaties?

De positie van het Vlaams parlement in een internationale context

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden beleidsevaluatie / policy evaluation, Wetsevaluatie / law evaluation, Parlement / parliament, ex post / ex post, Vlaanderen / Flanders
Auteurs Peter Van Humbeeck en Prof. Dr. Tim Buyse
Samenvatting

    Ex post evaluation is important for various reasons, in particular also from the perspective of parliaments. Evaluations feed and deepen the democratic debate by adding evidence on the results and real world impacts of laws. This strengthens each of the three institutional tasks of parliaments (initiating and approving laws, supervising government and approving the budget). Yet few parliaments in OECD countries have deployed ex post evaluation systematically.
    While the rationale for ex post evaluation is broadly understood, initiatives often run into political logics. The role that parliaments play also differs greatly between countries. There is no clear best practice. Ambition, tradition, culture, political will, capacity and resources determine what is possible and desirable. A positive trend is however noticeable.
    Building on examples and experiences in several parliaments, we make some recommendations to upgrade ex post evaluation practice within Parliaments. We elaborate on the Flanders’ case, where the Parliament is looking for mechanisms to extend its role in ex post evaluation. We recommend i.a. the introduction of an annual momentum on which the results of Government policies can be discussed and the performance of a number of ex post evaluations by the Parliament following the example of the French system of ‘rapports d’information’.


Peter Van Humbeeck

Prof. Dr. Tim Buyse
Artikel

Oog voor succes: een pleidooi voor positieve beleidsevaluatie

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden public policy, evaluation, success, accountability, learning
Auteurs Dr. Peter van der Knaap en Dr. Rudi Turksema
Samenvatting

    One of the classic issues in literature on policy evaluation is that of utilization: how can we make sure the results of evaluative inquiry are used more and better? Traditionally, the answer to this question is often searched in improvement of evaluation quality (accuracy, reliability, independence of the researcher) or evaluation processes (more interaction and responsiveness). Although these are and remain crucial elements for any evaluation, the focus remains on the supply side of evaluation. The psychological insight that people tend to learn more from positive feedback and success is not taken into account.
    In this article, we ask whether and how a more positive form of evaluation may contribute to a more effective cycle of learning and accountability. What if – instead of failure, compliance, and accountability – the main focus of monitoring and evaluative inquiry would be to identify and foster achievements that were successful and effective? How would such a positive approach look like and how can it help the actual utilization and usefulness of evaluation? On the basis of theory and international case studies the article describes how focusing on the positive elements of policy and/or implementation may contribute to the demand for and utilization of evaluations.


Dr. Peter van der Knaap

Dr. Rudi Turksema
Artikel

De parlementarisatie van Europees economisch beleid

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden European Parliament, politicisation, economic policy, democratic deficit
Auteurs Dr. Adriaan Schout, Jan Marinus Wiersma, Mariana Gomes Neto e.a.
Samenvatting

    Since the euro crisis the EU has seen a deepening of integration with a new framework for economic and budgetary coordination. With the new framework reforms in pension or housing market are coordinated at the European level. This comprehensive set of rules and monitoring mechanisms has revived the debate on Europe’s democratic deficit. This article describes how the European Parliament (EP) tries to fill the democratic void in economic governance. The EP’s formal role is limited, but by using mostly informal mechanisms the EP is setting in motion an incremental process towards further control. This development should be seen in light of a political battle on the interpretation of the new rules, which has accordingly become increasingly politicized. The Dutch have always wanted a European economic policy on the basis of technocracy and rules, but at the same time Europe’s political union draws ever closer.


Dr. Adriaan Schout

Jan Marinus Wiersma

Mariana Gomes Neto

David Bokhorst

    The recruitment and selection of candidate (municipal) councillors by political parties at the local level is an underexposed area of research. This is noteworthy because of the explicit worries about the lack of suitable candidates and about the underrepresentation of certain groups in society. These kinds of nomination problems may also arise from the manner in which parties recruit and which requirements they have for potential candidates. Therefore this article explores recruitment and selection processes at the local level in order to be able to designate possible causes of these nomination problems. The exploratory research involves case studies of the selectors, candidates and the nomination procedure of seven political parties that took part in the municipal elections of 2014 in a typical, average Dutch municipality in the west of the Netherlands: Voorschoten (25,000 inhabitants). The local party elite mainly recruited party members and some non-party members from their own networks, such as local associations. Thus groups in society that are not part of these networks, are less likely to appear in the picture. Active party membership and the willingness to invest a lot of time in their council work appeared to be the highest appreciated characteristics of the ideal councillor according to interviews with the local party elite and a survey amongst the candidate councillors. With a declining number of party members and other ways to spend their time, it is becoming increasingly difficult to recruit non-pensioners as candidates.


Maurits Grimberg MSc
M.R. Grimberg MSc is als militair werkzaam bij de Kernstaf van het Commando Luchtstrijdkrachten, binnen de sectie Coördinatie en Investeringsplannen. In april 2014 studeerde hij af aan de Universiteit Leiden in de Politieke Wetenschap bij Hans Vollaard op een masterthesis over de totstandkoming van een kandidatenlijst in de gemeente Voorschoten.

Dr. Hans Vollaard
Dr. J.P. Vollaard is universitair docent Nederlandse en Europese politiek binnen het Instituut Politieke Wetenschap van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Probleemanalyse is het halve werk

Samenwerking en innovatie in de strijd tegen ondermijnende criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 2 2016
Auteurs Maurits Waardenburg BSc, Bas Keijser BSc, Prof. dr. Martijn Groenleer e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Science and practice are largely agreed on the importance of interorganizational cooperation in the approach of tackling complex societal problems. Organization transcending innovation through this type of cooperation however appears to be complicated. Based on an analysis of the literature about partnerships, the authors distinguish three challenges: coping with the tension between old and new accountability structures, building good working relationships and developing capabilities for problem-oriented working. Starting from these insights they designed action research into problem-oriented partnerships in the safety domain (safety chain). Their main question was: what is the most important obstacle for innovation through problem-oriented interorganizational cooperation? Over a period of nine months, they watched eight teams of professionals from different organizations. Their task was to develop and implement innovative approaches to tackle persistent organized crime. Although all three challenges identified in the literature indeed played a prominent role, problem diagnosis and problem definition appeared to be the main obstacle for the teams. In this article the authors describe the action research and explore, on the basis of the results and the literature, how partnerships could cope in practice with the challenge of problem definition and problem analysis. They conclude the article with suggestions for the design of a follow-up round of the action research.


Maurits Waardenburg BSc
M. Waardenburg MPP is research fellow aan het Ash Center for Democratic Governance and Innovation van de Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

Bas Keijser BSc
B. Keijser BSc is bezig met de afronding van zijn master Systems Engineering, Policy Analysis and Management aan de Faculteit Techniek, Bestuur & Management van de Technische Universiteit Delft.

Prof. dr. Martijn Groenleer
Prof. dr. M.L.P. Groenleer is hoogleraar Regional Law and Governance aan Tilburg University en tevens directeur van het Tilburg Center for Regional Law and Governance (TiREG).

Dr. Jorrit de Jong
Dr. J. de Jong is lecturer in Public Policy and Management aan de Harvard Kennedy School en wetenschappelijk directeur van het Government Program bij het Ash Center for Democratic Governance and Innovation van de Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

    In the safety domain important developments are currently taking place concerning the way in which administrative and tactical operations are dealt with in crises. It is characteristic for the approach that cooperation in chains and networks is increasingly needed to arrive at a suitable approach. In this essay, the authors analyse two subdomains in two concrete cases on how cooperation between several parties takes shape and functions. For that purpose, they differentiate between acute and non-acute crises. In the subdomain ‘acute crises’, they have chosen the case of the Dutch town Moerdijk (the fire at the Chemie-Pack company in 2011). In the subdomain of non-acute crises, they focus on community safety partnerships (‘Veiligheidshuizen’), especially on the community safety partnership in the Dutch province of Friesland (‘Veiligheidshuis Friesland’). In both subdomains the establishment of a good basic cooperation and leadership structure appears to be of prime importance. From there it is necessary to respond in a flexible manner (to be able to execute custom-made work). Within that framework, the capacity may develop to arrange a well-structured and effective cooperation at the operational level (ad hoc in acute crises), to monitor progress properly and to carry out targeted interventions if the developments in the situation ask for these interventions. A good knowledge of each other’s frame of reference is necessary to make this work, so that a maximum level of integration in the approach is achieved.


Dr. Jelle Dijkstra
Dr. J.H. Dijkstra is lector Persoonlijk Leiderschap & Innovatiekracht aan het Instituut voor Economie & Management (ECMA) van de NHL Hogeschool te Leeuwarden.

Dr. Marc Jacobs
Dr. M.A. Jacobs is voormalig districtschef bij de politiekorpsen Utrecht en Leeuwarden, senior docent en onderzoeker Integrale Veiligheid aan de Thorbecke Academie te Leeuwarden.

    Politicians and scientists in the Netherlands often claim that only municipalities with over 100,000 inhabitants (so called ‘100,000+ municipalities’) have enough administrative power to be able to carry out their tasks in the future well. This is also the case for the responsibilities that recently have handed over to the Dutch municipalities as part of the three decentralizations. Against the background of this debate, the authors of this essay argue that the experiences of the four European microstates – Andorra, Liechtenstein, Monaco and San Marino –may offer an interesting frame of reference where it concerns the delivery of public services. These four countries have all the responsibilities and tasks of a sovereign state, but at the same time three of the four countries have a population of fewer than 40,000 inhabitants. Also, the fourth country is smaller than a 100,000+ municipality. Despite the small size of these states, their public services are of an exceptionally high level. Therefore this essay tries to answer two questions: How is this possible? What can we learn from the experiences of these microstates about the debate on scale and administrative power in the Netherlands?


Dr. ir. Pepijn van Houwelingen
Dr. ir. P. van Houwelingen is onderzoeker bij het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau.

Dr. Wouter Veenendaal
Dr. W.P. Veenendaal is onderzoeker bij het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde.

    This contribution describes civil service professionalism from a functionalist perspective: the most important function of civil service professionalism is creating, developing and maintaining the authority of governments. Contrary to common opinion, moral authority in our day appears to be of prime importance. Citizens appreciate moral authority, but this important source of authority is often underused by political-administrative officials (especially by them). By making better use of moral authority, civil servants – policy officials and executive officials – could play a much bigger role. In order to achieve this, their professionalism must be improved by creating a broad civil service charter from which (to a certain extent) they can derive a right for civil service professionalism. In the context of the present political debate in the Netherlands on the normalization of the legal status of civil servants, there is an opportunity now to make real progress in this matter. It would be a good thing if civil servants would make themselves heard in this debate. Looking after the moral dimension of the work of civil servants and the accountability in this respect is not only a matter for the Dutch cabinet and those preparing the civil service charter, but also for the civil servants in different parts of the Dutch civil service themselves.


Prof. dr. Gabriël van den Brink
Prof. dr. G.J.M. van den Brink is emeritus hoogleraar Maatschappelijke bestuurskunde aan de Tilburg University (Universiteit van Tilburg). Op 27 november 2015 hield hij zijn afscheidsrede.

Drs. Thijs Jansen
Drs. M. Jansen is universitair docent en senior onderzoeker aan de Tilburg University (Universiteit van Tilburg) bij de School voor Politiek en Bestuur.

Dr. Rik Reussing
Dr. G.H. Reussing is onderwijscoördinator van de opleiding European Public Administration aan de Universiteit Twente en redactiesecretaris van Bestuurswetenschappen.

    Een lerende overheid heeft behoefte aan beleidsevaluaties die niet alleen van betekenis zijn voor het onderwerp waarop deze primair gericht zijn, maar ook bijdragen aan bredere, systematische opbouw van kennis en ervaring. Het interdepartementaal verbinden van expertise verruimt daarbij het zicht op factoren die het leren bevorderen of belemmeren.
    Een centrale vraag is of de door het beleid beoogde publieke belangen inderdaad bevorderd worden. Beleidsevaluatie moet dan niet alleen gericht zijn op effectiviteit en doelmatigheid ten aanzien van relatief gemakkelijk meetbare indicatoren, maar ook op lastig te kwantificeren essentiële waarden zoals subjectief welzijn, rechtvaardigheid en maatschappelijke aanvaardbaarheid. Het verdient aanbeveling kostbare evaluatie-energie te concentreren op belangrijke kwesties waarover vooraf discussie of onzekerheid bestaat.
    Uit een oogpunt van doelmatige beleidsvoorbereiding, en omdat de uitwerking van wetgeving en beleid ex post niet altijd eenvoudig is vast te stellen, is veel aandacht nodig voor ex ante evaluatie. Van onderzoek naar werkingsmechanismen van beleidsmaatregelen wordt in dit verband terecht veel verwacht.
    Er is sprake van een paradoxaal spanningsveld tussen verwetenschappelijking en politisering van beleid. Daarom is stevig verankerde, onafhankelijke en onpartijdige beleidsevaluatie onmisbaar. Hoge methodologische kwaliteit biedt extra houvast om deze functie geloofwaardig te kunnen vervullen.
    In het streven naar systematische opbouw van kennis en ervaring naast dossier-specifieke doelbereiking kan het helpen als evaluaties zowel een specifiek als een breder geldend algemeen deel bevatten. Belangrijk is ook te sturen op een evenwichtige evaluatieportfolio per beleidsterrein, met aandacht voor ex ante en ex post methoden, uiteenlopende waarden, en verschillende informatiebronnen. Naast best practices moet daarbij ook minder geslaagd beleid in beeld worden gebracht. Voor de bruikbaarheid van evaluaties voor de praktijk is goede vertegenwoordiging van het bottom-up perspectief noodzakelijk.
    Evaluatie van beleid vereist gedegen inbedding binnen de nationale kennisinfrastructuur, effectieve samenwerking met kennisinstellingen en het up-to-date houden van het evalueren zelf. Dat is cruciaal voor het evaluatievermogen van de lerende overheid.


André Knottnerus
André Knottnerus is voorzitter van de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid en hoogleraar Huisartsgeneeskunde aan de Universiteit Maastricht.
Artikel

Ambtenaren en levensbeschouwelijke tekens – een pleidooi voor inclusieve neutraliteit

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Inclusieve neutraliteit, hoofddoekendebat, ambtenarij, multiculturele samenleving, levensbeschouwelijke diversiteit
Auteurs dr. François Levrau
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Every now and then the question whether or not civil servants are allowed to wear religious and ideological signs divides the minds of the people, and leads to societal and political controversy. In this article we examine this controversy by contrasting two different conceptions of neutrality, an inclusive and an exclusive account. We illustrate why the former is to be preferred and hence that a neutral government should not necessarily ask its servants to abstract from religious and cultural expressions. This however does not imply that all kinds of expressions should be allowed. In order to prevent a slippery slope, we formulate a number of formal criteria that can help to separate the proverbial wheat from the chaff: (1) the interpretation of neutrality in relation to a minimum and objective review; (2) the proportionality criterion; (3) the functionality criterion; and (4) the criterion of contact with the public.


dr. François Levrau
Dr. François Levrau is algemeen coördinator van het Steunpunt Inburgering & Integratie (Universiteit Antwerpen) en als postdoctoraal onderzoeker verbonden aan het Centrum voor Migratie & Interculturele Studies (Universiteit Antwerpen).
Artikel

Big data: een zoektocht naar instituties

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden big data, open data, technocracy, Institutions, government
Auteurs Dr. Haiko van der Voort en Prof. dr. Ir. Joep Crompvoets
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Big data is a well-known phenomenon, even a buzzword nowadays. It refers to an abundance of data and new possibilities to process and use them. Big data is subject of many publications. Some pay attention to the many possibilities of big data, others warn us for their consequences. This special issue goes beyond the hype. It contains accessible contributions about opportunities and threats of big data. The authors have put special emphasize on big data institutions. Many publications about big data seem relatively poor on institutions, reflecting a more technocratic approach. In this first contribution we will introduce core concepts around big data. Additionally, we will specify the need to delve into institutions of big data.


Dr. Haiko van der Voort
Dr. H.G. van der Voort is universitair docent aan de Technische Universiteit Delft

Prof. dr. Ir. Joep Crompvoets
Prof. dr. ir. J. Crompvoets is senior researcher/consultant/lecturer aan de KU Leuven
Artikel

De voorspellende overheid

Transparantie is noodzakelijk, maar hoe?

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden predictive analytics, transparency and accountability, preemptive predictions, public sector
Auteurs prof.dr. Ronald Leenes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Public administrations have always dealt with large volumes of data. They are now increasingly adopting sophisticated big data technologies to further leverage the data. Data provided by citizens, observed by sensors, deduced and inferred from diverse data sets are being used for decision making and making (pre-emptive) predictions about the behaviour of citizens and groups of citizens. The data and algorithms are not neutral nor flawless, but contain biases and may induce harms to individuals, such as discrimination, loss of autonomy, infringing their privacy. Big data decision making systems are usually opaque. Providing transparency about input, process, and even outcomes may be difficult due to the complexity inherent to the technology and even undesirable because it could affect the effectiveness of the system. This lack of transparency is at odds with the Rule of Law, which requires transparency and accountability of government action. What transparency should entail in the context of predictive analytics, however, is unclear. This short article points out some of the issues at stake.


prof.dr. Ronald Leenes
prof. dr. R.E. Leenes is hoogleraar aan de Tilburg University
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