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Artikel

Bewonersinitiatieven: partnerschap tussen burgers en overheid

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden citizen’s initiatives, activation policy, representativeness, partnership relation, competences
Auteurs Dr. Imrat Verhoeven en Prof. dr. Evelien Tonkens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years the Dutch welfare state has invested substantial sums of money in activation of citizen’s initiatives in deprived neighbourhoods. As a policy concept citizen’s initiatives refers to enhancements by citizens to the quality of life in their neighbourhood. Is this activation policy productive or counterproductive for citizen participation? This question is answered by analyzing the representativeness of the activated citizens, the nature of their initiatives, the type of relations they develop with institutions, and whether they develop more competences due to their initiative(s). Our findings indicate that the activated citizens are more often female, below 50, lower educated, and 40 percent is migrant, which makes them more representative than the participation elite (male, 50+, white, and higher educated). They form a new vanguard that activates many participants through initiatives that focus on connecting people and on social problems such as anonymity, isolation and nuisance. Many contacts with professionals contribute for them to a partnership relation geared toward cooperation instead of consumerism or dissatisfaction. Also these citizens develop democratic, bureaucratic and social competences as well as social reflexivity and empathy for other citizens and institutions. We conclude that activation of citizen’s initiatives has positive effects on citizen participation.


Dr. Imrat Verhoeven
Imrat Verhoeven is postdoc onderzoeker aan de afdeling Sociologie en Antropologie, Universiteit van Amsterdam/AISSR. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. I. Verhoeven, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 185, 1012 DK Amsterdam, i.verhoeven@uva.nl.

Prof. dr. Evelien Tonkens
Evelien Tonkens is hoogleraar actief burgerschap aan de afdeling Sociologie en Antropologie, Universiteit van Amsterdam/AISSR. Correspondentiegegevens: Prof. dr. E. Tonkens, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 185, 1012 DK Amsterdam, e.h.tonkens@uva.nl.
Article

De grenzen van de gemeenschap

Over immigratie en de hedendaagse democratie

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden community, sovereignty, identity, hospitality, immigration, Nancy, Agamben
Auteurs Ignaas Devisch en Nanda Oudejans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Not a few continental philosophers are engaged with the debate on democracy, community and tolerance but also globalization, migration and human rights. They do not demand interpretation to get stopped in order to make action possible, as Marx demanded; every political action should start from a critical interpretation of what political acting demands. The work of philosophers such as Agamben, Benhabib, Honig or Nancy is deeply characterized by the challenge of the numerous difficulties and dilemmas our thinking of the other is confronted with, since the stranger or the other discloses limits by contesting who or what we are. He questions and deconstructs the identity of a given, particular community. The limits of community, that’s what it’s all about.


Ignaas Devisch
Ignaas Devisch (1970) is als filosoof verbonden aan de Arteveldehogeschool en de Universiteit Gent. Hij doceert er medische filosofie en ethiek, bio-ethiek en sociale filosofie. Hij studeerde aan de universiteiten van Gent en Brussel en promoveerde in 2002. Hij publiceert regelmatig in binnen- en buitenland over medische filosofie, sociale en politieke filosofie, sportfilosofie en cultuurfilosofie. Hij is tevens voorzitter van vzw De Maakbare Mens.

Nanda Oudejans
Nanda Oudejans (1978) bereidt een wijsgerig proefschrift voor over het vluchtelingenvraagstuk aan de Faculteit der Geesteswetenschappen, Universiteit van Tilburg. Haar onderzoeksinteresses zijn asiel, immigratie, mensenrechten, democratie, collectieve identiteit, soevereiniteit en de verhouding tussen (internationaal) recht en politiek.
Article

Because it is Normative, Stupid!

Over de rol van politieke theorie binnen de politicologie

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden normative political theory, political science, methodology, Rawls
Auteurs Roland Pierik
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents a state-of-the-art description of political theory and analyses the role of political theory within the discipline of political science. It starts by describing two dominant approaches within the sub-discipline: conceptual political theory and normative political theory. Secondly, it situates political theory as separated from political science in general and from actual political debates. Thirdly, it analyses the role of methodology in normative political theory.
    I argue that the most important contribution of political theory to political science in general is its emphasis on the fact that politics is first and foremost a normative endeavor and that any political-scientific analysis should always be aware of this normative character.


Roland Pierik
Roland Pierik (1966) is universitair hoofddocent rechtstheorie en politieke theorie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Hij publiceert vooral over hedendaagse analytische politieke filosofie en rechtstheorie. In zijn onderzoek gebruikt hij de hedendaagse normatieve politieke theorie en rechtstheorie om concrete maatschappelijke problemen te analyseren, met name problemen van de multiculturele samenleving en van globale rechtvaardigheid.

    Since 1994, the concept of citizenship is a central concept in Dutch Integration policy for immigrants and their descendants. Gradually, the concept has become a moral category of good and active citizenship, associated with all kinds of obligations. Since the turn of the century it is even used to urge on – especially – Muslims to assimilate to mainstream culture and fundamental norms and values. This contrasts sharply with the Dutch multicultural policy of the 1980s. How is it possible for political and policy discourse to change in such a radical way within a few decades? And what role played the concept of citizenship in these changes? This article seeks to answer these questions by investigating how the concept of citizenship has been interpreted and applied differently over time in Dutch discourse on integration policy, focussing on issues of unity versus ethno-cultural diversity. With this purpose, first, the concept of citizenship is defined and differentiated in four dimensions and various perspectives. Next, Dutch political and policy discourse of the last 25 years is examined in broad lines. Subsequently, the Dutch discourse is analysed in more detail in debates of the last decades on dual nationality and on civic integration policy.


Alfons Fermin
Alfons Fermin is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het Rotterdams Instituut voor Sociaal-wetenschappelijk BeleidsOnderzoek (RISBO) van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. A. Fermin Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam RISBO Postbus 1738, kamer T11-08 3000 DR Rotterdam fermin@fsw.eur.nl

    According to many observers, multicultural integration policies have strongly eroded in the Netherlands since the early 1990s and particularly following the rise of Pim Fortuyn in 2002. In this view, the Netherlands now follow harsh, assimilationist policies that threaten the foundations of democracy. Policy studies on the local level have however found strong continuities. This article investigates changes and continuities in Dutch integration policies on the national level. The cross-national policy data compiled in the Migration Policy Index show that the Netherlands are in 2007 still among the European countries that offer immigrants and their descendants the largest degree of legal equality. Comparative data on accommodation policies regarding immigrant cultures and religions show that Dutch policies are still culturally pluralist compared to most other European countries, e.g., by recognizing immigrants' ethnic and religious identities and practices, subsidizing and incorporating their associations, and providing preferential access to public sector jobs. Quantitative comparative policy data are supplemented by qualitative examples of pluralist policies in the media, the police force, and nature conservation and recreation. The article concludes that in spite of rhetoric to the contrary, there is strong path dependence in Dutch integration policies, also on the national level.


Ruud Koopmans
Ruud Koopmans is directeur van de afdeling 'Migration, Integration, Transnationalization' aan het Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB). Correspondentiegegevens: Prof. dr. R. Koopmans Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB) Reichpietschufer 50 10785 Berlijn Duitsland koopmans@wzb.eu

    This article traces the redefinition of citizenship that Dutch governments have tried to accomplish through legislation and various policy initiatives. The classical liberal notion of citizenship is said to provide insufficient social cohesion. More emphasis on integration into the typically Dutch culture is offered as a remedy. Newcomers are only accepted as full citizens after they have been introduced and trained in the essential elements of this culture. Criticisms of this policy are presented. Lately the government itself seems to have second thoughts on the definition of citizenship.


Herman van Gunsteren
Herman van Gunsteren is emeritus hoogleraar politieke theorieën en rechtsfilosofie aan de Universiteit Leiden. Tevens is hij rapporteur Nieuwspoort 2009. Correspondentiegegevens: Prof. dr. H. van Gunsteren Murillostraat 5 1077 ND Amsterdam vangunsv@xs4all.nl
Artikel

Aspecten van burgerschap

Een historische analyse van de transformaties van het burgerschapsconcept in Nederland

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2009
Auteurs Friso van Houdt en Willem Schinkel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The historical transformations of Dutch citizenship are assessed in this article in light of two aspects. One concerns the dimensions and layers of citizenship; the other pertains to the relative stress laid on either formal or moral citizenship. We illustrate how citizenship was broadened from civic to political, social and cultural rights. Then we discuss the recent moralization of citizenship in the context of Dutch debates on immigrant integration. We illustrate how the relative stress on moral citizenship therein pertains to a virtual disenfranchisement of non-native Dutch citizens.


Friso van Houdt
Friso van Houdt is als promovendus verbonden aan de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Willem Schinkel
Willem Schinkel is universitair hoofddocent theoretische sociologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. W. Schinkel Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen Capaciteitsgroep Sociologie Postbus 1738 3000 DR Rotterdam schinkel@fsw.eur.nl
Artikel

Polarisen of polderen?

Inleiding op het themanummer over migranten en burgerschap

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2009
Auteurs Gabriël van den Brink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    After a summary of several contributions in this volume, we focus on certain problems and omissions in the debate about citizenship and the position of migrants in Dutch society. First, nearly all the contributions are related to the level of theoretical concepts or policy proposals, neglecting the level of social behaviour and important changes of social reality. Second, all authors acknowledge the fact that the moral dimensions of citizenship have become more important, yet nobody seems to be interested in a scientific explanation of this remarkable fact. In response to these omissions we try to understand why the Netherlands has changed from an open society into a community struck by xenophobia. One explanation might be that the intensity of social interaction has increased considerably. Another explanation is related to the fact the level of education has grown, creating a higher expectations of 'normal' behaviour. Together these tendencies undermine the ('typical Dutch') tradition of tolerance or deviant behaviour generally and for 'strange' behaviour of migrants specifically.


Gabriël van den Brink
Gabriël van den Brink is hoogleraar maatschappelijke bestuurskunde aan de Universiteit van Tilburg en lector gemeenschappelijke veiligheidskunde aan de Politieacademie te Apeldoorn. Correspondentiegegevens: Prof. dr. G.J.M. van den Brink Universiteit van Tilburg Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur Postbus 90153 5000 LE Tilburg brink@uvt.nl

    In public debate on immigrants' political ties with their country of origin, two assumptions prevail. The first assumption is that many immigrants engage in transnational political activities. The second is that forms of transnational citizenship are an impediment for the development of local citizenship. However, so far little research has been done on the importance of, and the relationship between, local and transnational citizenship. In this article, we focus on local and transnational forms of active citizenship, here understood as the total of political practices and processes of identification. Our study, conducted among middle-class immigrants in Rotterdam, indicates that the importance of active transnational citizenship should not be overstated. Among these middle-class immigrants, political practices are primarily focused on the local level; political practices directed to the home country appear to be quite rare. If we look at processes of identification, we see that a majority of the middle-class immigrants have a strong urban identity. Many of them combine this local identification with feelings of belonging with people in their home country. These local and transnational identifications seem to reinforce, rather than impede, each other.


Marianne van Bochove
Marianne van Bochove is als promovendus verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Correspondentiegegevens: M.E. van Bochove, MSc Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen Capaciteitsgroep Sociologie Postbus 1738 3000 DR Rotterdam vanbochove@fsw.eur.nl

Katja Rusinovic
Katja Rusinovic werkt aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam als postdoc onderzoeker.

Godfried Engbersen
Godfried Engbersen is als als hoogleraar algemene sociologie verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

De diplomademocratie

Over de spanning tussen meritocratie en democratie

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2006
Auteurs Mark Bovens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Contemporary western democracies, such the United States, Great Britain, and The Netherlands have become diploma democracies. They are ruled by the well educated, whereas the least educated, even though they still comprise about half of the population, have virtually vanished from most political arenas. Of course, the well educated have always been more politically active than the less educated, but in the past decades this gap has widened substantially. Well-educated citizens are more inclined to vote, to write letters to the editor, or to visit consultative or deliberative meetings than citizens with a low level of education; and most, if not all, members of parliament, all the political officials, and almost all of the political advocates and lobbyists, have college or graduate degrees. The paper substantiates the rise of diploma democracy in The Netherlands, discusses what is problematic about such an educational meritocracy in the context of democracy, and looks at what could be done to mitigate or remedy some of its negative effects.


Mark Bovens
Prof. dr. Mark Bovens is als hoogleraar Bestuurskunde verbonden aan de Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap van de Universiteit Utrecht, Bijlhouwerstraat 6, 3511 ZC Utrecht. Zijn meest recente boek is De digitale republiek: Democratie en rechtsstaat in de informatiemaatschappij (AUP 2003). Correspondentiegegevens: m.a.p.bovens@uu.nl www.usg.uu.nl/research/m.bovens

Hans Blokland
Hans Blokland studeerde politieke wetenschappen en promoveerde in de sociale en politieke filosofie. Hij was fellow van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen en onder meer verbonden aan Yale University, Department of Political Science. Tot zijn recente publicaties behoren Pluralisme, Democratie & Politieke Kennis (Van Gorcum 2005) en Modernization and its Political Consequences (Yale University Press 2006). Zie voor informatie over zijn werk: www.hans-blokland.nl.
Boekbespreking

Transnationalisme en burgerschap

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2007
Auteurs Marianne van Bochove en Katja Rusinovic
Auteursinformatie

Marianne van Bochove
Marianne van Bochove is als aio verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Momenteel zijn zij werkzaam op het project 'Transnationalisme en Stedelijk Burgerschap' (www.eur.nl/fsw/burgerschap).

Katja Rusinovic
Katja Rusinovic is als postdoc onderzoeker verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Momenteel zijn zij werkzaam op het project 'Transnationalisme en Stedelijk Burgerschap' (www.eur.nl/fsw/burgerschap).
Discussie

Een pony van Troje

Het communitarisme van de eerste honderd dagen Balkenende-IV

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2007
Auteurs Menno Hurenkamp
Auteursinformatie

Menno Hurenkamp
Menno Hurenkamp is politicoloog en publicist. Hij werkt aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam aan een proefschrift over 'lichte gemeenschappen' en schrijft onder meer politieke commentaren in de Groene Amsterdammer.
Boekbespreking

Boekbespreking

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2007
Auteurs Ank Michels
Auteursinformatie

Ank Michels
De auteur is docent aan de Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap, Universiteit Utrecht, en was lid van de Nationale conventie.

Karel Davids
De auteur is als hoogleraar economische en sociale geschiedenis verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Naar een Europees corporatisme?

Een vergelijking van de sociale en civiele dialoog op Europees niveau

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2007
Auteurs Inge Bleijenbergh en Taco Brandsen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The European Commission has attempted to incorporate non-state actors in European decision-making through the so-called 'social dialogue' and 'civil dialogue'. The actors involved in the two dialogues are, respectively, social partners and civil society organisations. In this article we compare the two dialogues in terms of theories on the development of corporatist governmental arrangements. Our analysis shows that, whereas the social dialogue can now be characterised as corporatist, the civil dialogue remains pluralist in nature. We account for this difference by considering the interests of the actors involved, windows of opportunity and internal responsiveness.


Inge Bleijenbergh
Inge Bleijenbergh is universitair docent Methodenleer aan de Radboud Universiteit in Nijmegen. Tot haar recente publicaties horen 'Equality Machineries Matter. The impact of political pressure of women on European social-care policies', Social Politics, 2007, 4: 1-23, met Conny Roggeband; en 'Trading well-being for economic efficiency: the 1990 shift in EU childcare policies', Marriage & Family Review, 2006, met Jet Bussemaker en Jeanne de Bruijn. Correspondentiegegevens: Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen Faculteit der Managementwetenschappen Postbus 9108 6500 HV Nijmegen 024-3611474 i.bleijenbergh@fm.ru.nl

Taco Brandsen
Taco Brandsen is universitair hoofddocent bestuurskunde aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Tot zijn recente publicaties behoren The Dutch third sector and the European Union. Connecting citizens to Brussels?, Den Haag: WRR, 2007, met Esther van den Berg; Co-Production, the third sector and the delivery of public services, New York: Routledge, 2007, met Victor Pestoff; en Meervoudig Bestuur, Den Haag: Uitgeverij LEMMA, 2006, met Wim van de Donk en Patrick Kenis. Correspondentiegegevens: Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen Faculteit der Managementwetenschappen Postbus 9108 6500 HK Nijmegen 024-3611973 t.brandsen@fm.ru.nl
Artikel

De vraag als antwoord?

Normatieve risico's van vraagsturing en de implicaties voor de rol van professionals

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2006
Auteurs Hans Bosselaar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The growing interest in demand-based delivery is to be comprehended regarding the criticism on the traditional 'apply-based' delivery. Regarding the literature, the main stream notion on demand-based delivery contains the transfer of the tasks and duties from the intermediate professional to the client. Consequently, the (demanding) client is directly able to affect the provisions he is eligible to and to influence the acquirement of the services and goods.

    The main issues are:

    This article focuses on the new role of intermediate professionals. The intermediate professional can maintain a role in realising the demand-supply relationship between the client and the supplying professional; he can get the task to acquire and spread the required market information, but as well can get the responsibility to support the market participants using this information. In the same time, this responsibility can help to avoid the normative risks, especially the risk of inadequacy.

    This new role must probably be regulated and in any case be monitored to prevent from the situation that the intermediate professional will take over the new responsibilities of the client. If this does not happen, the transfer to the demand-based delivery of public services will fail. On the other hand, if their will be no accessible client support by the new intermediate professional, the transfer to the demand-based delivery will tarnish the fundaments of the social system.


Hans Bosselaar
Mr. dr. Hans Bosselaar is zelfstandig gevestigd onderzoeker met bureau Meccano kennis voor beleid. Bosselaar doet voornamelijk onderzoek op het terrein van sociale zekerheid, arbeidsmarkt en disability management in ondernemingen voor opdrachtgevers als het ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid, UWV, RWI en diverse (overheids)commissies en sociale partners. Bosselaar promoveerde in 2005 op het proefschrift De vraag als antwoord. Vraagsturing en sociaal beleid: voorwaarden en risico's. Correspondentiegegevens: Mr. dr. Hans Bosselaar, Meccano kennis voor beleid, e-mail: meccano@planet.nl

Herman van Gunsteren

Trudie Knijn
Trudie Knijn is hoogleraar zorg en welzijn bij het departement Algemene Sociale Wetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht. Correspondentiegegevens: Prof. dr. G.C.M. Knijn Universiteit Utrecht Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen Departement Algemene Sociale Wetenschappen Postbus 80140 3508 TC Utrecht G.C.M.Knijn@uu.nl 
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