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Artikel

Schildpadgedrag in multi-etnische wijken?

De effecten van etnische diversiteit in stad en buurt op dimensies van sociale cohesie

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden ethnic diversity, social cohesion, neighbourhoods, ethnic minorities
Auteurs Mérove Gijsberts, Tom van der Meer en Jaco Dagevos
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Putnam (2007) claims that in ethnically diverse neighbourhoods, residents of all ethnic groups tend to ‘hunker down’. Solidarity and trust are lower, mutual help and cooperation rarer, friends fewer. Various studies in the United States found a clear correlation between diversity and cohesion, and also for many different dimensions of social cohesion. Whether this finding also holds in other (European) settings is the subject of hot and unresolved debate. Specifically, this article addresses the question whether living in an ethnically diverse setting has negative consequences for social cohesion in the Netherlands as well. To further the debate, this article pulls apart various contexts and various dimensions of social cohesion. This article examines the relationship between ethnic diversity (in socio-graphically defined neighbourhoods) and four dimensions of social cohesion (trust, informal help, voluntary work and neighbourhood contacts) for the 50 largest cities in the Netherlands. We conclude that the Putnam hypothesis holds only to a limited extent in the Dutch context. The only aspect on which ethnic diversity has a negative effect is the degree of contact in the neighbourhood.


Mérove Gijsberts
Mérove Gijsberts is verbonden aan het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau (SCP). Correspondentiegegevens: dr. M. Gijsberts, Postbus 16164, 2500 BD Den Haag, m.gijsberts@scp.nl.

Tom van der Meer
Tom van der Meer is verbonden aan het Institute for Immigration and Ethnic Studies (IMES) van de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Jaco Dagevos
Jaco Dagevos is verbonden aan het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau (SCP).
Discussie

De samenleving op slot?

Sociale daling in een nieuwe klassensamenleving

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Lotte van Vliet MA en Dr. Dieneke de Ruiter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Reflection and Debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Lotte van Vliet MA
Lotte van Vliet is adviseur bij de Raad voor Maatschappelijke Ontwikkeling. Correspondentiegegevens: L.R. van Vliet MA, Raad voor Maatschappelijke Ontwikkeling, Postbus 16139, 2500 BC Den Haag, www.adviesorgaan-rmo.nl, l.vliet@adviesorgaan-rmo.nl.

Dr. Dieneke de Ruiter
Dr. Dieneke de Ruiter is adviseur bij de Raad voor Maatschappelijke Ontwikkeling. d.d.ruiter@adviesorgaan-rmo.nl.
Artikel

Bewonersinitiatieven: partnerschap tussen burgers en overheid

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden citizen’s initiatives, activation policy, representativeness, partnership relation, competences
Auteurs Dr. Imrat Verhoeven en Prof. dr. Evelien Tonkens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years the Dutch welfare state has invested substantial sums of money in activation of citizen’s initiatives in deprived neighbourhoods. As a policy concept citizen’s initiatives refers to enhancements by citizens to the quality of life in their neighbourhood. Is this activation policy productive or counterproductive for citizen participation? This question is answered by analyzing the representativeness of the activated citizens, the nature of their initiatives, the type of relations they develop with institutions, and whether they develop more competences due to their initiative(s). Our findings indicate that the activated citizens are more often female, below 50, lower educated, and 40 percent is migrant, which makes them more representative than the participation elite (male, 50+, white, and higher educated). They form a new vanguard that activates many participants through initiatives that focus on connecting people and on social problems such as anonymity, isolation and nuisance. Many contacts with professionals contribute for them to a partnership relation geared toward cooperation instead of consumerism or dissatisfaction. Also these citizens develop democratic, bureaucratic and social competences as well as social reflexivity and empathy for other citizens and institutions. We conclude that activation of citizen’s initiatives has positive effects on citizen participation.


Dr. Imrat Verhoeven
Imrat Verhoeven is postdoc onderzoeker aan de afdeling Sociologie en Antropologie, Universiteit van Amsterdam/AISSR. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. I. Verhoeven, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 185, 1012 DK Amsterdam, i.verhoeven@uva.nl.

Prof. dr. Evelien Tonkens
Evelien Tonkens is hoogleraar actief burgerschap aan de afdeling Sociologie en Antropologie, Universiteit van Amsterdam/AISSR. Correspondentiegegevens: Prof. dr. E. Tonkens, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 185, 1012 DK Amsterdam, e.h.tonkens@uva.nl.

    Although long recognized as beneficial, a global language has not come to fruition despite considerable past efforts. A major reason is that many policy makers and citizens fear that such a universal language would undermine the particularistic, constituting primary languages of local and national communities. This dilemma can be greatly diminished by a two tier approach, in which efforts to protect the primary language will be intensified but all the nations involved would agree to use the same second language as the global one. Although theoretically the UN or some other such body could choose such a language, in effect English is increasingly occupying this position. However, policies that are in place slow down the development of a global language, often based on the mistaken assumption that people can readily gain fluency in several languages.


Amitai Etzioni
Amitai Etzioni is universiteitshoogleraar aan de George Washington University in Washington DC en directeur van het Insititute for Communitarian Policy Studies. Hij wordt beschouwd als een van de grondleggers van het communitarisme. Enkele van zijn meest bekende werken zijn The Active Society (1969), The Spirit of Community (1993) en The New Golden Rule (1996).
Artikel

Over oude erfenissen en nieuwe ergernissen

Een evaluatie van het rapport 'Een belaste relatie. 25 Jaar Ontwikkelingssamenwerking Nederland – Suriname'

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2006
Auteurs Yvonne Kleistra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In February 2004, a highly debated research report with the title 'A Burdened Relation. 25 Years Development Aid between the Netherlands and Surinam' was sent to parliament. The study was conducted by a Netherlands scientist and a Surinam senior official (Kruijt and Maks, 2004). Their central aim was to execute a 'quick scan lessons learned evaluation' in order to arrive at a research agenda for a more detailed and profound study of the bilateral development aid relations of the two countries. In spite of this, the Netherlands minister for Development Aid decided in June 2005 to terminate the research project. Main argument she put forward to underpin the decision was that further research would add just about nothing to what already was known, or could be thought relevant for policymaking. The author of this article questions the validity of the argument of the minister. She scrutinizes the threefold research task, the research process and the results of the joint exercise. This demonstrates that the review holds a future scientific research agenda that is both innovative and provocative. Furthermore, she points out that the political ups and downs that accompanied the publication contain some additional practical insights.


Yvonne Kleistra
Dr. Y. Kleistra is werkzaam als inspecteur Vrede en Veiligheid bij de Inspectiedienst Ontwikkelingssamenwerking en Beleid (IOB) van het Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken. Adres: Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken/IOB, Postbus 20061, 2500 EB Den Haag, tel. (070) 348 63 38, e-mail: yvonne.kleistra@minbuza.nl

    The EU is transforming the function and power of the Dutch parliament as an institution, and the way in which its principal actors, the governing and opposition parliamentary party groups, interact with each other and the government. This article seeks to address the question: How does parliamentary scrutiny over EU decision-making function in the Netherlands and how has this new role for parliament changed both parliamentary and executive relations in the country and the interaction of parties in parliament? For the purposes of this research, this paper uses the typology of King. The author has conducted a number of in-depth interviews with Dutch MPs. Overall, this article concludes the process of parliamentary scrutiny over EU matters in the Netherlands is no longer exclusively about finding a national consensus towards the outside world, but increasingly mirrors the rough and tumble of normal, domestic politics.


Ronald Holzhacker
Ronald Holzhacker is werkzaam bij de Universiteit Twente.

    Member states must transpose European directives into national rules. This process, however, is not without problems. The Netherlands regularly transposes directives too late. Moreover, very often the content of the national transposition rules does not match the adaptations required by the directives. This article examines whether political resistance or administrative and legal weaknesses cause these problems. The author concludes that problems regarding transposition are caused by a culture of neglect and lack of priority for EU policies. Improving coordination procedures, formal legislative processes, and information facilities will not solve transposition problems as long as the cultural aspect of the problem isn't adequately addressed.


Ellen Mastenbroek
Drs. Ellen Mastenbroek is Assistent in Opleiding bij de departementen Bestuurskunde en Politieke Wetenschap aan de Universiteit Leiden. Adres: Pieter de la Court gebouw, Postbus 9555, 2300 RB Leiden, e-mail: mastenbroek@fsw.leidenuniv.nl

    At the start of the century, the organisational fields belonging to the public employment service and social security, which previously were strictly institutionally separated with their rules and norms, have been brought under one umbrella or network structure in the Netherlands. We discuss how within this structure adaptive and reflexive forms of governance enhance information feedback and simultaneous learning processes both at the top and in the execution level of social security. Based upon document study, interviews and a case study of a sectoral experiment on integral service provision, we illustrate which learning elements occurred in bridging the planning and control cycle of New Public Management at the top with the horizontal mutual adjustment between organisations at decentral level.


Marc van der Meer
Marc van der Meer is directeur van het Expertisecentrum Beroepsonderwijs (ECBO). Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. M. van der Meer Expertisecentrum Beroepsonderwijs Pettelaarspark 1 5216 PC Den Bosch marc.vandermeer@ecbo.nl

Bert Roes
Bert Roes is senior adviseur bij het College voor Arbeidszaken van de Vereniging van Nederlandse Gemeenten (VNG).
Artikel

Culturen besturen

Het (onzinnige) verlangen naar het 'maken' van tradities in lokaal bestuur

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2008
Auteurs Mirko Noordegraaf en Jeroen Vermeulen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In local government, traditions and styles of working are under pressure. Local administrators try to find new methods to address urban matters in a business-like manner, to direct networks and to activate stakeholders. In that way, they strive for better performance, and for 'new' politics. In order to succeed, not only new methods are introduced, but cultures are changed as well and new traditions of governance are established. Existing styles of working and regular procedures are seen as outdated and considered to be barriers that have to be eliminated. This 'violence of renewal', as we call it, is based on several assumptions. First, new methods are seen as crucial for modernizing local governance. Second, the effects of new methods depend on the manner in which modernization takes place. Third, effective introductions of new methods do not happen straightforwardly; cultural change is required. In this article we will argue that these assumptions have to be put into perspective and, especially, that the idea of 'making' of cultures in order to effectively implement new methods is illusory. We show, based on research in four municipalities, that interventions in local governance as such are culturally biased, and that local traditions, styles and customs influence how modernization takes place.


Mirko Noordegraaf
Mirko Noordegraaf is als hoogleraar verbonden aan de Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht. Correspondentiegegevens: Prof. dr. M. Noordegraaf Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap Bijlhouwerstraat 6 3511 ZC Utrecht m.noordegraaf@uu.nl

Jeroen Vermeulen
Jeroen Vermeulen is als docent en onderzoeker verbonden aan de Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. J. Vermeulen Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap Bijlhouwerstraat 6 3511 ZC Utrecht j.vermeulen@uu.nl
Artikel

Etatisme in de polder?

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2008
Auteurs Berend Snijders en Femke van Esch
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Decision-making in the Netherlands is generally characterised as (neo) corporatist. Whether stakeholders enjoy a similar level of access to, and influence on the formulation of the national position, which the Dutch government advocates in Brussels, remains however unclear. This article aims at providing a first tentative answer to this question by studying the formulation of the Dutch position on EU resolution 882/2004 concerning the official controls on compliance with feed and food law, animal health and animal welfare.

    In-depth analysis of this case reveals that the development process of the Dutch stance on 882/2004 was largely devoid of stakeholder-input. As such, this process may be characterised as essentially etatist rather than corporatist. Moreover, it was established – as expected – that specialised lobby groups – those that could offer additional information and expertise to the dossier team responsible for 882/2004 – were able to exert more influence than general advocacy groups. Finally, the hypothesis that openness leads to more stakeholder-influence was not confirmed in this case. To the contrary, only during private bilateral discussion did a selection of business organizations manage to convince the dossier team of the benefits of limited border controls.


Berend Snijders
Berend Snijders is promovendus aan de Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht. Correspondentiegegevens: Drs. Berend Snijders Universiteit Utrecht Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap Bijlhouwerstraat 6 3511 ZC Utrecht B.J.B.Snijders@uu.nl

Femke van Esch
Femke van Esch is als universitair docent verbonden aan de Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht.

    This article distinguished between three fundamental processes of collective decision-making as collective production in social systems: (1) persuasion; (2) exchange and (3) coercion. The conditions under which these processes are dominant are described, as well as the type of network that is central to each of the processes. Corporatism and lobbyism appear to be two polarities of collective decision-making. In corporatism interest groups are directly involved in final decision making through formal and informal institutions whereas in lobbyism final decision making is delegated to independent persons. In corporatist decision-making, mutual interests dominate conflicting interests. Thus, a failure of reaching consensus becomes unattractive and consensus is guaranteed through the formal norm of majority decision-making and the informal norm of unanimity. When mutual interests dominate over conflicting interests, lobbyism is reflected by the interactions between lobby activists and civil servants and politicians who share the same position. Ad hoc lobbyism will arise when conflicts of interests dominate and a non-cooperative game exists in which (temporal) coalitions must be built.


Frans N. Stokman
Frans Stokman is als hoogleraar verbonden aan de capaciteitsgroep Sociologie van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en het Interuniversitair Centrum voor Sociaal-wetenschappelijke theorievorming en Methodenontwikkeling (ICS). Daarnaast is hij directeur van DECIDE B.V. Recente publicaties van zijn hand zijn: co-editor van The European Union Decides. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (met Robert Thomson, Christopher Achen en Thomas König, te verschijnen in 2006), co-editor van Winners and Losers in the European Union, Special issue van European Union Politics Vol 5(1) (2004) en 'Frame Dependent Modeling of Influence Processes', in: Andreas Diekmann en Thomas Voss (Red.), Rational-Choice-Theorie in den Sozialwissenschaften. Anwendungen und Probleme. Festschrift für Rolf Ziegler, München: Oldenbourg (pp.113-127). Adres: Grote Rozenstraat 31, 9712 TG Groningen.
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