Zoekresultaat: 1610 artikelen

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Artikel

Politiek-ambtelijke verhoudingen in de 2.0-wereld

Nieuwe uitdagingen en overzeese lessen

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2012
Auteurs Paul 't Hart en Martijn van der Steen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper reviews developments in political-administrative relations in Dutch central government from 2002-2012. It highlights the strengths/weaknesses of Dutch structures and processes in managing the interface between ministers and the public service. It signals a number of key trends in the political context of executive government that are going to put pressure on the status quo, and examines the much more centralised and politically orchestrated Australian system for pointers towards possible ways in which these contextual changes are going to be.


Paul 't Hart
Prof. dr P. 't Hart is hoogleraar aan het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) aan de Universiteit Utrecht en co-decaan aan de Nederlandse School voor Openbaar Bestuur (NSOB) in Den Haag.

Martijn van der Steen
Dr M.A. van der Steen is codecaan en adjunct-directeur van de NSOB.

    Urban government is expected to contribute to the solution of major urban problems. At the same time, urban government is riddled with problems itself, often denoted in terms of governing and democratic deficits. In this article, options for governance reform in the urban realm are being explored along five lines, following up on recent research in the Netherlands and abroad. Both more aggregative arrangements (electronic ‘straw polls’, knowledge polls, prediction markets, ‘dot gov’ competitions for ‘best solutions’) and more collaborative arrangements (electronic co-creation, wiki governance, vital coalitions, urban regimes) are being assessed. The conclusions is that there are good arguments for, at least, more experimentation along these lines - not only from a functionalistic, but also from a democratic and social-psychological point of view.


Frank Hendriks
Prof. dr F. Hendriks is hoogleraar Vergelijkende Bestuurskunde aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

De kracht van de stad

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden local government, urban affairs, urban governance, innovation, institutional change
Auteurs Jos Koffijberg en Henk Wesseling
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Currently, Dutch cities are facing persistent societal problems as well as changing circumstances, due to the financial crisis and changing national policies. This special issue seeks to take analysis beyond a sense of mere crisis and investigates contemporary urban initiatives in order to discern what innovative modes of governance they offer.


Jos Koffijberg
Dr J.J. Koffijberg is hoofd onderzoek bij Nicis Institute, Den Haag.

Henk Wesseling
Drs H.W.M. Wesseling is verbonden aan Berenschot en leidt daar het Expertisecentrum Arrangementbouw.

Marcel Boogers
Dr M.J.G.J.A. Boogers is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur, Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

De kanteling van de Wmo: Transformatie van de verzorgingsstaat in de stad?

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden welfare state, reform, big society, local level, participation
Auteurs Jeroen Hoenderkamp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article investigates whether the local practices growing under the Wet Maatschappelijke Ondersteuning (Wmo; Law for social participation) can be viewed as examples of ‘transformation of the welfare state’-in-action. The article argues that indeed, a number of Dutch cities is trying to create a shift in the balance of responsibilities of citizens, social networks, civil society and government that can be judged an operationalization of the more abstract recommendations of many ‘welfare state reformers’. It remains to be seen however, whether these attempts will actually result in change. There are both practical problems and fundamental questions to be tackled. The question whether the transformation wished for by many from a political perspective, is actually feasible (given the political and societal constraints) should be addressed firmly by both local and national actors.As it goes, the opposite is the case: the question of the feasibility of the Wmo seems to have vanished in the void between parliament and municipalities.


Jeroen Hoenderkamp
Dr J. Hoenderkamp was de afgelopen vijftien jaar in dienst van verschillende adviesbureaus in het sociale domein. Recent is hij in dienst getreden van de gemeente Maastricht, waar hij de in dit artikel beschreven transformatie van verzorgingsstaat naar participatiestad mee helpt vormgeven.
Artikel

De wet werken naar vermogen: De stedelijke uitdaging voor creatieve destructie

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden job provision, disabled workers, welfare state, creative destruction, local government
Auteurs Marco Wilke
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch government is preparing a major new law on social security. Among other things, this law fundamentally addresses the current system of job provision for disabled workers. The article describes the proposed system change from the Schumpeterian perspective of creative destruction. The national government effectively tears up the current system but fails to offer a workable and effective alternative. The creative part of the process is left to the municipalities. The municipalities have to develop strategies for integrating disabled workers in the labour market, acknowledging the fact that demand for these workers is very low. The author presents two of those strategies that might effectively integrate disabled workers in the economy and society.


Marco Wilke
Dr M. Wilke is algemeen directeur van Drechtwerk, de sociale werkvoorziening in het Drechtstedengebied. Daarnaast is hij associé van BMC.
Artikel

Het falen van deliberatie

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2012
Auteurs Sonja van der Arend en Jelle Behagel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Deliberative democracy is a topic of fierce debate in political philosophy, democratic theory and other disciplines. Over the last two decades, the notion of deliberation - or dialogue - as a key democratic asset has also pervaded practices and empirical studies of public policy and governance. Although avid advocates and critics of deliberative governing and policy making may be found, the majority of scholars and professionals in this field take on a pragmatic, agnostic stance, and a public debate between them remains largely absent. Thus, deliberation is hardly contested or questioned, while in practice, it regularly leads to failure and disappointment. The article introduces and transcribes a dialogue on the failing of deliberation that was performed at a symposium on ‘Contested democracy’ by The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) (Jan. 2011, The Hague). An optimist and a cynic deliberate the role of deliberation, accompanied by a chorus of administration scientists.


Sonja van der Arend
Dr ir S.H. van der Arend is verbonden aan de TU Delft.

Jelle Behagel
Drs J. Behagel is promovendus aan Wageningen University.
Boekbespreking

Dissertaties

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2012

    The problems discussed in the articles of this special issue are not merely wicked in the sense of involving normative dissensus and factual uncertainty. They also are systemic: they reflect institutional inertia, discursive inertia and the disruptive impact of sociological trends (individualization, Europeanization etc.) on incumbent practices and institutions. This systemic character tends to makes them persistent: while fundamental change is unavoidable, such change is likely to be bothered by the very institutional and discursive inertia it seeks to address. Reflecting, from a public policy studies point of view, on previous articles we deduce four principles from urban practices to deal with these challenges: 1) reduce dissent and uncertainty where possible; 2) acknowledge normative diversity by promoting context-specific solutions; 3) organize policies around societal/market initiatives that have emerged in a context and 4) define institutional changes that may further promote and simplify such policies and seize opportunities for structural change.


John Grin
Prof. dr J. Grin is hoogleraar Beleidswetenschap, in het bijzonder systeeminnovaties, aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Jos Koffijberg
Dr J.J. Koffijberg en prof. dr W.A. Hafkamp zijn als respectievelijk hoofd onderzoek en wetenschappelijk directeur verbonden aan Nicis Institute.

Wim Hafkamp
Dr J.J. Koffijberg en prof. dr W.A. Hafkamp zijn als respectievelijk hoofd onderzoek en wetenschappelijk directeur verbonden aan Nicis Institute.

Henk Wesseling
Drs H.W.M. Wesseling is verbonden aan Berenschot en leidt daar het Expertisecentrum Arrangementbouw.

    Real estate vacancies, undeveloped land within cities and exhausted financial resources of governments are currently high on the agendas of urban decision makers. The financial-economic crisis is often blamed for this. In the Netherlands, overoptimistic development strategies from market players and city governments also contributed to this problem of oversupply, in their pursuit for profit, people and jobs. Research has shown the existence of two coordination dilemmas; at the local and regional level. What solutions to these dilemmas are possible? This article argues that recognition of the problem by local parties is a first and necessary step to be taken. Evidence shows this is difficult due to conflicting interests. Step two will be to decide for the feasible projects within the local development arena partners. Regional coordination is needed to determine conditions that the assumption underlying these projects should be based on. Only after this third step regional cooperation to prevent future tragedies development will be possible.


Leonie Janssen-Jansen
Dr L.B. Janssen-Jansen is universitair hoofddocent Planologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Merel Mulders
Drs ing. M.J.C.B. Mulders is werkzaam als planoloog in de gemeentelijke praktijk.
Artikel

Kraamkamers van een nieuwe verzorgingsstaat

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden neighbourhood approach, wicked problems, institutional change, citizen initiatives, welfare state
Auteurs Maurice Cramers en Jos van der Lans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2010 and 2011 a committee of experts inspected if and how forty of the most deprived areas in Dutch cities have benefitted from the major national neighbourhood policy program launched by the previous government in 2007. The aim of the program was to restore living conditions in those areas within the next ten years, by investments in the physical, social and economic field, thus trying to improve the living conditions and chances (social mobility) of the neighbourhood citizens. According to the Committee, the forty neighbourhoods have proved to be laboratories for institutional change. There is growing confidence among local parties that with less disintegrated bureaucracy and more possibilities for citizen initiatives, interventions can be organised which are more effective and cheaper. Realising the objectives of the neighbourhood approach demands continuous involvement, effective organization, creative solutions and intensive contact between professionals and citizens. Government organizations and institutions need to relinquish control and facilitate and support the problem solving abilities of the professionals and citizens, who live and work in these neighbourhoods day in day out. In the most problematic neighbourhoods of Dutch cities, the seeds of the new welfare state are being planted.


Maurice Cramers
M. Cramers is beleidsadviseur bij het ministerie van BZK en was secretaris van de Visitatiecommissie wijkenaanpak.

Jos van der Lans
J. van der Lans is cultuurpsycholoog en publicist. Hij was, naast W. Deetman en R. Scherpenisse, één van de voorzitters van deze commissie. Deze bijdrage schrijven zij op persoonlijke titel.
Artikel

De energieke stad

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2012
Auteurs Maarten Hajer en Hiddo Huitzing
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Sustainability, the question of how our system of prosperity could be maintained, is one of the main issues of the coming decades. To combine economic growth and a pleasant environment, society needs to scale back its resource use and the ensuing pressures on the environment, by a factor of five. The challenge is to do more with less; something for which there is no instant solution. The city is the place where this change will begin, not by ‘big’ government with ‘big’ plans, but by the energetic society. Citizens and the business community are motivated by their wish for a clean economy and a pleasant living environment. The rise of the information society has increased their ability to exchange knowledge and ideas, releasing creativity and creating new solutions. If city governments are to tap into the strength of society, they must embrace the initiatives and join citizens and business in the empowered deliberative search for sustainable solutions. The goal of a clean economy is within reach, but it demands comprehensive physical and cultural change, in which local initiatives may lead the cultural change towards a broad vision of a strong, sustainable society. A large role for government remains, but high quality, low carbon cities may be the winners of the future.


Maarten Hajer
Prof. dr M.A. Hajer en drs J.H.A. Huitzing zijn verbonden aan het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving.

Hiddo Huitzing
Prof. dr M.A. Hajer en drs J.H.A. Huitzing zijn verbonden aan het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving.
Artikel

Lokaal bestuur en de itbreiding van Europa

De bestuurlijke aanpak van de arbeidsmigratie uit Midden- en Oost-Europa

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden EU Enlargement, Europeanization, Local Governance, Labour Migration, Migrant Integration Policies
Auteurs Godfried Engbersen en Erik Snel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents an empirically grounded typology of labour migration patterns among migrants from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and analyses the ways in which large cities and small towns cope with the diverse inflows of new EU citizens in their municipalities. Our analysis is based on a survey (N=654) among labour migrants from Poland, Bulgaria and Romania in 11 municipalities in the Netherlands, including Rotterdam and The Hague. Next, we make use of the results of six discussion meetings with local stakeholders and housing and labour recruitment agencies. The inflow of new EU citizens shows the local limits of urban governance. In order to cope with the negative aspects of the new labour migration Dutch cities try to influence national and European policy agenda's and develop local programs that counteract the shadow sides of the new labour migration.


Godfried Engbersen
Prof. dr G.B.M. Engbersen en dr E. Snel zijn respectievelijk hoogleraar en universiteit docent aan de afdeling Sociologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Erik Snel
Prof. dr G.B.M. Engbersen en dr E. Snel zijn respectievelijk hoogleraar en universiteit docent aan de afdeling Sociologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Vluchten in bureaucratie

Bureaucratische gehechtheid onder professionals in de jeugdhulpverlening

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden professionalism, youth care, accountability, bureaucracy, marketization
Auteurs Drs. Daniel van Hassel, Prof. dr. Evelien Tonkens en Drs. Marc Hoijtink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent decades, professionals in the public sector have been faced with increasingly detailed demands concerning accountability and performance. It is often argued that this increased accountability and its bureaucratic pressures limit professionals’ discretionary space and autonomy. However, this critique is hardly based on empirical research on the experiences and perceptions of professionals themselves. In this article we present an investigation into these perceptions and experiences with accountability in one particular brand of the public sector, namely youth care.
    Our research indicates that professionals in youth care are hardly interested in greater autonomy or discretion. They rather want clarity, security and options for learning. Moreover, we found ‘bureaucratic attachment’: attachment to bureaucratic procedures particularly as a reaction to increased fears to be sued when something goes wrong with clients. In the recurrent arguments for reduction of bureaucracy, this other face of bureaucracy is often disregarded.
    Regarding working conditions however, the professionals we interviewed do want more discretion. Especially concerning occupation of beds, as the requirement for permanent occupation is viewed to augment risk. We therefore argue for better backing of professionals in youth, for a more precise battle against unnecessary bureaucracy, and for professionalization in order to handle more discretion.


Drs. Daniel van Hassel
Daniel van Hassel is socioloog en als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Nederlands instituut voor onderzoek van de gezondheidszorg (NIVEL), waar hij zich bezighoudt met het thema beroepen in de gezondheidszorg, d.hassel@nivel.nl.

Prof. dr. Evelien Tonkens
Evelien Tonkens is bijzonder hoogleraar actief burgerschap bij de afdeling Sociologie en Antropologie van de Universiteit van Amsterdam en toezichthouder van Meander Medisch Centrum te Amersfoort, e.h.tonkens@uva.nl.

Drs. Marc Hoijtink
Marc Hoijtink is socioloog en onderzoeker aan Kenniscentrum Maatschappij en Recht van de Hogeschool van Amsterdam, waar hij zich bezighoudt met de thema’s sociaal beleid en professionaliseringsvraagstukken, m.a.hoijtink@uva.nl.
Redactioneel

Redactioneel

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2012
Auteurs Ewald Engelen
Auteursinformatie

Ewald Engelen
Ewald Engelen is voorzitter van de redactie van Beleid en Maatschappij.
Artikel

De tucht der wetenschap

Veranderingstheorieën van polarisatie- en radicalismebeleid op de proef gesteld

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden polarization, radicalization, evaluation research, theory-driven evaluation, social policy
Auteurs Drs. Vasco Lub
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Currently the Dutch government funds dozens of social interventions designed to tackle polarization and radicalization issues. It is still unknown whether the assumptions underlying these interventions are valid. This article puts the theories of change of such interventions to the test. Underlying causal assumptions of four dominant Dutch social policies were confronted with scientific evidence: (1) the system-based approach, (2) peer mediation, (3) intergroup contact and (4) self-esteem enhancement. System-based approaches – comparable to multi-systemic therapy (MST) – seem effective in reducing extremist behaviour in radical youth, but do not necessarily lead to an ideological change. In peer mediation, the causal link between the deployment of young people and the positive outcomes of such methods remains unclear. Peer mediation is also more likely to contribute in conflicts that have not yet escalated. Intergroup contact reduces prejudices about other groups, but has a limited effect. There is also no evidence for a long term effect and positive outcomes of intergroup contact do not automatically apply to adolescents. Finally, it is questionable that enhancing the self-esteem of (moslim) youth makes them more resilient against radical tendencies. In the same vein, the scientific evidence is ambiguous about whether increasing self-esteem results in social desirable behaviour or improved social relations.


Drs. Vasco Lub
Vasco Lub is zelfstandig onderzoeker (Bureau voor Sociale Argumentatie). Hij is daarnaast als buitenpromovendus verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam (capaciteitsgroep Sociologie), waar hij een proefschrift voorbereidt over de bewijsvoering van grootstedelijk sociaal beleid, lub@fsw.eur.nl.

    Reflection and Debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Imrat Verhoeven
Imrat Verhoeven is redactielid van Beleid en Maatschappij.

    Reflection and Debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Prof. dr. Margo Trappenburg
Margo Trappenburg is universitair hoofddocent bij de Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschappen en bijzonder hoogleraar op de Drees leerstoel (Universiteit van Amsterdam).
Artikel

Weinig vreemde handen aan de Nederlandse bedden

Arbeidsmigranten in de ouderenzorg in vergelijkend perspectief

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden migrant care work, The Netherlands, elderly care, labour migration, care policy
Auteurs Dr. Franca van Hooren
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In many European countries immigrants play an important role as employees in the elderly care sector. They are employed by a care providing organisation, or directly by a family as private care assistant. By contrast, in the Netherlands such a development is hardly visible. This article investigates why relatively few migrant workers are employed in Dutch elderly care. The Dutch situation is compared with developments in Italy, Great Britain and Austria. I assess explanations based on demand side, supply side and cultural factors and conclude that especially the large public investments in Dutch elderly care can explain the limited demand for migrant workers. A restrictive immigration policy and language and historical factors play only a minor role. Whether a larger demand for migrant workers will emerge in the future, therefore depends on developments in public elderly care policy.


Dr. Franca van Hooren
Franca van Hooren is postdoctoraal onderzoeker aan de universiteit van Bremen. Zij doet onderzoek naar de gevolgen van de economische crisis voor de verzorgingsstaat, franca.vanhooren@sfb597.uni-bremen.de.

    In a column a journal editor or an author expresses his or her opinion on a particular subject.


Ewald Engelen
Ewald Engelen is voorzitter van de redactie van Beleid en Maatschappij.
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