Zoekresultaat: 312 artikelen

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Artikel

Access_open Hybride stadsregionaal bestuur belicht: effectiviteit en legitimiteit in vier grootstedelijke gebieden

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden hybrid governance, city-region, effectiveness, legitimacy
Auteurs dr. Linze Schaap, dr. Carlo Colombo, dr. Maaike Damen e.a.
Samenvatting

    This article reports on an analysis of the effectiveness and legitimacy of modes of governance in four European regions that clearly show signs of hybridity, that is, they have private as well as public characteristics. Berlin, Eindhoven, Copenhagen-Malmö and Zurich thus aim to increase the problem-solving capacity of their regional governance and to govern ‘smartly’ in a complex and multi-level context. The individual cities search for effective links with private and societal actors, each in its own way. Legitimacy is an issue that is hardly reflected upon, though. Hybrid modes of governance may have negative impacts on both effectiveness and legitimacy, but also offer new opportunities for good governance. ‘Hybrid’ and ‘smart’ do not always go hand in hand, but they are not mutually exclusive either.


dr. Linze Schaap

dr. Carlo Colombo

dr. Maaike Damen

dr. Niels Karsten Msc MA
Artikel

Access_open Wat maakt slimme sturing slim?

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden smart governance, hybrid governance, self-organization, adaptive capacity
Auteurs Prof. dr. Joop Koppenjan, Prof. dr. ir. Katrien Termeer en Dr. Philip Marcel Karré
Samenvatting

    Wicked problems ask for new, smart forms of governance beyond a singular focus on hierarchy, market or community. Based on the case studies presented in the individual articles of this special issue, this concluding article describes what smart governance could entail and discusses its strengths and weaknesses, both as a concept and a practical tool.


Prof. dr. Joop Koppenjan

Prof. dr. ir. Katrien Termeer

Dr. Philip Marcel Karré
Artikel

De dynamiek van slimme sturing voor de verduurzaming van handelsketens

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden smart governance, global value chains, Partnerships, voluntary sustainability standards
Auteurs Prof. dr. ir. Katrien Termeer, Dr. Hilde Toonen, Drs. Marcel Kok e.a.
Samenvatting

    Traditional state-centered governance systems have failed to effectively tackle the transnational problem of the sustainability of global value chains (GVCs). To fill this ‘institutional void’, industry and NGOs established a series of global partnerships that designed standards and certification schemes for global commodities. This paper uses different theoretical lenses to address the question as to what extent these arrangements can be evaluated as smart, and for what and for whom they are smart? Despite their relative success, these partnerships face some serious challenges. Consequently, smart governance also requires adaptiveness and the prevention of path dependencies.


Prof. dr. ir. Katrien Termeer

Dr. Hilde Toonen

Drs. Marcel Kok

Prof. dr. Esther Turnhout
Artikel

Slimme sturing van publiek-private samenwerking bij publieke infrastructuur

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Public private partnership, DBFM(O)-contracts, Public infrastructure projects, Relational contracting
Auteurs Joop Koppenjan, Erik Hans Klijn, Rianne Warsen e.a.
Samenvatting

    In the Netherlands, the Dutch government public private partnerships (PPP) using DBFMO contracts has become the default option for realizing complex public infrastructures. DBFMO contracts imply the integrated outsourcing of the design (D), building (B), financing (F), the maintenance (M), and also often the exploitation (O) of projects to private actors. The general idea is that by bundling public and private resources, the increasing complexity of today’s public infrastructure projects can be tackled more easily. However, reality is contumacious. As a consequence of several problems related to DBFMO collaborations, the Dutch highway and water management agency Rijkswaterstaat and several private actors recently put forward a new market vision. This vision is a call to reinvent the dominant collaboration practice between public and private actors: relational aspects should be central. In managing projects, more attention should be given to the quality of relations, attitudes, openness and trust. Recent research confirms that the success of DBFMO projects is not only contingent on contractual aspects but also, and maybe even more importantly, on relational aspects. Smart governance involves a shift from the current dominant financial economic-oriented contractual approach to PPP towards a more sociologically inspired relational form of governance.


Joop Koppenjan

Erik Hans Klijn

Rianne Warsen

José Nederhand
Artikel

Crisis? What crisis?!

Verhalende betekenisgeving aan de economische crisis door gemeenten en hun maatschappelijke partners

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 2 2018
Auteurs Dr. Mark van Dam
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2008 a global economic crisis broke out. Now we can look back at the crisis as a clearly ordered sequence of events. But at the time these events were experienced as unexpected, unordered and unpredictable: a shock situation. How did municipalities respond to this shock situation, to this economic crisis? This article describes how two Dutch municipalities, together with their societal partners, made sense of the economic crisis. This concerns the question of how they interpreted the crisis themselves, but also which actions ensued. From a constructivist position, the article considers how the two municipalities together with their partners made sense of the situation and this enabled them to implement measures that could mitigate the consequences of the crisis for their communities. Based on epistemological and methodological assumptions discourse analysis, the author investigates the role of language in this process of sense-making. This approach offers municipalities insight in the role of stories in policymaking and in determining new practical solutions. The article closes with some guidance on how this perspective can help to people and institutions to cope with comparable situations, specifically in the cooperation between municipalities and other organizations.


Dr. Mark van Dam
Dr. A. van Dam is oprichter en onderzoeker/adviseur bij AddSense. In 2017 promoveerde hij aan de Faculteit Politieke en Sociale Wetenschappen van de Universiteit Gent.

    In the last few years, platform work and the so-called ‘gig economy’ have been growing across countries. While policy makers are debating the gig economy, there is no single agreed definition of this new type of work and systematic academic reviews are missing. This literature review provides main findings of relevant papers on working in the gig economy. The article shows that the growth of the gig economy fits well into the increasing hybridisation of work, which raises some political questions.


Fabian Dekker
Fabian Dekker is als arbeidssocioloog verbonden aan Regioplan Beleidsonderzoek en lid van de redactie van Beleid en Maatschappij.
Artikel

Loslaten in achterdocht

Over het gebrek aan vertrouwen in burgers

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden vertrouwen, loslaten, participatiesamenleving, eigenbelang, bestuurlijk discours
Auteurs Daniël van Kapel MSc
Samenvatting

    Much has been written about the decline of trust in societies: trust in governments and political systems is a popular field of research. Trust of governments in citizens however, is a relatively unknown field. This article presents a research into the trust the Dutch government has in its citizens. By conducting a discourse analysis on policy documents regarding the participation society, the degree of trust was examined. The results show that the government has trust in the capabilities of citizens, but does not trust the intentions of citizens. This results in many control measures, high transaction costs, a fragile base for public cooperation and a disturbed relationship between the government and citizens. In order to gain more trust in citizens the government has to change the way it uses language regarding citizens.


Daniël van Kapel MSc

    In this feature authors discuss recent research findings that are of interest to readers of Beleid en Maatschappij.


Dr. Duco Bannink
Dr. Duco Bannink is redactielid van Beleid en Maatschappij en werkzaam aan de Vrije Universiteit.
Artikel

Access_open Welke factoren bevorderen of belemmeren het gebruik van beleidsevaluaties?

Resultaten van een studie bij de Inspectie Ontwikkelingssamenwerking en Beleidsevaluatie

Tijdschrift Beleidsonderzoek Online, maart 2018
Auteurs Marjolein Bouterse en Valérie Pattyn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Alhoewel het gebruik van beleidsevaluaties (of het gebrek eraan) een van de meest besproken thema’s is in de evaluatieliteratuur, berust veel onderzoek over het thema enkel op anekdotisch bewijs, en zijn er nauwelijks studies beschikbaar die aandacht hebben voor de samenhang tussen verschillende factoren die impact kunnen hebben op het gebruik. In voorliggend artikel presenteren we de resultaten van een studie waarin we hebben getracht om op een systematische wijze inzicht te bieden in de combinaties van factoren die instrumenteel gebruik van beleidsevaluaties bevorderen of verhinderen. We onderzochten in dit verband alle evaluaties die in de periode 2013-2016 werden uitgevoerd bij de Inspectie Ontwikkelingssamenwerking en Beleidsevaluatie. Via Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) bekeken we welke combinaties van de volgende factoren als noodzakelijk en/of voldoende bleken voor evaluatiegebruik: (1) politiek gehalte van het onderwerp, (2) interesse van de beleidsmakers, (3) aanwezigheid van nieuwe kennis in de evaluatie, en (4) de timing van de evaluatie.
    Voor de praktijk van beleidsmakers en evaluatoren benadrukken we het belang van tijdigheid en interesse voor een evaluatie. Onze analyse laat zien dat professionals die op deze factoren inzetten, een gunstig klimaat creëren voor het gebruik van evaluaties. Wat betreft tijdigheid lijkt het van belang de evaluatie te laten sporen met het schrijfwerk van een beleidsafdeling aan nieuw beleid of grote beleidsveranderingen. Goede anticipatie en een sterke institutionalisering van het evaluatieproces zijn hiertoe cruciaal. Of het thema van de evaluatie een sterke politieke gevoeligheid kent, is minder belangrijk. Mits sprake is van de juiste omgevingscondities, kunnen ook dergelijke evaluaties sterk instrumenteel worden benut.


Marjolein Bouterse
Marjolein Bouterse studeerde Political Science and Public Administration (research master) in Leiden. Dit onderzoek is uitgevoerd in het kader van haar scriptie. Inmiddels werkt zij als junior beleidsonderzoeker bij Regioplan Beleidsonderzoek.

Valérie Pattyn
Valérie Pattyn is universitair docent aan het Instituut Bestuurskunde van de Universiteit Leiden. Haar voornaamste onderzoeksexpertise situeert zich op het terrein van evidence-informed beleid, de politiek van beleidsevaluatie en beleidsadvisering. Daarnaast voert ze zelf ook geregeld evaluatiestudies uit binnen meerdere beleidsdomeinen.
Artikel

Verkeer als stelsel met stelselverantwoordelijkheid voor veiligheid?

Naar een moderne governance opvatting van ‘co-responsibility’ bij stelsels

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden traffic safety, systems approach, governance, co-responsibility
Auteurs Dr. mr. Dick Ruimschotel
Samenvatting

    Lack of safety leading to death or injury has many aspects: personal violence, traffic, accidents at home or the work place, not to mention other external sources as radiation and fine dust or internal sources like diseases. In this paper we restrict ourselves to the lack of safety in traffic as a system, and address the following questions: (1) Is traffic a system with one dominant responsible actor (Ministry of Traffic)? (2) What explanations are offered for the lack of safety? (3) Who is responsible for safety? (4) What sort of interventions are suitable for enhancing safety? and (5) What type of process/consultancy is most appropriate for answer the preceding questions?
    The paper arrives at its conclusions via an indirect way, namely a short analysis of what a system comprises and what constitutes an explanation, responsibility and effectiveness. It appears that we are all causally involved in the lack of safety, and we are all responsible at all levels of society: micro-individual, meso-organizational and macro-societal. Therefore a promising route to maximize safety is a governance perspective comprising multiple stakeholder co-responsibility. It remains to be seen whether this perspective should replace the predominant command and control governance or complement it.


Dr. mr. Dick Ruimschotel
Artikel

Hoezo zijn (on)veiligheidsbeslissingen lastig publiekelijk te verantwoorden?

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden justification of risk policies, risk perception, risk acceptance, intractable citizen
Auteurs Prof. dr. Ira Helsloot
Samenvatting

    This article analyses a cause for the abundance of disproportional risk policies in the Netherlands. Many policymakers and academics believe that people in the Netherlands today are so risk averse that they are not willing to accept any risk that may result from reasonable risk policies. However, as some examples that we present show, there appears to be another kind of Dutch citizen: a citizen that understands and supports the decision of authorities that increase the risk to citizens but are necessary from the perspective of the common good. We argue that the belief in the unreasonable citizen is informed by one-sided research that only asks citizens how they perceive risks and what they want as risk consumers. Asking the same respondents face-to-face what they would do as policymakers themselves, however, results in diametric answers that show a rational and social side of those respondents. Respondents give higher priority to the education system or traffic safety than to preventing unusual risks such as asbestos or terrorism to themselves. Hence, the justification of reasonable risk policies is not as difficult as generally assumed.


Prof. dr. Ira Helsloot
Artikel

Verantwoordelijkheid en voorzorg bij ‘de overgewichtepidemie’

Onzekerheid en transparantie bij preventief leefstijlbeleid

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden prevention, precaution, lifestyle policy, obesogenic society, obesity epidemic
Auteurs Dr. Roel Pieterman
Samenvatting

    Since the start of the 21st century, most nations have followed the lead of the World Health Organization and developed specific policies to tackle the ‘global obesity epidemic’. The medical reasoning is that non-contagious diseases are the most important causes of mortality and morbidity, especially in prosperous nations. As these diseases are conceptualized as ‘caused’ by ‘unhealthy lifestyle choices’, there is dire need for preventive lifestyle policies that help people make ‘the healthy choice’. Seen from this perspective the distribution of responsibilities between governments and their citizens is made in accordance to the ‘intervention ladder’, which has been developed from a stewardship model.
    Regarding the ‘obesity epidemic’, this contribution tests the basic medical claims behind this science policy complex. We find that the knowledge base for these claims is highly uncertain and that interventions lack efficacy. Furthermore, research points to increased levels of stigmatization of ‘fat people’, leading more discrimination. All this changes the status of the policies from preventive (i.e. proportionate) to precautionary (i.e. disproportionate). Further analysis of the preventive medical and policy paradigms shows both are by default biased towards precaution. Combined with the notion that citizens of democratic societies are entitled to trustworthy and transparent information, this contribution concludes that a reorientation of both paradigms is called for.


Dr. Roel Pieterman
Artikel

Gezocht: integere en daadkrachtige verbinder (m/v)

Het onderscheidend vermogen van profielschetsen voor Nederlandse burgemeesters beoordeeld

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 1 2018
Auteurs Niels Karsten, Hans Oostendorp en Frank van Kooten
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    There is a lot of criticism on the profile descriptions in which Dutch municipalities express the requirements which they put on a new mayor to be appointed. They would look too much like each other and contain few real choices. This article describes the requirements Dutch municipalities put on candidate mayors and analyses the discriminatory power of profile descriptions. A content analysis of 231 profile descriptions and talks with five focus groups show that municipal councils especially ask for integer networkers and linkers, who are above all effective, empathic and communicative. The differences between municipalities in this respect are small and the municipal size hardly makes any difference. Municipal councils do not fully utilize the opportunities in profile descriptions for local customization and barely translate the local conditions into specific requirements. The explanation for this is partly located in isomorphic processes, that lead to uniformity: municipal councils follow the guide of the national government for the appointment process and copy texts from each other. At the same time the office of the mayor in the Netherlands asks for a specific content, that is translated into the profile descriptions. It is therefore the question if the criticism on profile descriptions is fully justified. They do have discriminatory power, although municipal councils could make much sharper choices in what they expect from a mayor, appropriate to the challenges the municipality faces.


Niels Karsten
Dr. N. Karsten MA is universitair docent aan de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur van de Universiteit van Tilburg.

Hans Oostendorp
Drs. J.H.W. Oostendorp is directeur van het adviesbureau Necker van Naem.

Frank van Kooten
F. van Kooten MSc is data-analist bij het adviesbureau Necker van Naem.

    In administrative practice as well as in administrative science administrative innovation is a much desired good. In this article the author makes an attempt to describe the good, or the better, that can be pursued with administrative innovation, much sharper than has been done in the past. The result is a substantive framework for qualifying and evaluating administrative innovations. The article arises from a special interaction research, that started with a question from administrative practice (about the leading principles for administrative innovation in the Dutch municipality of Breda) and ended in a confrontation between desiderata from administrative practice on the one hand and foundations from administrative science on the other hand. Finally, these six leading principles emerged out of the investigation: responsiveness, productivity, involvement, counter-pressure, creativity, and good governance. The author also discusses how the resulting framework can be used and understood. The framework is robust because it not only is theoretically (the literature on governance and democratic innovation) inspired and founded, but also recognizable and manageable for administrative practice.


Frank Hendriks
Prof. dr. F. Hendriks is hoogleraar bestuurskunde aan de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Essay

Access_open Hoe verhogen we het rendement van kennis voor beleid?

Van beleidscontrol naar leerproces

Tijdschrift Beleidsonderzoek Online, december 2017
Auteurs Hans Peter Benschop
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De preoccupatie met evidence based beleid miskent de exploratieve waarde van wetenschap voor beleid. In veel en de meest uitdagende beleidsprocessen, zoals de grote transities aangaande energie, zorg, landbouw en circulaire economie, moet de overheid beslissingen in onzekerheid nemen. Het beleidsonderzoek zou zich minder moeten bezighouden met wat zeker is en meer met wijs handelen in onzekerheid. Wetenschappers kunnen de besluitruimte voor politici duiden, en kunnen aangeven wat mogelijk effectieve maatregelen zijn. Dit bescheiden, voorzichtig aftasten van de werkelijkheid vereist arena’s waar wetenschap, bestuurders en volksvertegenwoordigers in gesprek zijn over de toepassing van wetenschappelijke inzichten in de praktijk van het hier en nu. Op diverse plekken in Nederland wordt geëxperimenteerd met dergelijke arena’s.


Hans Peter Benschop
Hans Peter Benschop (1960) leidt het Trendbureau Overijssel. Daarvoor was hij werkzaam voor de gemeente Apeldoorn en diverse ministeries. Hij studeerde filosofie in Utrecht en Parijs en is gepromoveerd in Leiden.

    Er is de laatste tijd veel aandacht voor het omgaan met onzekerheid en dynamiek in beleid. Zo is er recent de roep om leren door doen, door een overheid die samen met de samenleving het experiment aan durft te gaan. Zo’n benadering van beleid als gezamenlijk experiment is veelbelovend, maar vergt ook passende methoden voor beleidsevaluaties. Adaptief beleid speelt hierop in. De laatste jaren is een belangrijke stap gezet in de ontwikkeling van methoden waarmee adaptief beleid ontwikkeld kan worden. Voor de evaluatie en de rol van evaluaties heeft dit belangrijke implicaties. In dit artikel wordt hierop verder ingegaan, op basis van ervaringen met adaptief beleid en beleidsevaluatie binnen het Nederlandse Deltaprogramma.


Leon Hermans
Leon Hermans is werkzaam aan de Technische Universiteit Delft, Faculteit Techniek, Bestuur en Management.
Artikel

Onbetaalbare huizen en onderbenutte gebieden

De institutionele leegte van woningbouw en gebiedstransformatie

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden institutional void, urban transformation, urban governance, housing policy, policy instruments
Auteurs Dr. Wouter Jan Verheul
Samenvatting

    In the Netherlands, as in many other countries, housing supply fails to meet the rapidly increasing housing demand in already densely urbanised areas, contributing to rising housing prices and possibly gentrification. The state and local governments aim to satisfy this demand by densifying urban areas and by transforming urban brownfields and vacant office parks into residential areas, thus containing urban sprawl. However, the private actors needed to redevelop these areas operate according to a different institutional logic and discourse: the market. According to this market logic, urban transform is too expensive, even when partly subsidized, and, to some extent, sprawl is unavoidable to satisfy housing demand. The two different logics fail to deliver the housing needed. Building discourse coalitions is suggested as a possible way out of this deadlocked debate, while government actors might also aim to influence the housing market with novel, market oriented policy instruments.


Dr. Wouter Jan Verheul
Artikel

Institutionele leegte: nieuwe bronnen, nieuwe uitdagingen

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden Institutional void, Literature review, Societal change, Technical innovation, Governance
Auteurs Prof.dr. Ellen van Bueren en Dr.ing. Bram Klievink
Samenvatting

    Societal and technological developments (such as the digital and energy revolutions) move faster than existing institutions can keep up with. The developments may lead to a metaphorical institutional void, which brings questions about the nature of the void, the changing rules, practices and responsibilities, and about the strategies to deal with the void. The concept has been around for a while but (again) seems relevant to understand current socio-technological innovations and challenges, that also allow us to further conceptualise the institutional void. In this introduction to the issue, we discuss the concept of an institutional void and explore how it is used in various domains of study, including public administration. We argue for how the concept is relevant today and therein also introduce the topics that are discussed in this special issue.


Prof.dr. Ellen van Bueren

Dr.ing. Bram Klievink
Artikel

Als ambtenaren in de spiegel kijken

Een onderzoek naar de relatie tussen arbeidsmotivatie en narcisme

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden civil servants, public service motivation, narcissism, human resource management, professionalism
Auteurs Drs. Jochem van Heek en Prof. Dr. Taco Brandsen
Samenvatting

    Discussions of public service motivation tend to emphasize the idealistic side of civil servants, stressing how they are led by self-sacrifice and a commitment to the public good. This article adopts a different perspective by linking the personality trait of narcissism to public service motivation. This notion was tested through a survey among employees of three public organizations. The statistical analysis shows that personalities with narcissistic elements tend to be more attracted to the world of policy and politics. This is accompanied by diminished feelings of compassion. Although the significance of this correlation should not be overstated, it does show that the link between public service motivation and commitment to the public interest is more complex than is sometimes suggested. Given the growth of narcissistic tendencies in contemporary society, it may be effective to take account of them in recruiting and managing civil service personnel.


Drs. Jochem van Heek

Prof. Dr. Taco Brandsen
Artikel

Crowd-based innovaties: verschuivende verantwoordelijkheden in een institutional void

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden responsible innovation, institutional void, crowd-based innovations, governance
Auteurs Thijs Slot MSc, Dr. ir. Eefje Cuppen, Prof. dr. mr. ir. Neelke Doorn e.a.
Samenvatting

    The crowd increasingly plays a key role in facilitating innovations in a variety of sectors, spurred on by IT-developments and the concomitant increase in connectivity. Initiatives in this direction, captured under the umbrella-term ‘crowd-based innovations’, offer novel opportunities in socio-technical systems by increasing the access, reach and speed of services. At the same time, they signify important challenges because these innovations occur in a context of traditional, well-established institutional and governance structures and practices. This dynamic is captured in the idea of the ‘institutional void’: the tension between traditional structures and (radically) new initiatives. Existing rules, standards and practices are challenged, which raises questions about the safeguarding of public values such as quality, legitimacy, efficiency and governance of crowd-based innovations. This article argues that understanding these tensions requires supplementing empirical research with an explicitly normative dimension to reach thorough and balanced conclusions to facilitate innovation while protecting the valuable elements in existing rules and regulations. Illustrated by a number of short examples, we propose a multidisciplinary research agenda towards formulating appropriate governance structures.


Thijs Slot MSc

Dr. ir. Eefje Cuppen

Prof. dr. mr. ir. Neelke Doorn

Maria Galeano Galvan MSc

Dr. ing. Bram Klievink
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