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Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij x Jaar 2013 x
Artikel

Governance by numbers: risico’s verbonden aan de internationale benchmarking en ranking van pensioensystemen

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden Governance by numbers, Commensuratie, comparatief onderzoek, doelmatigheid van pensioenen, standaardisatie
Auteurs Drs. Hans Peeters en Dr. Gert Verschraegen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article points out some of the pitfalls and ambiguities involved in quantified cross-national policy comparisons by looking at the construction and use of standardized indicators in the field of pension policy. The empirical analysis looks at three cases where the OESO and EU use standardized pension indicators to score and rank the performance of national pension systems. The cases illustrate some of the problems associated with scoring and ranking the outcomes of unique and complex pension systems by means of internationally standardized indicators. Our results show that internationally standardised indicators for pension systems are not neutral in the sense that they favor countries with certain institutional pension policy mixes over others. When particular institutional characteristics are treated differently under the same metric, systematically distorted conclusions about the performance of national pension systems may, and likely do, result. Consequently, these observed biases hinder reliable cross-national comparison that is based on these indicators. The article concludes with some recommendations on the construction and use of international indicators in the field of pension policy. It also discusses where research on the process of commensuration – transforming qualities into quantities − in a comparative context should go from here.


Drs. Hans Peeters
Hans Peeters is wetenschappelijk medewerker aan het Centrum voor Sociologisch Onderzoek van de KU Leuven, België, hans.peeters@soc.kuleuven.be.

Dr. Gert Verschraegen
Gert Verschraegen is docent sociologie aan de Universiteit Antwerpen, België, Gert.Verschraegen@ua.ac.be.
Diversen

De invloed van peilingen op kiezers: het bandwagoneffect

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2013
Auteurs Tom van der Meer, Armen Hakhverdian en Loes Aaldering
Auteursinformatie

Tom van der Meer
Tom van der Meer is universitair hoofddocent aan de afdeling Politicologie van de Universiteit van Amsterdam, t.w.g.vandermeer@uva.nl.

Armen Hakhverdian
Armen Hakhverdian is als universitair docent verbonden aan de afdeling Politicologie van de Universiteit van Amsterdam, A.Hakhverdian@uva.nl.

Loes Aaldering
Loes Aaldering is student politicologie en als junior docent en onderzoeker verbonden aan de afdeling Politicologie van de Universiteit van Amsterdam, l.aaldering@uva.nl.

Peter Kanne
Peter Kanne is opinieonderzoeker bij marktonderzoekbureau TNS NIPO, Peter.Kanne@tns-nipo.com.
Artikel

Groengasprojecten: energietransitie in ruraal Nederland?

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden green gas, Biogas, renewable energy, stakeholder analysis, climate policy
Auteurs Drs. Maurits Sanders en Dr. Thomas Hoppe
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    ‘Green gas’ is a sustainable alternative to natural gas. It is produced by converting biomass into biogas, which can consequently be upgraded to natural gas standards. Expectations about green gas are high. According to the long term vision of Netbeheer Nederland, the representative association of gas grid operators, green gas will entail 50 percent of the domestic gas mixture by 2050. In line with this vision national government has adopted a green gas innovation support program. Production of green gas takes place in rural areas with abundant supply of organic production resources, especially manure. It is in demonstration projects that green gas niche development is to be proven. In this paper the central question is how green gas demonstration projects manifest at the local level. By conducting a stakeholder analysis, we take a ‘bottom-up’ research approach, which helps us to identify organizational and institutional barriers key local stakeholders have in relation to green gas demonstration projects. We judge this necessary to further understanding in green gas niche development. The results of the analysis are used to advice policymakers about design and use of policy instruments which can help to solve these barriers.


Drs. Maurits Sanders
Maurits Sanders is hoofddocent bestuurskunde bij Saxion en promovendus bij de vakgroep Public Administration aan de faculteit Management en Bestuur van de Universiteit Twente, m.p.t.sanders@utwente.nl, www.utwente.nl/mb/pa/staff/sanders/.

Dr. Thomas Hoppe
Dr. Thomas Hoppe is als universitair docent verbonden aan het Twente Centre for Studies in Technology and Sustainable Development van het Institute for Innovation and Governance Studies aan de faculteit Management en Bestuur van de Universiteit Twente, t.hoppe@utwente.nl, www.utwente.nl/mb/cstm/staff/cv/hoppe.doc/.
Artikel

Watergovernance: het belang van ‘op tijd’ samenwerken

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden cooperation, time, water governance, management
Auteurs Dr. Jasper Eshuis en Dr. Arwin van Buuren
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The factor time is an often neglected issue in the literature on network governance. In this article we analyze the differences in perceptions on time between actors involved in water governance and describe the managerial interventions aimed at synchronizing time horizons, managing the available amount of time and the tempo of the governance process. Two case studies of governance processes in the district of Water Board Delfland are included to provide insight in the question how the factor time influences the governance processes and how aspects of time are managed. The case studies show that different perceptions of time may cause tensions in collaborative relationships, and even cause the end of collaborations. This underscores the importance of time-sensitive governance.


Dr. Jasper Eshuis
Dr. Jasper Eshuis is universitair docent bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, eshuis@fsw.eur.nl.

Dr. Arwin van Buuren
Dr. Arwin van Buuren is universitair hoofddocent bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

    Reflection and Debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Imrat Verhoeven
Imrat Verhoeven is redactielid van Beleid en Maatschappij.

    Reflection and Debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Dr. Monique Kremer
Dr. Monique Kremer is wetenschappelijk medewerker bij de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid, Kremer@wrr.nl.

Dr. Erik Schrijvers
Dr. Erik Scrhijvers is wetenschappelijk medewerker bij de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid.
Redactioneel

Redactioneel

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2013
Auteurs Ewald Engelen
Auteursinformatie

Ewald Engelen
Ewald Engelen is voorzitter van de redactie van Beleid en Maatschappij.

    In this feature authors review recently published books on subjects of interest to readers of Beleid en Maatschappij.


Dr. Zeger van der Wal
Dr. Zeger van der Wal is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, en als research fellow aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. www.zegervanderwal.com, sppzvdw@nus.edu.sg.

    In a column a journal editor or an author expresses his or her opinion on a particular subject


Henk Overbeek
Henk Overbeek is hoogleraar internationale betrekkingen aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, h.w.overbeek@vu.nl.

    Reflection and Debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Prof. dr. Henk van Houtum
Prof. dr. Henk van Houtum is hoofd van het Nijmegen Centre for Border Research en onderzoekshoogleraar geopolitiek van grenzen aan de universiteit van Bergamo, h.vanhoutum@fm.ru.nl.
Artikel

Legitimiteit van sociaal beleid: maatschappelijke ontwikkelingen en bestuurlijke dilemma’s

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden responsiveness, legitimacy, social policy, policy systems, institutional change
Auteurs Dr. Martijn van der Steen, Dr. Menno Fenger, Lieske van der Torre MA MSc e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Social policy has to be legitimate. But what is legitimacy? And what makes policy legitimate? This article argues that in order to be legitimate policy needs to answer to three different logics: the logic of the policy system, of external conditions, and of societal preferences. However, these three logics are often not coherent and point in different directions. Also, signs are often not coherent and are ambiguous at best. Therefore, following the three logics is not merely a matter of reading the signs, but of interpreting and balancing them. This article shows how policy makers in the Netherlands are balancing for responsiveness in three cases of social policy: social assistance policy, sheltered work policy and labor migration policy. The cases learn that responsiveness does not come from large decisive reforms, but from a wide range of small and often hardly politicized steps. Also, we see that in balancing the various logics, policy makers have a strong bias towards the logic of the policy system and that of public preference, and pay far less attention to external conditions. However, on the longer term external conditions cannot be neglected and policy makers face tough decisions about short term responsiveness towards public preferences and more longer term actions that make for policies that are more balanced with external conditions and therefore sustainable on the longer term.


Dr. Martijn van der Steen
Dr. Martijn van der Steen is codecaan en adjunct-directeur van de Nederlandse School voor Openbaar Bestuur (NSOB) en directeur van de NSOB Denktank, steen@nsob.nl.

Dr. Menno Fenger
Dr. Menno Fenger is universitair hoofddocent bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Fenger@fsw.eur.nl.

Lieske van der Torre MA MSc
Lieske van der Torre MA MSc is wetenschappelijk docent bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en bereidt een proefschrift voor over strategieën van sociale werkvoorzieningsbedrijven, Vandertorre@fsw.eur.nl.

Arno van Wijk BA
Arno van Wijk BA is junior onderzoeker bij de NSOB, vanwijk@nsob.nl.
Artikel

Burgers als trustees

Participatie, informele vertegenwoordiging en representativiteit

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2013
Auteurs Dr. Bas van Stokkom, Dr. Marcel Becker en Teun Eikenaar MA MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The involvement of citizens in discussions about policy arrangements has been growing in the past decades. These forums of decision-making often provoke criticism because of a so-called ‘lack of representativeness’. Often a small group of active citizens takes the lead and decides which problems have to be dealt with. Some active residents primarily focus on improving the neighbourhood, regardless of whether their activities have everyone’s consent. This raises many questions related their representativeness. Do these participants form an adequate cross-section of the population? Are they speaking on behalf of others? Maybe passive citizens feel fine with the opinions of active citizens and agree that a small group of citizens is taking the lead. In this paper these active citizens are viewed as ‘trustees’: informal representatives who take responsibility to look after the neighbourhood’s interests, expecting that passive residents would support their efforts. The paper has two central questions: First, which ideas do active participants have about representation and representativeness? Second, in what respects can active citizens be characterized as ‘trustees’? In the theoretical part we contend that the notion ‘trustee’ may function as a theoretical framework to understand present-day citizen participation. In local policy networks many informal representatives express views and interests that are recognizable for many citizens. They are trusted, as long as their activities can be checked. The second part of the paper focuses on three projects of citizen decision-making within local safety policies (The Dutch cities Amsterdam, Deventer and Rotterdam). Within these projects, participants prioritize what kinds of activities and interventions police officers and other frontline workers should carry out. A main finding is that many active citizens function as contact persons who are continuously available for other residents. They do not wish to speak ‘on behalf’ of others but they are bestowed – often reluctantly – with the role of representative, as they demonstratively express neighborhood interests (‘clean, intact and safe’). Their reputation seems to be decisive.


Dr. Bas van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is medewerker bestuurswetenschappen aan de faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, b.a.m.van.stokkom@vu.nl.

Dr. Marcel Becker
Dr. Marcel Becker is universitair docent ethiek aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, M.Becker@ftr.ru.nl.

Teun Eikenaar MA MSc
Teun Eikenaar MA MSc is onderzoeker aan het criminologisch instituut van de faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, t.eikenaar@jur.ru.nl.
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