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Artikel

De voorspellende overheid

Transparantie is noodzakelijk, maar hoe?

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden predictive analytics, transparency and accountability, preemptive predictions, public sector
Auteurs prof.dr. Ronald Leenes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Public administrations have always dealt with large volumes of data. They are now increasingly adopting sophisticated big data technologies to further leverage the data. Data provided by citizens, observed by sensors, deduced and inferred from diverse data sets are being used for decision making and making (pre-emptive) predictions about the behaviour of citizens and groups of citizens. The data and algorithms are not neutral nor flawless, but contain biases and may induce harms to individuals, such as discrimination, loss of autonomy, infringing their privacy. Big data decision making systems are usually opaque. Providing transparency about input, process, and even outcomes may be difficult due to the complexity inherent to the technology and even undesirable because it could affect the effectiveness of the system. This lack of transparency is at odds with the Rule of Law, which requires transparency and accountability of government action. What transparency should entail in the context of predictive analytics, however, is unclear. This short article points out some of the issues at stake.


prof.dr. Ronald Leenes
prof. dr. R.E. Leenes is hoogleraar aan de Tilburg University
Artikel

Big data, grote vragen; een institutionele onderzoeksagenda

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden big data, institutions, checks and balances, decision making, research agenda
Auteurs Prof. dr. Hans de Bruijn en Dr. Haiko van der Voort
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this final contribution we will summarize the main findings of this special issue. Moreover, we will think through the main consequences. The contributions all suggest major societal shifts. Organization of government is changing as a consequence of big data. They either reorganize or initiate new collaborations with businesses and knowledge institutions. What’s more, the processes of data generation, data processing and use are far from neutral. It requires more - at least other - technological knowledge and skills, which some possess and others not. New checks and balances are necessary, notably between data scientists and decision makers, between organizations that make big data their business and civilians, and maybe even between man and computer. Their relations might get reconfigured and those not familiar with the new big data methods will prove vulnerable. This final contribution contains an institutional research agenda that will meet these concerns.


Prof. dr. Hans de Bruijn
Prof.dr. J.A. de Bruijn is hoogleraar aan de Technische Universiteit Delft

Dr. Haiko van der Voort
Dr. H.G. van der Voort is universitair docent aan de Technische Universiteit Delft
Artikel

Van kaas naar big data

Data science Alkmaar, het living lab van Noord-Holland Noord

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden big data, innovation, data-driven societies, data science, smart cities
Auteurs Dr. Ir. Martijn van Otterlo en Prof. dr. Frans Feldberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Big data can be seen as vital fuel for the innovation of diverse processes in both companies and in government policies and practices. In this short article we describe local efforts in the region around the Dutch city of Alkmaar in which the (local) government, (local) companies and a nearby university (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) work together on data-related challenges in a typical triple-helix structure. The municipality of Alkmaar gathers activities in a physical location to stimulate interaction and cooperation among (potential) partners, and it engages in the formation of new governance structures to increase both the intensity and the regional spread of the activities around data. All this raises many new and interesting issues and challenges for public administration researchers and practitioners.


Dr. Ir. Martijn van Otterlo
Dr. ir. M. van Otterlo is postdoctoraal onderzoeker aan de Vrije Universiteit van Amsterdam

Prof. dr. Frans Feldberg
Prof. dr. J.F.M. Feldberg is hoogleraar aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Artikel

Gezocht: Burgerparticipatie (voor vaste relatie)

Een vergelijkende gevalsstudie naar 26 lokale netwerken in het sociale domein in de regio Arnhem

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden citizen participation, co-production, local networks, decentralization, collaboration
Auteurs Rigtje Passchier MSc en Dr. Jelmer Schalk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2015, Dutch local governments have become responsible for youth care, social welfare, employment and income assistance programs, as a result of decentralization. Many municipalities have set up service delivery networks and community teams, in which they collaborate with healthcare providers and civic organizations to build integrated care services. It is assumed that these networks will improve outcomes in terms of enhanced people’s self-reliance and healthcare cost control; by operating close to citizens they are in a position to know the client, activate a client’s social network and mobilize specialized professional expertise if necessary. However, a comparative case study of 26 emerging local networks in the Arnhem area indicates that healthcare providers use the networks mainly for presentation purposes in an effort to secure business continuity, that the role of local governments is fuzzy, and that citizen participation only thrives when actively encouraged in a climate of trust.


Rigtje Passchier MSc
R. Passchier MSc is interim manager voor de publieke zaak en promovenda aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Jelmer Schalk
Dr. J. Schalk is universitair docent aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Big data governance; een analytisch kader

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden big data, governance, public sector, multi-level governance, innovation
Auteurs Bruno Broucker PhD.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Big data has been adhered many potential benefits for the public sector. It could contribute to performance increase and to a better service delivery in many policy domains, across multiple public sector organisations and administrative levels. Within this debate the question of governance is blatantly absent, though crucial to address. To properly use big data in the public sector it will be necessary to integrate big data governance on three interconnected levels: micro, meso and macro-level, respectively referring to the proficient use of big data, its integrated use within an organisational context and the use of big data within the larger public sector for the benefit of public service delivery.


Bruno Broucker PhD.
Bruno Broucker (PhD. Sociale Wetenschappen) is deeltijds docent en senior onderzoeker aan het Instituut voor de Overheid, KU Leuven (Public Governance Institute).
Article

Vragen naar de bekende weg?

Een analyse van informatiebronnen waarop schriftelijke vragen over Europese zaken in de Nederlandse Tweede Kamer zijn gebaseerd

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden national parliaments, European Union, parliamentary questions, the Netherlands
Auteurs Rik de Ruiter, Jelmer Schalk en Yorick van Rijthoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper analyses the information sources members of the Dutch Lower House base their questions on with regard to EU affairs in the period 1995-2013. Knowledge of the type of information sources to base questions on is vital for determining what the conditions are under which members of national parliaments can scrutinize the decisions taken by the national government at the EU level. The involvement of national parliaments in EU affairs is according to many scholars a necessary condition for closing the democratic deficit of the European Union, especially when the turnout in elections for the European Parliament remains low and for national parliaments remains stable and relatively high. An original dataset is constructed including all sets of written parliamentary questions on EU affairs asked by Dutch MPs in the period 1995-2013, categorized by different types of information sources on which the question is based. These different categories of information sources are regressed with a variable measuring the Treaty changes impacting on the intensity of contact between MPs of different national parliaments and several variables measuring the characteristics of Dutch MPs and their parties. The findings indicate that Dutch MPs base their written questions primarily on coverage on EU affairs by national newspapers. Moreover, MPs are more likely to use sources rooted in a national context for asking questions when they are a member of a party with a negative attitude towards European integration. These findings imply that parliamentary control via written questions over the decisions of the national executive at the EU level can be strengthened by increasing national media coverage on EU affairs, allowing the EU public sphere to develop further in the future.


Rik de Ruiter
Rik de Ruiter is als universitair docent Bestuurskunde verbonden aan het Instituut Bestuurskunde van de Universiteit Leiden. Zijn onderzoeksinteresse gaat uit naar politiek, beleid en bestuur van de Europese Unie.

Jelmer Schalk
Jelmer Schalk is als universitair docent bestuurskunde verbonden aan het Instituut Bestuurskunde van de Universiteit Leiden. Zijn onderzoeksinteresse gaat uit naar publiek management, interorganisationele netwerken en sociale netwerkanalyse.

Yorick van Rijthoven
Yorick van Rijthoven (MSc.) is een recent afgestudeerd bestuurskundige aan de Universiteit Leiden en heeft zich gespecialiseerd in internationale en Europese bestuurskunde. Zijn onderzoeksinteresse gaat uit naar o.a. interparlementaire samenwerking over EU-aangelegenheden, het EU-besluitvormingsproces en (internationaal) publiek management.
Artikel

Hoe divers, invloedrijk en deliberatief is een G1000?

Het ontwerp van een burgertop en de verwezenlijking van democratische waarden

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 1 2016
Auteurs Dr. Ank Michels en Dr. Harmen Binnema
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In imitation of the G1000 in Belgium in the Netherlands G1000-meetings were held in Amersfoort, Kruiskamp, Uden and Groningen and a citizens summit in Amsterdam with a similar design. In this article the authors investigate the design of these citizens summits and their contribution to a number of important democratic values. What is the diversity of the participants, the influence on policies and the quality of the discussions during the citizen summit? Their research shows that the diversity of the group of participants is rather limited. The selection method that is chosen, whether a lottery selection or an open invitation, doesn’t make much difference for the diversity of the group of participants. In addition the influence of citizens summits on policies and politics is nearly absent. The subjects that come forward at citizens summits hardly ever come back in the local policies, not even at the citizens summit in Uden, where the municipal council has taken the initiative to organize a G1000. Finally, in general the participants qualify the discussions at the table during citizens summits as constructive and inspiring. The specific form of the dialogue has only little influence on the extent to which the participants feel themselves heard and feel free to say whatever they want.


Dr. Ank Michels
Dr. A.M.B. Michels is universitair docent aan de Universiteit Utrecht bij het Departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO).

Dr. Harmen Binnema
Dr. H. Binnema is universitair docent aan de Universiteit Utrecht bij het Departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO). Hij is ook programmacoördinator van de masteropleiding Bestuur en Beleid voor professionals.
Artikel

Het verband tussen publiek belang en ontwerp bij het internet der dingen

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden public economics, big data, Privacy, industrial design, agency theory
Auteurs Prof. dr. Frank Den Butter en Ir. Gijs Den Butter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Internet of Things generates a wealth of data (big data) about personal behaviour, which can be used for marketing purposes. It brings about both benefits and costs in terms of societal welfare. Various forms of government intervention are needed to safeguard the public interests associated with these welfare effects. These public interest relate, on the one hand, to public availability of data and information, to repairing informational asymmetries, and on the other hand to providing personal security and privacy protection. This article discusses, from the perspective of the principal/agent approach to regulation, how the design of applications and systems in the Internet of Things can best be shaped. The example of the smart thermostat Toon® of the Dutch energy provider Eneco shows how an intensive collaboration between designers and software engineers may contribute to both proper data protection and to provide an incentive to save energy.


Prof. dr. Frank Den Butter
Prof. dr. Frank den Butter is hoogleraar algemene economie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Ir. Gijs Den Butter
Ir. Gijs den Butter is MSc ‘Strategic Product Design’ aan de Technische Universiteit Delft en CEO van Adjuvo Motion, een start-up bij YesDelft! die een robotische brace voor revalidatie op de markt brengt.
Artikel

De slagkracht van populisme. Een onderzoek naar de houding tegenover populisme bij jongeren en jongvolwassenen in Vlaanderen

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden public opinion, Populism, Democracy, adolescents and young adults, political attitudes
Auteurs Gil Keppens, Dr. Jessy Siongers, Dr. Bram Spruyt e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Populism is usually studied by investigating the political discourses of parties considered to be populist. In contrast, this paper attempts to measure the support for a populist attitude among adolescents and young adults (age 14 to 30) in Flanders (N = 2618), the Dutch speaking part of Belgium. This paper answers two research questions: (1) Which adolescents and young adults support the populist attitude and which are the core elements of populism that get the most support? (2) To what extent are adolescents and young adults who support the core elements of populism willing to be politically engaged? The results show that: (1) the support for the populist attitude is widespread among young people in Flanders, and (2) the relationship between a support for populism and political engagement is nuanced. Implications of the support of the populist attitude for democratic participation are discussed.


Gil Keppens
Gil Keppens is als doctoraatsstudent verbonden aan de onderzoeksgroep TOR van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Dr. Jessy Siongers
Dr. Jessy Siongers is als doctoraal assistente verbonden aan de vakgroep Sociologie van de Universiteit Gent.

Dr. Bram Spruyt
Dr. Bram Spruyt is docent bij de onderzoeksgroep TOR van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Lauren Vandenbossche
Lauren Vandenbossche is als doctoraatsstudent verbonden aan de onderzoeksgroep TOR van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Filip Van Droogenbroeck
Filip Van Droogenbroeck is als doctoraatsstudent verbonden aan de onderzoeksgroep TOR van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
Article

Het effect van politieke sofisticatie op de (intentie tot) opkomst bij eerste- en tweederangsverkiezingen in België en Nederland

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden political sophistication, first- and second-order elections, turnout
Auteurs Dieter Stiers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this paper we investigate the effect of political sophistication on turnout and whether this effect differs in second-order national elections. Political sophistication is thought to influence turnout because the more sophisticated voters have access to more information about the electoral and the party system. In this paper, we start from the expectation that these effects should be even stronger in the context of secondorder national elections, where information about the stakes of the election is not readily available. We analyse citizens’ willingness to turn out to vote at different levels of government in Belgium and the Netherlands. The results show that a higher degree of political sophistication increases the probability to turn out at the national as well as the European level. Our expectation that this effect would be larger at the European level, however, is not supported by these results.


Dieter Stiers
Dieter Stiers werkt als doctoraatsstudent aan het Centre for Citizenship and Democracy van de KU Leuven. Zijn onderzoek richt zich op verkiezingsgedrag en in het bijzonder op de oorzaken en gevolgen van electorale volatiliteit.
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