Zoekresultaat: 57 artikelen

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Artikel

Allochtoon als metafoor en categorie

Over de handelingsimplicaties van beleidstaal

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden category making, administrative practices, migrants, integration policy, race/ethnicity
Auteurs Marleen van der Haar en Dvora Yanow
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper offers a critical empirical analysis of the policy terms ‘allochtoon’ and ‘autochtoon’, which have been used in Dutch public policy and administrative practices in recent years, as well as in general public discourse, to distinguish between people with a migrant background and those with a so-called native background on the basis of birthplace. Taking an interpretive policy analysis perspective, we present metaphor and category analyses to show the determining role that ‘place of origin’ has in the policy terms. The analysis includes a historical contextualization of the categories within Dutch policy discourse. The metaphor analysis focuses on the etymology of the terms, and the category analysis examines the taxonomy used by Statistics Netherlands since 1999. The role of ‘place’, and in particular country or land of birth, in these etymologies and taxonomies link to elements from ancient racial thinking, showing that ‘birthplace’ is a surrogate for race in this policy discourse. The analysis leads us to argue that the terms are inherently exclusive and that the exclusive work that the essentialist categories do is in marked contrast to the policy goal of integration.


Marleen van der Haar
Marleen van der Haar is postdoc onderzoeker en docent aan het Institute for Management Research, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Correspondentiegegevens: dr. M. van der Haar, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, afdeling Politicologie, Thomas van Aquinostraat 5.1.32, 6500 HK Nijmegen, m.vanderhaar@fm.ru.nl.

Dvora Yanow
Dvora Yanow is visiting professor aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

    Reflection and Debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Jonathan J.B. Mijs M.Sc.
Jonathan Mijs is promovendus aan Harvard University. Correspondentiegegevens: JJB Mijs M.Sc., Harvard University, Department of Sociology, 611 William James Hall, 33 Kirland Street, 02138 Cambridge, MA, Verenigde Staten, mijs@fas.harvard.edu.
Artikel

Bewonersinitiatieven: partnerschap tussen burgers en overheid

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden citizen’s initiatives, activation policy, representativeness, partnership relation, competences
Auteurs Dr. Imrat Verhoeven en Prof. dr. Evelien Tonkens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years the Dutch welfare state has invested substantial sums of money in activation of citizen’s initiatives in deprived neighbourhoods. As a policy concept citizen’s initiatives refers to enhancements by citizens to the quality of life in their neighbourhood. Is this activation policy productive or counterproductive for citizen participation? This question is answered by analyzing the representativeness of the activated citizens, the nature of their initiatives, the type of relations they develop with institutions, and whether they develop more competences due to their initiative(s). Our findings indicate that the activated citizens are more often female, below 50, lower educated, and 40 percent is migrant, which makes them more representative than the participation elite (male, 50+, white, and higher educated). They form a new vanguard that activates many participants through initiatives that focus on connecting people and on social problems such as anonymity, isolation and nuisance. Many contacts with professionals contribute for them to a partnership relation geared toward cooperation instead of consumerism or dissatisfaction. Also these citizens develop democratic, bureaucratic and social competences as well as social reflexivity and empathy for other citizens and institutions. We conclude that activation of citizen’s initiatives has positive effects on citizen participation.


Dr. Imrat Verhoeven
Imrat Verhoeven is postdoc onderzoeker aan de afdeling Sociologie en Antropologie, Universiteit van Amsterdam/AISSR. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. I. Verhoeven, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 185, 1012 DK Amsterdam, i.verhoeven@uva.nl.

Prof. dr. Evelien Tonkens
Evelien Tonkens is hoogleraar actief burgerschap aan de afdeling Sociologie en Antropologie, Universiteit van Amsterdam/AISSR. Correspondentiegegevens: Prof. dr. E. Tonkens, Oudezijds Achterburgwal 185, 1012 DK Amsterdam, e.h.tonkens@uva.nl.

    Since 1994, the concept of citizenship is a central concept in Dutch Integration policy for immigrants and their descendants. Gradually, the concept has become a moral category of good and active citizenship, associated with all kinds of obligations. Since the turn of the century it is even used to urge on – especially – Muslims to assimilate to mainstream culture and fundamental norms and values. This contrasts sharply with the Dutch multicultural policy of the 1980s. How is it possible for political and policy discourse to change in such a radical way within a few decades? And what role played the concept of citizenship in these changes? This article seeks to answer these questions by investigating how the concept of citizenship has been interpreted and applied differently over time in Dutch discourse on integration policy, focussing on issues of unity versus ethno-cultural diversity. With this purpose, first, the concept of citizenship is defined and differentiated in four dimensions and various perspectives. Next, Dutch political and policy discourse of the last 25 years is examined in broad lines. Subsequently, the Dutch discourse is analysed in more detail in debates of the last decades on dual nationality and on civic integration policy.


Alfons Fermin
Alfons Fermin is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het Rotterdams Instituut voor Sociaal-wetenschappelijk BeleidsOnderzoek (RISBO) van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. A. Fermin Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam RISBO Postbus 1738, kamer T11-08 3000 DR Rotterdam fermin@fsw.eur.nl
Artikel

De diplomademocratie

Over de spanning tussen meritocratie en democratie

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2006
Auteurs Mark Bovens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Contemporary western democracies, such the United States, Great Britain, and The Netherlands have become diploma democracies. They are ruled by the well educated, whereas the least educated, even though they still comprise about half of the population, have virtually vanished from most political arenas. Of course, the well educated have always been more politically active than the less educated, but in the past decades this gap has widened substantially. Well-educated citizens are more inclined to vote, to write letters to the editor, or to visit consultative or deliberative meetings than citizens with a low level of education; and most, if not all, members of parliament, all the political officials, and almost all of the political advocates and lobbyists, have college or graduate degrees. The paper substantiates the rise of diploma democracy in The Netherlands, discusses what is problematic about such an educational meritocracy in the context of democracy, and looks at what could be done to mitigate or remedy some of its negative effects.


Mark Bovens
Prof. dr. Mark Bovens is als hoogleraar Bestuurskunde verbonden aan de Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap van de Universiteit Utrecht, Bijlhouwerstraat 6, 3511 ZC Utrecht. Zijn meest recente boek is De digitale republiek: Democratie en rechtsstaat in de informatiemaatschappij (AUP 2003). Correspondentiegegevens: m.a.p.bovens@uu.nl www.usg.uu.nl/research/m.bovens
Artikel

Klimaatverandering en waterveiligheid, tussen ernst en enthousiasme

De discursieve framing van bedreigingen en kansen

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2010
Auteurs Arwin van Buuren en Jeroen Warner
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

Arwin van Buuren
Dr. M.W. van Buuren is universitair docent bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. M.W. van Buuren Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam Vakgroep Bestuurskunde Postbus 1738, Kamer M8-31 3000 DR Rotterdam vanbuuren@fsw.eur.nl

Jeroen Warner
Dr. J. Warner is universitair docent rampenstudies aan de Wageningen Universiteit en senior wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

    Although long recognized as beneficial, a global language has not come to fruition despite considerable past efforts. A major reason is that many policy makers and citizens fear that such a universal language would undermine the particularistic, constituting primary languages of local and national communities. This dilemma can be greatly diminished by a two tier approach, in which efforts to protect the primary language will be intensified but all the nations involved would agree to use the same second language as the global one. Although theoretically the UN or some other such body could choose such a language, in effect English is increasingly occupying this position. However, policies that are in place slow down the development of a global language, often based on the mistaken assumption that people can readily gain fluency in several languages.


Amitai Etzioni
Amitai Etzioni is universiteitshoogleraar aan de George Washington University in Washington DC en directeur van het Insititute for Communitarian Policy Studies. Hij wordt beschouwd als een van de grondleggers van het communitarisme. Enkele van zijn meest bekende werken zijn The Active Society (1969), The Spirit of Community (1993) en The New Golden Rule (1996).

Bob de Graaff
Bob de Graaff is hoogleraar terrorisme en contraterrorisme aan de Campus Den Haag van de Universiteit Leiden; tevens is hij Socrates-hoogleraar voor politieke en culturele reconstructie aan de Universiteit Utrecht. Correspondentiegegevens: Prof. dr. B.G.J. de Graaff Universiteit Leiden Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen Instituut Bestuurskunde Wassenaarseweg 52 2333 AK Leiden bgraaff@fsw.leidenuniv.nl
Artikel

Grip op de post-Euclidische stad?

Oefeningen in de regio Amsterdam

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2006
Auteurs Willem Salet
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Cities are in stage of transformation under the combined effect of enlargement of scale and the enlargement of scope of urban activities. The enlargement of scale is visible in the regionalization of urban development. Housing markets, labor markets and mobility patterns crystallize at regional level. However, the scaling up of urban life is not just an extension of the city as is experienced over more than a century. The simultaneous enlargement of scope makes the transformation more complex and dependant on external connections, both in the private and the public sector. The essay explores concepts that try to explain the nature of this new complexity. What is the meaning of 'urban space' and 'urban place' under the conditions of globalization? And what are the consequences for the guidance of collective action in the context of multi actor and multi level governance? The nature of urban change is illustrated in the case of the Randstad Holland, in particular the region of Amsterdam.


Willem Salet
Willem Salet is hoogleraar planologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam, Faculteit der Maatschappij- en Gedragswetenschappen. Recente publicatie: W. Salet en Stan Majoor, 2005, Amsterdam Zuidas European Space, Rotterdam: 010 Uitgevers. Adres: AMIDSt, Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, e-mail: W.G.M.Salet@uva.nl

    Member states must transpose European directives into national rules. This process, however, is not without problems. The Netherlands regularly transposes directives too late. Moreover, very often the content of the national transposition rules does not match the adaptations required by the directives. This article examines whether political resistance or administrative and legal weaknesses cause these problems. The author concludes that problems regarding transposition are caused by a culture of neglect and lack of priority for EU policies. Improving coordination procedures, formal legislative processes, and information facilities will not solve transposition problems as long as the cultural aspect of the problem isn't adequately addressed.


Ellen Mastenbroek
Drs. Ellen Mastenbroek is Assistent in Opleiding bij de departementen Bestuurskunde en Politieke Wetenschap aan de Universiteit Leiden. Adres: Pieter de la Court gebouw, Postbus 9555, 2300 RB Leiden, e-mail: mastenbroek@fsw.leidenuniv.nl

    The creation of quasi-autonomous organizations has spread throughout the western world. Flanders and the Netherlands both have a longstanding tradition of putting policy execution at arms' length, thereby creating so-called voi's and zbo's respectively. This raises the question whether there are comparable trajectories, forms, developments and political considerations. By comparing the developments in both countries the authors seek an answer to this question.

    The establishment of quangos was very popular until the mid 1990s. However, in both countries a countermovement can be seen. The creation of quangos is believed to lead to problems for political control. Both governments have taken several measures to solve these issues.

    The comparison shows that there are indeed many similarities, but also reveals interesting differences. There is no comprehensive convergence between the two neighbours. These differences are the result of differences in the politico-administrative system and the institutional culture.


Koen Verhoest
Dr. Koen Verhoest is onderzoeker en projectleider aan het Instituut voor de Overheid van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Hij heeft diverse publicaties op zijn naam, onder meer over de sturing van verzelfstandigde organisaties (in het Vlaams Tijdschrift voor Overheidsmanagement en met Geert Bouckaert in een boek van Yvonne Fortin), over coördinatie binnen de overheid (twee boeken bij Die Keure en Academia Press), over kerntaken tussen overheidsniveaus en tussen publieke en private actoren (twee boeken bij Academia Press en bij de Hoge Raad voor Binnenlands Bestuur). Adres: Instituut voor de Overheid, Van Evenstraat 2A, 3000 Leuven e-mail: verhoest@soc.kuleuven.ac.be

Sandra van Thiel
Dr. Sandra van Thiel is universitair docent Bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Zij heeft diverse publicaties op haar naam over verzelfstandiging zowel over zbo's (met Van Buuren in Bestuurswetenschappen), agentschappen (met Smullen en Pollitt in b en m) als over gemeentelijke verzelfstandiging (in Beleidswetenschap). Adres: Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, postbus 1738, kamer M8-27, 3000 DR Rotterdam e-mail: vanthiel@fsw.eur.nl

    Although 'integration with retention of "own" culture' has ceased to be the dominant policy principle in Dutch minority policies for quite some time now, there are still remarkably many ethnically specific policy arrangements in the Netherlands. To explain this contradiction this paper introduces an administrative mechanism: the logic of making policy categories conflicts with the logic of policy implementation. The use of 'avoidant categories' – a particular type of policy category discussed in this paper – creates an administrative opportunity structure that unintendedly promotes ethnic fragmentation instead of integration in policy implementation. We illustrate the working of this mechanism in a comparative perspective; the Netherlands is not unique in this respect and experience in other countries is instructive.


Frank de Zwart
Dr. Frank de Zwart is politiek antropoloog/bestuurskundige en verbonden aan het departement Bestuurskunde aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Caelesta Poppelaars
Drs. Caelesta Poppelaars is bestuurskundige. Zij was tot 1 februari 2004 werkzaam als stafmedewerker bij de Tijdelijke Commissie Onderzoek Integratiebeleid van de Tweede Kamer. Vanaf 1 februari 2004 is zij als aio verbonden aan het departement Bestuurskunde aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Hoeders van de hygiënische stad

Beveiligers, toezichthouders en handhavers in de openbare ruimte

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2009
Auteurs Ronald van Steden en Maddy Roelofs
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over recent years, we have seen a steady increase in the number of security officers and city supervisors in Dutch urban areas. However, despite the mounting presence and visibility of these auxiliary patrols, little is known about how citizens perceive and value them. A questionnaire held among a sample of 761 residents of Amsterdam shows that citizens have mixed opinions. Many people are accepting or neutral about the occurrence of security officers and city supervisors in urban space, but at the same time lack a clear idea of their quality and professionalism. This somewhat ignorant and laconic attitude raises the question whether people underestimate the potential consequences of omnipresent quasi-police. It is argued that more repressive approaches may generate substantial conflicts with the general public. Furthermore, safety and security may become 'consumer goods' in the sense that people are quite happy to leave their responsibilities to paid policing professionals – a position which promotes the rise of a 'culture of control'.


Ronald van Steden
Ronald van Steden is als universitair docent verbonden aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. R. van Steden Vrije Universiteit Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen Afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen De Boelelaan 1081 1081 HV Amsterdam r.van.steden@fsw.vu.nl

Maddy Roelofs
Maddy Roelofs was werkzaam bij de Dienst Onderzoek en Statistiek van de gemeente Amsterdam.
Artikel

De politieke aandachtscyclus voor openbaar bestuur en democratie

Een inhoudsanalyse van troonredes van 1945 tot 2007

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2008
Auteurs Gerard Breeman, Arco Timmermans, David Lowery e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article analyzes the attention to democratic performance and the functioning of public administration by governments in the Netherlands. The views of national governments on these matters have not been mapped systematically. Through a content analysis of all annual Dutch Queen's speeches between 1945 and 2007, which is part of our broader research on the national politics of attention, we analyze the pattern of attention for democracy and public administration. The theoretical perspective used is the model of policy generations. Our findings show that governmental attention for the functioning of public administration emerged in the 1960s and since then went up and down. The time intervals in which agenda changes occurred often were longer than the duration of individual governments, although some governments contributed strongly to a change in attention and tone. Attention not only showed rise and decline, also the emphasis on efficiency, long term planning, and democratization shifted considerably from one period to the next. This empirical pattern matches for the most part the theory of policy generations, which predicts a fixed sequence in policy emphasis. In addition to general cultural driving forces central to this theoretical model, we conclude that political and institutional conditions contribute to a better understanding of the pattern of political attention.


Gerard Breeman
Gerard Breeman is als docent Bestuurskunde verbonden aan de Wageningen Universiteit.

Arco Timmermans
Arco Timmermans is docent aan de Universiteit Leiden. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. Arco Timmermans Universiteit Leiden Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen Departement Bestuurskunde Wassenaarseweg 52 Postbus 9555 2300 RB Leiden atimmermans@fsw.leidenuniv.nl

David Lowery
David Lowery is hoogleraar aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Caelesta Poppelaars
Caelesta Poppelaars is postdoctoraal onderzoeker aan de Universiteit Antwerpen.

Sandra Resodihardjo
Sandra Resodihardjo is docent aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Ringo Ossewaarde
Dr M.R.R. Ossewaarde is als universitair hoofddocent sociologie verbonden aan de Faculteit Management en Bestuur van de Universiteit Twente.

Jaap Hoogenboezem
Dr Jaap Hoogenboezem is universitair docent aan de Universiteit van Maastricht, Faculty of Arts and Culture, Department of Political Science.
Artikel

Professionals en managers: Waarden in een hybride praktijk

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2007
Auteurs Zeger van der Wal, Eelco van Hout, Arie-Jan Kwak e.a.
Auteursinformatie

Zeger van der Wal
Drs Zeger van der Wal is als Promovendus Bestuurskunde verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit.

Eelco van Hout
Dr Eelco van Hout is senior consultant bij Bestuur & Management Consultants en verbonden aan TiasNimbas Business School van de Universiteit van Tilburg.

Arie-Jan Kwak
Dr Arie-Jan Kwak is werkzaam als universitair docent Rechtsgeleerdheid bij de Universiteit Leiden.

Mirjan Oude Vrielink
Dr Mirjan Oude Vrielink werkt als universitair docent Bestuurskunde aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
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