Zoekresultaat: 76 artikelen

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Artikel

Zonder publieke liefde

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Participatiesamenleving, Publieke liefde, Zelfliefde, Homo economicus, Neoliberalisme
Auteurs ing. Tessa Klarenbeek MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Decades of neoliberalism have placed emphasis on individualism, self-responsibility, and self-interest. As a result solidarity, and charity are losing ground and inter-subjective suspicion enters society. With a dominant focus on the economic life, happiness can be found in working and consuming, which has led to a morbid focus on performance. As a consequence self-exploitation, stress, fear of failure and auto-aggression undermines self-love. Competing individuals, with whom man cannot identify himself, see the other as someone who also has to take care of himself; empathy for the stranger is far to seek. Problematic because in the participatory society people need to care for themselves, and others, which calls for public love. Economic actions of man should be perceived as a social activity that presupposes love. A supplier must show empathy towards its customer before a decent product can be created. A prerequisite for empathy and cooperation is equality. However with scarcity as the engine of hyper-capitalism market thinking inequality between people increases. It seems that men should embrace the ‘difference’ of others. The acceptance of ‘the strange’ could start with a heterogeneous student population during education, and a variety of inhabitants in neighbourhoods. Furthermore a more relaxed working climate with the focus on cooperation instead of competition could contribute to the return of empathy and self-love.


ing. Tessa Klarenbeek MSc
ing. Tessa Klarenbeek MSc is beleidsmedewerker preventieve GGZ.

Niels Spierings
Niels Spierings is als universitair docent sociologie verbonden aan de Radboud Universiteit, Radboud Social Cultural Sciences. Binnen de gender- en politieke sociologie richten zijn onderzoek en publicaties zich op populisme, sociale media, democratisering, sociale houdingen, emancipatie, migratie en islam. Zijn geografische focus omvat Nederland in vergelijkend Europees perspectief en het Midden-Oosten en Noord-Afrika. Ook publiceert hij over methoden in gender- en intersectioneel onderzoek.
Article

Hoop en verraad: wat moslimjongeren verwachten van vertegenwoordigers met een etnische minderheidsachtergrond

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden social group representation, focus group methods, feelings of (not) being represented, Muslim youth
Auteurs Soumia Akachar, Karen Celis en Eline Severs
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper employs focus group data with Flemish muslim youth to explore how they deal with the visible emergence of ethnic minority representatives (EMRs) in Belgian elected bodies. The focus groups tap into their shared identity experiences and subsequent expectations vis-à-vis EMRs. Using grounded theory to analyse our data, we distinguish three different EMR typologies: those who are autonomous yet loyal to the group, those who are responsive to ethnic/religious issues but perceived as reductive, and those who sell-out to mainstream politics. These typologies challenge approaches presuming the extent to which representatives advance policies responsive to group members’ interests as ideal or desirable.


Soumia Akachar
Soumia Akachar promoveert bij de Afdeling Politieke Wetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Ze doet onderzoek naar de politieke vertegenwoordiging van moslimjongeren in Vlaanderen en de mate waarin ze zich al dan niet vertegenwoordigd voelen. Soumia maakt deel uit van het onderzoeksprogramma ‘Evaluating Democratic Governance in Europe’ en is ook lid van RHEA, het Expertisecentrum Gender, Diversiteit en Intersectionaliteit aan de VUB.

Karen Celis
Karen Celis is als onderzoeksprofessor verbonden aan de Vakgroep Politieke Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel en is codirecteur Onderzoek van RHEA het VUB-expertisecentrum Gender, Diversiteit, Intersectionaliteit. Ze verricht theoretisch en empirisch onderzoek naar de kwaliteit van democratische vertegenwoordiging vanuit het perspectief van achtergestelde groepen. Ze is coredacteur van de European Journal of Politics and Gender en de Routledge-boekenreeks Gender and Comparative Politics.

Eline Severs
Eline Severs doceert politieke wetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Haar onderzoek concentreert zich voornamelijk op vraagstukken van democratische vertegenwoordiging, de betekenis van legitimiteit, en democratische inclusie. Recent redigeerde ze, samen met Suzanne Dovi (University of Arizona), een symposium over de ethiek van vertegenwoordigers in PS: Political Science and Politics (2018, forthcoming).

François Levrau
François Levrau is master Klinische Psychologie, master Moraalwetenschappen en doctor Sociale Wetenschappen. Momenteel is hij als doctor-assistent verbonden aan het Centrum Pieter Gillis van de UAntwerpen. Hij legt zich vooral toe op de politiek-filosofische studie van de multiculturele samenleving.

    This article investigates the state of affairs of local participation and participation wishes, and its backgrounds. The central question is if those who participate a lot are also those who wish to have more participation or not. It is not possible to simply summarize the developments in time in terms of ‘less and less’ participation and ‘more and more’ wishes. Since the seventies the turnout in municipal elections has fallen (against fluctuations without trend at the national elections) and collective actions for local goals have remained at the same level (against a fall in collective actions for supralocal goals). In 2016 also less people have appeared to participate non-electorally (19% local activists) than electorally (54% turnout in 2014). In addition the support for new opportunities for participation is larger than the actual use of existing opportunities. Political participants are almost as often as non-participants in favour of new opportunities for participation. In line with previous research the authors find several social and political attitudes in support of promoting more opportunities for participation. For participants as well as non-participants it applies that support for more opportunities is promoted by ‘positive’ characteristics (like interest in local politics, worries about the environment) as well as ‘negative’ ones (dissatisfaction with local democracy, disbelief in the responsiveness of councillors).


Prof. dr. Paul Dekker
Prof. dr. P. Dekker is hoofd van de onderzoekssector Participatie, Cultuur en Leefomgeving van het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau en hoogleraar Civil Society aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.

Dr. Josje den Ridder
Dr. J.M. den Ridder is wetenschappelijk medewerker bij het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau.
Artikel

Lokale verkiezingen: een lokaal of nationaal feest der democratie?

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 3 2017
Auteurs Dr. Eefje Steenvoorden, Babs Broekema MSc en Dr. Jeroen van der Waal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The term ‘second-order election’ indicates some elections are less important for citizens than national elections. This article investigates to what extent that applies for the Dutch elections of the municipal council. The research builds on literature about the second-order nature of the local elections in the Netherlands. The authors focus on the question to what extent the Dutch elections of the municipal council are second-order elections, by comparing voting at local and national elections in different ways. They compare four aspects of local and national voting: the turnout, the underlying factors that explain the turnout, the factors that explain voting for local parties, and the national or local character of the voting motives at the municipal elections in 2014. The results do not give a clear answer to the question to which extent municipal elections are locally oriented. The four different angles all deliver ambiguous patterns. So municipal elections indeed partly have a second-order nature as previously argued and shown. Nevertheless, we must not underestimate local affinity and political involvement. The fact that some of the citizens are interested in local politics, local parties and in local election electoral programmes is pointing out a local political dynamics.


Dr. Eefje Steenvoorden
Dr. E.H. Steenvoorden is universitair docent politieke sociologie bij de vakgroep Sociologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Babs Broekema MSc
B. Broekema MSc is promovendus aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Aan dezelfde universiteit deed ze een master Bestuurskunde, Beleid en Politiek.

Dr. Jeroen van der Waal
Dr. J. van der Waal is universitair hoofddocent politieke sociologie bij de vakgroep Sociologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Non-participatie in de doe-democratie

Tijdschrift Bestuurs­wetenschappen, Aflevering 2 2017
Auteurs Gideon Broekhuizen MSc LLB en Dr. Ank Michels
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Research into citizens’ initiatives usually focuses on those who already participate. In this article the central question is how those who do not participate yet can be motivated to take part in citizens’ initiatives. To investigate this the authors used vignettes in which four key motives for participation in citizens’ initiatives are linked to three types of citizens’ initiatives. The results of this research show that people are more likely to take part in an initiative if a call is made to altruism. Usually it is also in general easier for small-scale, more applied citizens’ initiatives to motivate people. Non-participants will be more inclined, certainly in the presence of a specific local problem and if they are asked, to respond in a positive manner to an invitation to take part. For more abstract citizens’ initiatives, like a citizens summit in which not one single specific problem is addressed, it is much more difficult to motivate people to take part. Participation in citizens’ initiatives indeed increases the quality of local democracy, but only if the (local) government doesn’t take over these initiatives. Also those who do not yet take part in citizens’ initiatives have a positive and constructive attitude towards them.


Gideon Broekhuizen MSc LLB
G.R. Broekhuizen MSc LLB deed een onderzoeksmaster bestuurskunde en organisatiewetenschap aan de Universiteit Utrecht en een bachelor bestuurskunde en recht aan de Universiteit Leiden. Hij schreef zijn scriptie over non-participatie in de doe-democratie.

Dr. Ank Michels
Dr. A.M.B. Michels is universitair docent aan de Universiteit Utrecht bij het Departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO).
Artikel

Campagneactiviteiten en -financiering van lokale partijen in Nederland

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden electoral campaigns, campaign financing, independent local lists, party subsidies, local elections
Auteurs Justin Bergwerff MSc en Dr. Hans Vollaard
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Electoral campaigning and its financing at the local level have been hardly studied in spite of the growing political significance of municipalities in the Netherlands. Local parties have been barely studied either, even though they gained more than 30 percent of the seats in the local elections of 2014. They have done so without any public subsidy, whereas subsidized national parties can and do support their local branches. This article examines which campaign activities local parties used to attract voters, how these activities were funded, and whether local parties perceived subsidies necessary and desirable. A survey among local parties held just after the local elections of 2014, indicates that their campaigns are by and large a traditional, low-cost affair. They are often not labor-intensive nor technology-intensive, despite the electoral effectiveness of micro-targeting and canvassing. Contributions from local councilors constitute the main source of finance. The survey also shows that transparency of campaign financing can count on widespread support among local parties. They also prefer a level playing field between local parties and local branches of national parties by providing both public subsidies or none, which is an important contribution to the discussion on the current legislative proposals on party financing at the local level.


Justin Bergwerff MSc
Justin Bergwerff MSc is financieel beleidsmedewerker aan het ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschap.

Dr. Hans Vollaard
Dr. Hans Vollaard is universitair docent Nederlandse en Europese politiek, Departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap, Universiteit Utrecht.

Dr. Alexandre Afonso
Dr. Alexandre Afonso is assistant professor aan de Universiteit van Leiden.
Artikel

Wie waakt over de lokale autonomie?

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden local autonomy, local politics, equality, the Netherlands, government
Auteurs Julien van Ostaaijen
Samenvatting

    According to various authors, Dutch local autonomy is under pressure. Because of the many tasks transferred to municipalities, local authorities hardly have time for their own tasks and initiatives. Local autonomy requires that local administrators have sufficient time, attention, and money. In this article, the concept of local autonomy is discussed, as well as why local autonomy is under pressure and who is responsible for (a sufficient amount of) local autonomy. In general, local autonomy is the responsibility of both national as well as local politicians and administrators, but on both levels, there is still much room for improvement.


Julien van Ostaaijen
Artikel

Welvaart gemeten, verdeeld en verduurzaamd

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden Welfare economics, Asymmetrical information, Situational contracting, Political theory, Behaviourism
Auteurs Prof. dr. Dik Wolfson
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper shows how interactive governance can be helpful in dealing with information asymmetries in the design and administration of public policy. It describes the checks and balances of a properly incentivized mechanism design of contextual or situational contracting that reveals information on diversity in demand for public intervention, deals with complexity, creates commitment to the public cause and disciplines uncooperative behavior. The contractual mode, moreover, discloses the actual trade-offs between rivalling criteria of good governance such as individual freedom, efficiency, distributional concerns and sustainability, deepening our insight in who gets – or pays for – what, when, where, how and why, as the key issues of policy analysis. Evidence from early applications is combined with suggestions for rolling out this new mode of relinking public policy, implementation and external control.


Prof. dr. Dik Wolfson
Prof. dr. Dik Wolfson is emeritus hoogleraar economie, en geniet gastvrijheid bij de afdeling Bestuurskunde en sociologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Huisvestingsbeleid en nieuwe scholen

Over de noodzaak van een geografisch perspectief op onderwijs

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden housing policies, education markets, new schools, educational geography, friction costs
Auteurs Prof. dr. Sietske Waslander
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    While international research gives increasing attention to geographical factors in education, this perspective is lacking in Dutch research and policy. That a geographical perspective is badly needed, is demonstrated on the basis of the proposed policy to promote new schools in the Netherlands. Current housing policies for Dutch schools are described, pointing at disputes between municipalities and school boards who hold shared responsibilities. Next, foreign housing policies for new schools are studied, that is for friskolor in Sweden, free schools in England and charter schools in Texas (USA). Experiences abroad not only testify that very different choices can be made, but indicate that housing policies may in the long run have a substantial impact on segregation and educational inequality. It is also shown that new schools are mainly located in urban areas. It is argued that in addition to costs for new schools, friction costs for existing schools need to be considered. In all, a geographical perspective on education is needed, so as to prevent increasing segregation and social inequality as well as wasting public financial resources.


Prof. dr. Sietske Waslander
Prof. dr. Sietske Waslander is als hoogleraar sociologie verbonden aan de TIAS School for Business and Society en actief in het GovernanceLAB van TIAS.
Artikel

Ambtenaren en levensbeschouwelijke tekens – een pleidooi voor inclusieve neutraliteit

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Inclusieve neutraliteit, hoofddoekendebat, ambtenarij, multiculturele samenleving, levensbeschouwelijke diversiteit
Auteurs dr. François Levrau
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Every now and then the question whether or not civil servants are allowed to wear religious and ideological signs divides the minds of the people, and leads to societal and political controversy. In this article we examine this controversy by contrasting two different conceptions of neutrality, an inclusive and an exclusive account. We illustrate why the former is to be preferred and hence that a neutral government should not necessarily ask its servants to abstract from religious and cultural expressions. This however does not imply that all kinds of expressions should be allowed. In order to prevent a slippery slope, we formulate a number of formal criteria that can help to separate the proverbial wheat from the chaff: (1) the interpretation of neutrality in relation to a minimum and objective review; (2) the proportionality criterion; (3) the functionality criterion; and (4) the criterion of contact with the public.


dr. François Levrau
Dr. François Levrau is algemeen coördinator van het Steunpunt Inburgering & Integratie (Universiteit Antwerpen) en als postdoctoraal onderzoeker verbonden aan het Centrum voor Migratie & Interculturele Studies (Universiteit Antwerpen).
Boekbespreking

Een dubbele kijk op co-creatie

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Co-creation
Auteurs Dr. Erik de Bakker en Dr. Hans Dagevos
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This essay review discusses three publications on co-creation: ‘We, the government’ by Davied van Berlo (2012), ‘Co-creation of innovation’ by Corry Ehlen (2015), and ‘New Business Models’ by Jan Jonker et al. (2014). The theme of this essay is the specific character of co-creation compared to other buzzwords (e.g. participation, co-production, social responsibility) that can be heard in the search for a new balance between the state and civil society. We suggest that the distinctive character of co-creation lies in the active engagement of parties who work together to co-create. Co-creation means raising the bar of collaboration and dialogue. Openness, trust, equality and reciprocity are emphasised as essential elements in the process. It is literally about collectively creating multiple values in which there should be plenty of room for creativity and sharing ideas. Following on the publications of Ehlen and Jonker a dual vision on co-creation arises. In general terms, the potential of co-creation depends on the know-how, commitment and values of the actors involved (microscopic perspective) and on the social capital in the wider environment that they can draw upon to bolster the co-creation process (macroscopic perspective).


Dr. Erik de Bakker
Dr. E. de Bakker is senior onderzoeker bij onderzoeksinstituut LEI Wageningen UR.

Dr. Hans Dagevos
Dr. H. Dagevos is senior onderzoeker bij onderzoeksinstituut LEI Wageningen UR en lector aan Hogeschool Inholland.
Article

Links-libertarisme als aantrekkelijke theorie van sociale rechtvaardigheid

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden left-libertarianism, justice, self-ownership, Lockean proviso, liberty, equality
Auteurs Kasper Ossenblok
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Left-libertarianism is a marginal theory in the debate on social justice. In this article, I argue that this peripheral status is a mistake. The two basic principles of left-libertarianism, the full self-ownership principle and an egalitarian interpretation of the worldownership principle, are sufficiently attractive and sound for the theory to be taken seriously. I introduce the two principles, explain their attractiveness and argue for their plausibility by contrasting them to the right-libertarian theory of Robert Nozick and the liberal egalitarian theory of John Rawls. I conclude that left-libertarianism has some considerable advantages over both those theories.


Kasper Ossenblok
Kasper Ossenblok is als doctoraatstudent en onderwijsassistent verbonden aan de vakgroep Politieke Wetenschappen van de Universiteit Gent. Zijn onderzoeksinteresse gaat uit naar normatieve politieke theorie en in het bijzonder naar theorieën van rechtvaardigheid en gelijkheid.


Prof. dr. Herman van de Werfhorst
Prof. dr. Herman van de Werfhorst is hoogleraar sociologie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Article

De multiculturele herverdelingsstaat

Over gelijkheid en solidariteit in de multiculturele samenleving

Tijdschrift Res Publica, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden multiculturalism, socio-economic equality, social cohesion, solidarity, welfare state
Auteurs François Levrau
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    For many reasons multiculturalism has become a convenient punching bag. One of the criticisms is that multiculturalism undermines social cohesion and therefore erodes the basis for a redistribution policy. Closely related to this critique is that multiculturalism pushes immigrants into unemployment and makes them dependent on the welfare state. In this article, both criticisms are evaluated. We clarify why multiculturalism does not necessarily undermine the (support for) welfare state nor impede the socioeconomic equality of immigrants. What is needed and what remains necessary is the outline of a multicultural welfare state.


François Levrau
François Levrau is doctor in de Sociale Wetenschappen en als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het Centrum voor Migratie en Interculturele Studies van de Universiteit Antwerpen.

    This article is about one of the experiments in local democratic renewal: MyBorne2030 (in Dutch ‘MijnBorne2030’). The aim of the project was to develop a communal vision for Borne (a relatively small suburban municipality of 20.000 inhabitants in the East of the Netherlands) for the year 2030. A steering committee of 20 local organizations has worked out four scenarios on the basis of three building stones: an identity study, a research of societal trends and the formulation of ambitions. These four scenarios have been submitted to the citizens of Borne in a referendum. The scenario that has received the most votes (‘Dynamic villages’) is further elaborated in a new vison for the future called MyBorne2030. Institutionally the decision-making process in Borne can be described as a mixture of participative (deliberative), associative and direct (plebiscitary) democracy. The authors conclude that it was a successful experiment, that has produced broad support for the vision of Borne for the future and a solid basis for the implementation of this vision. Participants (as well as non-participants) think this approach can be repeated not only in Borne, but also in other municipalities. The authors add that this could also be the case for the level above of cooperating municipalities.


Prof. dr. Bas Denters
Prof. dr. S.A.H. Denters is hoogleraar Bestuurskunde aan de Universiteit Twente, wetenschappelijk directeur van de Nederlandse Onderzoeksschool Bestuurskunde (NOB) en hoofdredacteur van Bestuurswetenschappen.

Dr. Pieter-Jan Klok
Dr. P.J. Klok is universitair docent Beleidsprocessen bij de vakgroep Public Administration van de Universiteit Twente (Faculteit Behavioural, Management and Social Sciences).

    Modern government has high expectations of active citizen participation. Sociologists however, expect that this emphasis on citizen participation leads to new inequalities between city neighbourhoods. In ‘better’ neighbourhoods relatively more inhabitants are higher educated and indigenous, categories that are traditionally more active in society. In vulnerable neighbourhoods on the other hand many of the inhabitants are non-indigenous, lower educated and unemployed, who – as is shown in research – participate less. Citizen initiatives therefore would prosper in neighbourhoods with resilient and competent citizens and a powerful social fabric, while inhabitants of the vulnerable neighbourhoods would participate less, although there is more need for active citizen participation, because of their problems. This study analyses active citizen participation in two neighbourhoods in the Dutch city of Rotterdam, ‘Schiemond’ and ‘Lloydkwartier’, a typical backward neighbourhood versus a typical neighbourhood for young urban professionals (‘yuppen’). In contrast with the expectations the inhabitants of Schiemond do not appear to participate less than the inhabitants of Lloydkwartier. Concerning matters of neighbourhood safety even more respondents participate in Schiemond than in Lloydkwartier. Possible reasons are: (a) that lower educated people do participate more often in informal neighbourhood initiatives; (b) that because of the average longer residency in Schiemond there is a greater amount of public familiarity in this neighbourhood; or (c) that because of the bigger problems in Schiemond there is a greater necessity for inhabitants to become active themselves.


Dr. Erik Snel
Dr. E. Snel is universitair docent bij de vakgroep sociologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Kim Hoogmoed MSc
K. Hoogmoed MSc is in 2013 afgestudeerd in de sociologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Ze is momenteel medewerker van het examenbureau van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Dr. Arend Odé
Dr. A. Odé is manager onderzoek en advies bij Regioplan Beleidsonderzoek in Amsterdam. Hij is in 1996 gepromoveerd aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam bij het Tinbergen Instituut.
Artikel

De democratische vertegenwoordiging van cliënten en patiënten bij de decentralisaties

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden representative claim, democratic decision making, Decentralization, social and health policies, Municipalities
Auteurs Dr. Hester Van de Bovenkamp en Dr. Hans Vollaard
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Citizen participation is firmly on the agenda of many Western policy makers. Numerous opportunities for individuals to participate in public decision-making have been created. However, few citizens use these opportunities. Those who do are often the highly educated, white, middle and upper classes that also tend to dominate other democratic spaces. Opportunities to become active can increase inequalities in terms of whose voices are heard in public decision-making. This fundamentally challenges the central democratic value of equality. Nevertheless, others can represent the interests of those who remain silent. Using the concept of representative claim this paper explores a variety of forms of representation (electoral, formal non-electoral and informal self-appointed) in the domain of social policy which is currently decentralized in the Netherlands. We conclude that especially informal self-appointed representatives such as medical professionals, churches and patient organizations can potentially play an important role in representing groups who often remain unheard in the public debate. They can therefore play an important role in ensuring the democratic quality of the decentralization process.


Dr. Hester Van de Bovenkamp
Dr. Hester van de Bovenkamp is universitair docent bij het Instituut Beleid en Management Gezondheidszorg van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Dr. Hans Vollaard
Dr. Hans Vollaard is universitair docent Nederlandse en Europese politiek bij het Instituut Politieke Wetenschap van de Universiteit Leiden.
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