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Artikel

Coördinatie in complexe systemen: het ontstaan van stuurloosheid in het Nederlandse spoorwegsysteem

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden Dutch railway system, sensemaking, coordination, disruption management
Auteurs Danny Schipper, Joop Koppenjan en Lasse Gerrits
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    We are only fully aware of our dependency on large scale technical infrastructure systems when they fail to provide reliable services. Yet, at the same time we have witnessed the dismantling of the organizations providing these services due to privatization and liberalization policies. In this article we provide insight into the complexity of managing these now networked systems, consisting of several private and public organizations, by looking at the Dutch railway system. More specifically we analyze a case in which the decision to take several railway tracks and switches out of service resulted in a large scale disruption during rush hour in one of the busiest parts of the Netherlands. With the concept of sensemaking we show that the different actors involved were unable to create a common understanding of the situation to enable coordinated action.


Danny Schipper
D. Schipper is verbonden aan de vakgroep Bestuurskunde, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Joop Koppenjan
J.F.M. Koppenjan is verbonden aan de vakgroep Bestuurskunde, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Lasse Gerrits
L. Gerrits is verbonden aan de vakgroep Politieke Wetenschappen, Otto-Friedrich- Universiteit Bamberg, Duitsland.

    Does scaling up municipalities strengthen or does it weaken (local) political participation? This is an important question because of the intention – as it is written down in the Dutch coalition agreement – to gradually scale up Dutch municipalities to 100.000+ inhabitants. This article answers the question on the basis of a meta-analysis, voter turnouts, the national election study and interviews. The author has also examined behavioural indicators for political participation, especially the turnout figures at local elections. The conclusion from this analysis by the author is clear and unambiguous: as the size of the local government (the municipality) increases (local) political participation decreases. For a lot of forms of political participation a size of about 10.000 inhabitants seems to be the optimal scale for local government. Because other (recent) research in the Netherlands has shown that the assumed cost savings from municipal amalgamation are not achieved, the desirability of (further) upscaling of Dutch municipalities can be questioned.


Dr. ir. Pepijn van Houwelingen
Dr. ir. P. van Houwelingen is onderzoeker aan het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau bij de afdeling Participatie, Cultuur en Leefomgeving.
Artikel

Natuurramp, bonuscultuur of kans: Crisisframes

Waarom frames interpretatie beïnvloeden en waarom dit onvermijdelijk is

Tijdschrift Bestuurskunde, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden framing, crisis frames, neurolinguistics, persuasive communication, rhetorics
Auteurs Sarah Gagestein
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Framing is a not a new subject in science, but scientific interest in this matter is increasing lately. Being a quite abstract and somehow indefinite research object, framing theory is not yet fully developed and used in every research field in the same way. This article explores framing theory from a neurolinguistic perspective and shows why framing is important as well as inevitable in any form of communication or text. A case - framing crisis - is used to show the body and impact of different frames. The main argument is that it is impossible to communicate without frames and that the chosen frame has a great impact on the way the public will interpret certain events or situations.


Sarah Gagestein
S. Gagestein MA is taalstrateeg en eigenaar van taalbureau Taalstrategie.
Artikel

De tucht der wetenschap

Veranderingstheorieën van polarisatie- en radicalismebeleid op de proef gesteld

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden polarization, radicalization, evaluation research, theory-driven evaluation, social policy
Auteurs Drs. Vasco Lub
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Currently the Dutch government funds dozens of social interventions designed to tackle polarization and radicalization issues. It is still unknown whether the assumptions underlying these interventions are valid. This article puts the theories of change of such interventions to the test. Underlying causal assumptions of four dominant Dutch social policies were confronted with scientific evidence: (1) the system-based approach, (2) peer mediation, (3) intergroup contact and (4) self-esteem enhancement. System-based approaches – comparable to multi-systemic therapy (MST) – seem effective in reducing extremist behaviour in radical youth, but do not necessarily lead to an ideological change. In peer mediation, the causal link between the deployment of young people and the positive outcomes of such methods remains unclear. Peer mediation is also more likely to contribute in conflicts that have not yet escalated. Intergroup contact reduces prejudices about other groups, but has a limited effect. There is also no evidence for a long term effect and positive outcomes of intergroup contact do not automatically apply to adolescents. Finally, it is questionable that enhancing the self-esteem of (moslim) youth makes them more resilient against radical tendencies. In the same vein, the scientific evidence is ambiguous about whether increasing self-esteem results in social desirable behaviour or improved social relations.


Drs. Vasco Lub
Vasco Lub is zelfstandig onderzoeker (Bureau voor Sociale Argumentatie). Hij is daarnaast als buitenpromovendus verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam (capaciteitsgroep Sociologie), waar hij een proefschrift voorbereidt over de bewijsvoering van grootstedelijk sociaal beleid, lub@fsw.eur.nl.

    Child labor evokes deep emotions and is cause for growing international concern. What, if anything, should governments of liberal-democratic societies do to combat child labor?

    This paper discusses the possibilities and pitfalls of Western policies that seek to curb child labor abroad. Since such policies aim to combat practices in another society, policy makers should be aware of the many relevant differences between developing and developed countries. We discuss three issues that are central to this debate: socioeconomic causes of child labor, different conceptions of childhood, and the distinction between child work and child labor. Studying the historical example of the emergence and disappearance of child labor in nineteenth-century Netherlands broadens our analysis. We then evaluate the implications of these investigations and conclude the paper by suggesting five recommendations for Western policy makers that would avoid the pitfalls discussed.


Mijke Houwerzijl
Mijke Houwerzijl is juriste en als onderzoeker (NWO-SaRO project 'Flexicurity') verbonden aan het departement sociaal recht en sociale politiek, Universiteit van Tilburg. Adres: Departement encyclopedie en rechtsgeschiedenis, Faculteit Rechten, Universiteit van Tilburg, Postbus 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, e-mail: m.s.houwerzijl@uvt.nl. Zij is begin 2005 gepromoveerd op een onderzoek naar de detachering van werknemers in de Europese Unie (De Detacheringsrichtlijn, Deventer: Kluwer 2005 (reeks Europese Monografieën, nr. 78). Eerder publiceerde zij over verschillende arbeidsrechtelijke en sociaal-politieke onderwerpen. Over kinderarbeid: 'Wettelijk minimumjeugdloon voor 13- en 14-jarige kinderen?' Arbeid Integraal 2003, p. 28-30. Een overzicht is te vinden op www.uvt.nl/webwijs/show.html?anr=527432).

Roland Pierik
Dr. Roland Pierik is universitair docent politieke theorie aan de Rechtenfaculteit van de Universiteit van Tilburg. In het voorjaar van 2005 was hij visiting scholar aan de filosofiefaculteit van University College Londen. Adres: Departement encyclopedie en rechtsgeschiedenis, Faculteit Rechten, Universiteit van Tilburg, Postbus 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, e-mail: r.pierik@ uvt.nl, www.rolandpierik.nl. Recente publicaties:
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