Zoekresultaat: 450 artikelen

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Artikel

Privaat beheerde woondomeinen: beloftevol of beangstigend fenomeen?

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden housing enclave, gated community, Netherlands, local government
Auteurs Jasper Eshuis, Erik-Hans Klijn en Mark van Twist
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years the Netherlands have seen an upsurge of housing enclaves. The enclaves are often built as courtyards, castles, estates or apartment complexes. The growing number of people living in housing enclaves indicates a demand for this kind of living areas. However, the motivations behind the increasing popularity of housing enclaves are unclear. Is this a reflection of a long standing tradition of people staying in their own social group, seeking for belonging and sociability? Or does it fit in a global trend of searching for security in gated communities? This paper presents empirical research in the Netherlands that addresses peoples’ motives for living in housing enclaves, as well as the role of the local government in relation to housing enclaves. The research shows that residents of housing enclaves seek a pleasant living environment in the first place, while security is a less important motive. The study gives reason for planners and developers outside the US not to assume that fear of crime and a wish for security are the main reasons for moving to housing enclaves. Further, the study shows that housing enclaves are not completely privatized areas. Local government still has an important role to play.


Jasper Eshuis
Jasper Eshuis is senior wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Correspondentiegegevens: dr. ir. J. Eshuis, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, vakgroep Bestuurskunde, Postbus 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, eshuis@fsw.eur.nl.

Erik-Hans Klijn
Erik-Hans Klijn is hoogleraar bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Mark van Twist
Mark van Twist is hoogleraar bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Casus

Repliek

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden Diploma Democracy, levels of education, reply
Auteurs Mark Bovens en Anchrit Wille
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In their book Diploma Democracy Mark Bovens and Anchrit Wille state that positions in the field of politics are dominantly held by people with higher levels of education. Because of diverging political preferences between citizens with a higher level of education and those with a lower one this results in a lack of representation of the latter, they argue. In this section five authors critically replied to this position from a variety of disciplinary perspectives. In this contribution Bovens en Wille answer their critics.


Mark Bovens
Mark Bovens is als hoogleraar bestuurskunde verbonden aan het departement Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap (USBO) van de Universiteit Utrecht. Correspondentiegegevens: prof. dr. M.A.P. Bovens, Universiteit Utrecht, Faculteit Recht, Economie Bestuur en Organisatie, departement USBO, Bijlhouwerstraat 6, 3511 ZC Utrecht, m.bovens@uu.nl.

Anchrit Wille
Anchrit Wille is als senior docent/onderzoeker verbonden aan het Instituut Bestuurskunde van de Universiteit Leiden. Correspondentiegegevens: dr. A.C. Wille, Institute of Public Administration, Universiteit Leiden, Postbus 9555, 2300 RB Leiden, wille@fsw.LeidenUniv.nl.
Artikel

Schildpadgedrag in multi-etnische wijken?

De effecten van etnische diversiteit in stad en buurt op dimensies van sociale cohesie

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden ethnic diversity, social cohesion, neighbourhoods, ethnic minorities
Auteurs Mérove Gijsberts, Tom van der Meer en Jaco Dagevos
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Putnam (2007) claims that in ethnically diverse neighbourhoods, residents of all ethnic groups tend to ‘hunker down’. Solidarity and trust are lower, mutual help and cooperation rarer, friends fewer. Various studies in the United States found a clear correlation between diversity and cohesion, and also for many different dimensions of social cohesion. Whether this finding also holds in other (European) settings is the subject of hot and unresolved debate. Specifically, this article addresses the question whether living in an ethnically diverse setting has negative consequences for social cohesion in the Netherlands as well. To further the debate, this article pulls apart various contexts and various dimensions of social cohesion. This article examines the relationship between ethnic diversity (in socio-graphically defined neighbourhoods) and four dimensions of social cohesion (trust, informal help, voluntary work and neighbourhood contacts) for the 50 largest cities in the Netherlands. We conclude that the Putnam hypothesis holds only to a limited extent in the Dutch context. The only aspect on which ethnic diversity has a negative effect is the degree of contact in the neighbourhood.


Mérove Gijsberts
Mérove Gijsberts is verbonden aan het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau (SCP). Correspondentiegegevens: dr. M. Gijsberts, Postbus 16164, 2500 BD Den Haag, m.gijsberts@scp.nl.

Tom van der Meer
Tom van der Meer is verbonden aan het Institute for Immigration and Ethnic Studies (IMES) van de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Jaco Dagevos
Jaco Dagevos is verbonden aan het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau (SCP).
Discussie

Regionale identiteit: de vergeten dimensie bij bestuurlijke herindeling

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden discussion, administrative rearrangement processes
Auteurs Evert Meijers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Regional or local identities are an important factor to take into account in administrative rearrangement processes.


Evert Meijers
Evert Meijers is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het Onderzoeksinstituut OTB van de TU Delft. Correspondentiegegevens: dr. E.J. Meijers, TU Delft, Onderzoeksinstituut OTB, Jaffalaan 9, gebouw 30, 2628 BX Delft, E.J.Meijers@tudelft.nl.
Casus

’t Schap als ’n Schip van Staat in de Markt?

De Publiekrechtelijke Bedrijfsorganisatie (PBO) vergeleken met de Territoriale (gemeenten)

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Prof. dr. Frans van Waarden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this feature authors discuss recent research findings that are of interest to readers of Beleid en Maatschappij.


Prof. dr. Frans van Waarden
Frans van Waarden is hoogleraar organisatie en beleid aan de Universiteit Utrecht en fellow van het University College Utrecht. Correspondentiegegevens: Prof. dr. B.F. van Waarden, Universiteit Utrecht, University College, Postbus 80145, 3508 TC Utrecht, F.vanwaarden@uu.nl.
Artikel

Decentralisatie: maatwerk of uniformiteit?

Het Wmo-beleid van Nederlandse gemeenten

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden decentralization, local government, social care
Auteurs Judith van der Veer MSc., Jelmer Schalk MSc. en Dr. Rob Gilsing
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A main motive for policy decentralization is the belief that municipalities are better able to customize public policy to local circumstances, and to realize made-to-measure service provision. In this respect, the introduction of the Social Support Act (Wmo) is an interesting example. With the lack of ‘vertical’ accountability obligations to the national government, the Wmo is governmentally innovative. Whether the decentralization results in customized forms of social support is a fascinating one because a detailed reading of the Wmo and its implementation displays possible incentives as well as barriers to made-to-measure service provision. The empirical exploration in this article uses data from the 2007-2009 evaluation of the Wmo conducted by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research (SCP). The evaluation shows that municipalities involve diverse stakeholders in formulating Wmo policy, and that their involvement seems to lead to customized service provision. At the same time, municipalities follow nationwide models, and information provided by the central government seems to have a major impact on local social care policy. The article concludes with an outlook on future directions in local debates on social care and the recommendation to give time for major decentralization trajectories such as the Wmo.


Judith van der Veer MSc.
Judith van der Veer is promovendus en was als medewerker verbonden aan het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau tijdens de eerste Wmo-evaluatie. Correspondentiegegevens: J.C.V. van der Veer, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen/Bestuurswetenschappen, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam, j.c.v.vander.veer@vu.nl.

Jelmer Schalk MSc.
Jelmer Schalk is promovendus en was als medewerker verbonden aan het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau tijdens de eerste Wmo-evaluatie. Correspondentiegegevens: J. Schalk, Universiteit van Utrecht, Sociologie/ICS, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht, j.schalk@uu.nl.

Dr. Rob Gilsing
Rob Gilsing is Hoofd Onderzoeksgroep Jeugd, opvoeding en onderwijs en was als projectleider verbonden aan het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau tijdens de eerste Wmo-evaluatie. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. R. Gilsing, Verwey-Jonker Instituut, Kromme Nieuwegracht 6, 3512 HG Utrecht, rgilsing@verwey-jonker.nl.

    Reflection and Debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Jonathan J.B. Mijs M.Sc.
Jonathan Mijs is promovendus aan Harvard University. Correspondentiegegevens: JJB Mijs M.Sc., Harvard University, Department of Sociology, 611 William James Hall, 33 Kirland Street, 02138 Cambridge, MA, Verenigde Staten, mijs@fas.harvard.edu.
Discussie

De samenleving op slot?

Sociale daling in een nieuwe klassensamenleving

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Lotte van Vliet MA en Dr. Dieneke de Ruiter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Reflection and Debate initiates academically inspired discussions on issues that are on the current policy agenda.


Lotte van Vliet MA
Lotte van Vliet is adviseur bij de Raad voor Maatschappelijke Ontwikkeling. Correspondentiegegevens: L.R. van Vliet MA, Raad voor Maatschappelijke Ontwikkeling, Postbus 16139, 2500 BC Den Haag, www.adviesorgaan-rmo.nl, l.vliet@adviesorgaan-rmo.nl.

Dr. Dieneke de Ruiter
Dr. Dieneke de Ruiter is adviseur bij de Raad voor Maatschappelijke Ontwikkeling. d.d.ruiter@adviesorgaan-rmo.nl.
Artikel

Ondersteuning in vieren

Zichtlijnen in het faciliteren van burgerinitiatieven in de buurt

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden burgerinitiatief, ondersteuning, faciliteren, professionals, wijken
Auteurs Dr. Mirjan Oude Vrielink en Drs. Ted van de Wijdeven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands it is widely acknowledged that neighbourhood oriented citizen’s initiatives often require some professional support. Little is known, however, about the various types of support that professionals may provide. Moreover, Dutch policies usually tend to take an instrumental stance towards citizen initiatives, focussing on their possible contribution to governmental goals. In this contribution we make an effort to develop a typology of different types and roles of professional support. Four basic types of professional support are derived from two axis. The first axis distinguishes between an instrumental approach and a more personal approach, the second between professional support focussing on the initiative/the initiator or on the broader institutional and civil society context. From our empirical findings we conclude that a vital context for citizen initiatives may be produced through the combination of an instrumental and personal approach. The latter comprises efforts of empowerment attuned to both the specific personal needs and capacities of citizens and the typical neighbourhood context. A combined approach may reduce the risk of ‘crowding out citizenship’ that exists when citizen’s initiatives become an instrument in a government’s policy.


Dr. Mirjan Oude Vrielink
Mirjan Oude Vrielink is senior onderzoeker aan de faculteit Management en Bestuur, Universiteit Twente. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. M.J. Oude Vrielink, Universiteit Twente, faculteit Management en Bestuur/PolMT, Postbus 217, 7500 AE Enschede, m.j.oudevrielink@utwente.nl.

Drs. Ted van de Wijdeven
Ted van de Wijdeven is onderzoeker aan de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur, Universiteit van Tilburg. Correspondentiegegevens: Drs. T.M.F. van de Wijdeven, Universiteit van Tilburg, Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur, Postbus 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, wijdeven@uvt.nl.
Artikel

Particulier initiatief en overheid in historisch perspectief

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden private initiatives, the Netherlands, pillarization, history, civil society
Auteurs Dr. Marcel Hoogenboom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The central question in this article is whether the relationship between the current citizen’s initiatives and government in the Netherlands shows similarities to the relationship between their predecessors (usually denoted as ‘private initiatives’) and government in the past, and more specifically in the time of pillarization. In the article it is claimed that in the time of pillarization – the period between around 1900 and 1970, when Dutch society was characterized by vertical social divisions along denominational (religious) and ideological lines – private initiatives and Dutch government developed a peculiar symbiotic relationship. In this period, on the one hand the pillarized private initiatives, as a matter of course, expected a large degree of autonomy but at the same time all sorts of support from Dutch government when administering various public tasks. On the other hand, Dutch government took for granted that the pillarized private initiatives highly contributed to the initiation and administration of these public tasks. Since the disintegration of the pillars in 1970s Dutch government has been searching for new ways to relate to the old and new private initiatives, and vice versa. Yet in this search both government and private initiatives still seem driven by the old ‘reflexes’ of pillarization.


Dr. Marcel Hoogenboom
Marcel Hoogenboom is universitair docent algemene sociale wetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. M.J.M. Hoogenboom, Universiteit Utrecht, faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht, m.j.m.hoogenboom@uu.nl.

    Since 1994, the concept of citizenship is a central concept in Dutch Integration policy for immigrants and their descendants. Gradually, the concept has become a moral category of good and active citizenship, associated with all kinds of obligations. Since the turn of the century it is even used to urge on – especially – Muslims to assimilate to mainstream culture and fundamental norms and values. This contrasts sharply with the Dutch multicultural policy of the 1980s. How is it possible for political and policy discourse to change in such a radical way within a few decades? And what role played the concept of citizenship in these changes? This article seeks to answer these questions by investigating how the concept of citizenship has been interpreted and applied differently over time in Dutch discourse on integration policy, focussing on issues of unity versus ethno-cultural diversity. With this purpose, first, the concept of citizenship is defined and differentiated in four dimensions and various perspectives. Next, Dutch political and policy discourse of the last 25 years is examined in broad lines. Subsequently, the Dutch discourse is analysed in more detail in debates of the last decades on dual nationality and on civic integration policy.


Alfons Fermin
Alfons Fermin is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het Rotterdams Instituut voor Sociaal-wetenschappelijk BeleidsOnderzoek (RISBO) van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. A. Fermin Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam RISBO Postbus 1738, kamer T11-08 3000 DR Rotterdam fermin@fsw.eur.nl

    According to many observers, multicultural integration policies have strongly eroded in the Netherlands since the early 1990s and particularly following the rise of Pim Fortuyn in 2002. In this view, the Netherlands now follow harsh, assimilationist policies that threaten the foundations of democracy. Policy studies on the local level have however found strong continuities. This article investigates changes and continuities in Dutch integration policies on the national level. The cross-national policy data compiled in the Migration Policy Index show that the Netherlands are in 2007 still among the European countries that offer immigrants and their descendants the largest degree of legal equality. Comparative data on accommodation policies regarding immigrant cultures and religions show that Dutch policies are still culturally pluralist compared to most other European countries, e.g., by recognizing immigrants' ethnic and religious identities and practices, subsidizing and incorporating their associations, and providing preferential access to public sector jobs. Quantitative comparative policy data are supplemented by qualitative examples of pluralist policies in the media, the police force, and nature conservation and recreation. The article concludes that in spite of rhetoric to the contrary, there is strong path dependence in Dutch integration policies, also on the national level.


Ruud Koopmans
Ruud Koopmans is directeur van de afdeling 'Migration, Integration, Transnationalization' aan het Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB). Correspondentiegegevens: Prof. dr. R. Koopmans Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB) Reichpietschufer 50 10785 Berlijn Duitsland koopmans@wzb.eu

    This article traces the redefinition of citizenship that Dutch governments have tried to accomplish through legislation and various policy initiatives. The classical liberal notion of citizenship is said to provide insufficient social cohesion. More emphasis on integration into the typically Dutch culture is offered as a remedy. Newcomers are only accepted as full citizens after they have been introduced and trained in the essential elements of this culture. Criticisms of this policy are presented. Lately the government itself seems to have second thoughts on the definition of citizenship.


Herman van Gunsteren
Herman van Gunsteren is emeritus hoogleraar politieke theorieën en rechtsfilosofie aan de Universiteit Leiden. Tevens is hij rapporteur Nieuwspoort 2009. Correspondentiegegevens: Prof. dr. H. van Gunsteren Murillostraat 5 1077 ND Amsterdam vangunsv@xs4all.nl
Artikel

Aspecten van burgerschap

Een historische analyse van de transformaties van het burgerschapsconcept in Nederland

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2009
Auteurs Friso van Houdt en Willem Schinkel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The historical transformations of Dutch citizenship are assessed in this article in light of two aspects. One concerns the dimensions and layers of citizenship; the other pertains to the relative stress laid on either formal or moral citizenship. We illustrate how citizenship was broadened from civic to political, social and cultural rights. Then we discuss the recent moralization of citizenship in the context of Dutch debates on immigrant integration. We illustrate how the relative stress on moral citizenship therein pertains to a virtual disenfranchisement of non-native Dutch citizens.


Friso van Houdt
Friso van Houdt is als promovendus verbonden aan de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Willem Schinkel
Willem Schinkel is universitair hoofddocent theoretische sociologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. W. Schinkel Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen Capaciteitsgroep Sociologie Postbus 1738 3000 DR Rotterdam schinkel@fsw.eur.nl
Artikel

Polarisen of polderen?

Inleiding op het themanummer over migranten en burgerschap

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 1 2009
Auteurs Gabriël van den Brink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    After a summary of several contributions in this volume, we focus on certain problems and omissions in the debate about citizenship and the position of migrants in Dutch society. First, nearly all the contributions are related to the level of theoretical concepts or policy proposals, neglecting the level of social behaviour and important changes of social reality. Second, all authors acknowledge the fact that the moral dimensions of citizenship have become more important, yet nobody seems to be interested in a scientific explanation of this remarkable fact. In response to these omissions we try to understand why the Netherlands has changed from an open society into a community struck by xenophobia. One explanation might be that the intensity of social interaction has increased considerably. Another explanation is related to the fact the level of education has grown, creating a higher expectations of 'normal' behaviour. Together these tendencies undermine the ('typical Dutch') tradition of tolerance or deviant behaviour generally and for 'strange' behaviour of migrants specifically.


Gabriël van den Brink
Gabriël van den Brink is hoogleraar maatschappelijke bestuurskunde aan de Universiteit van Tilburg en lector gemeenschappelijke veiligheidskunde aan de Politieacademie te Apeldoorn. Correspondentiegegevens: Prof. dr. G.J.M. van den Brink Universiteit van Tilburg Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur Postbus 90153 5000 LE Tilburg brink@uvt.nl

    In public debate on immigrants' political ties with their country of origin, two assumptions prevail. The first assumption is that many immigrants engage in transnational political activities. The second is that forms of transnational citizenship are an impediment for the development of local citizenship. However, so far little research has been done on the importance of, and the relationship between, local and transnational citizenship. In this article, we focus on local and transnational forms of active citizenship, here understood as the total of political practices and processes of identification. Our study, conducted among middle-class immigrants in Rotterdam, indicates that the importance of active transnational citizenship should not be overstated. Among these middle-class immigrants, political practices are primarily focused on the local level; political practices directed to the home country appear to be quite rare. If we look at processes of identification, we see that a majority of the middle-class immigrants have a strong urban identity. Many of them combine this local identification with feelings of belonging with people in their home country. These local and transnational identifications seem to reinforce, rather than impede, each other.


Marianne van Bochove
Marianne van Bochove is als promovendus verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Correspondentiegegevens: M.E. van Bochove, MSc Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen Capaciteitsgroep Sociologie Postbus 1738 3000 DR Rotterdam vanbochove@fsw.eur.nl

Katja Rusinovic
Katja Rusinovic werkt aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam als postdoc onderzoeker.

Godfried Engbersen
Godfried Engbersen is als als hoogleraar algemene sociologie verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

De diplomademocratie

Over de spanning tussen meritocratie en democratie

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2006
Auteurs Mark Bovens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Contemporary western democracies, such the United States, Great Britain, and The Netherlands have become diploma democracies. They are ruled by the well educated, whereas the least educated, even though they still comprise about half of the population, have virtually vanished from most political arenas. Of course, the well educated have always been more politically active than the less educated, but in the past decades this gap has widened substantially. Well-educated citizens are more inclined to vote, to write letters to the editor, or to visit consultative or deliberative meetings than citizens with a low level of education; and most, if not all, members of parliament, all the political officials, and almost all of the political advocates and lobbyists, have college or graduate degrees. The paper substantiates the rise of diploma democracy in The Netherlands, discusses what is problematic about such an educational meritocracy in the context of democracy, and looks at what could be done to mitigate or remedy some of its negative effects.


Mark Bovens
Prof. dr. Mark Bovens is als hoogleraar Bestuurskunde verbonden aan de Utrechtse School voor Bestuurs- en Organisatiewetenschap van de Universiteit Utrecht, Bijlhouwerstraat 6, 3511 ZC Utrecht. Zijn meest recente boek is De digitale republiek: Democratie en rechtsstaat in de informatiemaatschappij (AUP 2003). Correspondentiegegevens: m.a.p.bovens@uu.nl www.usg.uu.nl/research/m.bovens
Artikel

Werk in een wantrouwende wereld

Omvang en oorzaken van een uitdijende controle-industrie

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2006
Auteurs Frans van Waarden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Fraud seems to be on the rise. That feeds a demand for controls. This paper sketches the diversity of supply in reaction to this demand: public regulators of course, but also commercial information providers and benchmarkers, self-regulating associations, hallmark producers, certification and accreditation bodies, and internal business management control systems, whereby ever more levels of control are piled on top of each other. More than a million Dutchmen earn a living in this booming control-industry, or 14% of the working population. In addition to fraud, other causes of this trend are being discussed, among them, paradoxically, neo-liberalist deregulation policies. All these causes contribute to a sense of risk and uncertainty. Although this trend has a number of negative consequences, it has a major benefit: jobs! Economists may have long thought that transaction costs are there for the transactions. But it looks as if transactions exist to produce transaction costs.


Frans van Waarden
Frans van Waarden is hoogleraar Organisatie en Beleid aan de Universiteit Utrecht en fellow van het University College Utrecht. Hij studeerde sociologie in Toronto en Leiden, was voorheen werkzaam aan de Universiteiten van Leiden en Konstanz en visiting scholar in Wenen, Leipzig, Stanford, Berkeley, het European University Institute in Florence en het NIAS in Wassenaar. Hij publiceerde over arbeidsverhoudingen, techniekgeschiedenis, innovatie, katoenindustrie, belangengroepen en corporatisme, verzorgingsstaat, ondernemersorganisaties, de relatie overheid – bedrijfsleven, openbaar bestuur, stijlen van regelgeving en -handhaving en marktwerking en deregulering. Correspondentiegegevens: Prof. dr. Frans van Waarden, University College, Utrecht University, Postbus 80145, 3508 TC Utrecht Telefoon: +31-30-253-4820 e-mail: F.vanwaarden@fss.uu.nl
Artikel

Life politics: van abstracte theorie naar een bruikbaar model

Bestrijding van overgewicht in Groot-Brittannië en Nederland

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2006
Auteurs Carien Scholtmeijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During the last decennium, social theory has provided us with path-breaking insights into the emergence of a new type of social risks (post-industrial, manufactured risks), and on policies which might deal with these risks (life politics; the social investment state). Especially the writings of Anthony Giddens are relevant in this respect. Unfortunately, these abstract ideas have thus far hardly been tested in empirical research. This article aims to fill this gap, by focussing on a telling example of a new, lifestyle related risk, which is the problem of overweight. How useful are Giddens' ideas on risk and social policy when applied in a concrete analysis of this particular problem and related policies? To answer this question, a comparative analysis has been carried out in two welfare states, the British and the Dutch. It will be argued that Giddens' abstract notions can indeed be applied effectively in a practical and fruitful framework for policy analysis. In this respect, the concepts of life politics and the social investment state seem promising, both for the practise and analysis of social policy development in European welfare states.


Carien Scholtmeijer
Drs. Carien Scholtmeijer studeerde bestuurskunde aan de Universiteit Twente (2000-2005), afstudeerrichting bestuurlijke organisatie. Correspondentiegegevens: c.scholtmeijer@alumnus.utwente.nl
Artikel

De ruimtelijke gevolgen van demografische krimp

Tijdschrift Beleid en Maatschappij, Aflevering 4 2008
Auteurs Frank van Dam, Femke Verwest en Carola de Groot
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the near future a growing number of Dutch regions and municipalities will experience a decline in population and household numbers. However, compared with other countries, the impending population shrinkage in the Netherlands will be modest, if not insignificant. The spatial consequences of this demographic decline will be limited. Other factors, such as economic growth, behavioural change and spatial planning policy, will have a more important influence on spatial development. The fixation on population numbers in both the public debate about demographic decline and in policy-making is therefore misplaced and futile. Insofar as demographic trends already have an influence on spatial developments, it is primarily through changes in household numbers and population composition, for example in relation to housing needs. This does not mean that demographic decline will not raise issues pertinent to spatial development policy. In municipalities and regions, falling household numbers may push up housing vacancy rates and exacerbate segregation, leading to a reduction in the quality of the living environment. These negative consequences will be concentrated in specific districts, neighbourhoods and villages. Demographic decline is not only a threat; it also presents opportunities. In regions currently suffering from serious housing shortages, a shrinking number of households will relieve pressure on the housing market. In addition, contraction of local and regional populations will open up opportunities for reducing densities and 'greening' these neighbourhoods. When anticipating or responding to demographic decline, local and regional governments mainly adopt a strategy of improving the quality of the housing stock and stimulating employment. In both cases, there is a danger of competition between local authorities (or regions and provinces), which may lead to uneconomic spatial investments and irreversible spatial developments.


Frank van Dam
Frank van Dam is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL). Correspondentiegegevens: Dr. F. van Dam Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving Oranjebuitensingel 6 / Postbus 30314 2511 VE Den Haag / 2500 GH Den Haag 070-3288798 frank.vandam@pbl.nl

Femke Verwest
Femke Verwest is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL).

Carola de Groot
Carola de Groot is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL).
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